Introduction To Geochemistry / Edition 3

Introduction To Geochemistry / Edition 3

by Konrad Bates Krauskopf, Dennis K. Bird, Dennis K. Bird
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0070358206

ISBN-13: 9780070358201

Pub. Date: 09/01/1994

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Reflecting rapid changes in our knowledge of the earth's chemistry,this revision is more quantitative,gives more attention to environmental issues,and places greater emphasis on the application of geochemistry to geological problems than its predecessor. Using examples from actual field and laboratory studies,the authors give students a feeling for the application of

Overview

Reflecting rapid changes in our knowledge of the earth's chemistry,this revision is more quantitative,gives more attention to environmental issues,and places greater emphasis on the application of geochemistry to geological problems than its predecessor. Using examples from actual field and laboratory studies,the authors give students a feeling for the application of geochemistry for many kinds of earth-science inquiry.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780070358201
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
09/01/1994
Series:
International Earth and Planetary Sciences Series
Edition description:
3rd ed
Pages:
640
Product dimensions:
6.34(w) x 9.29(h) x 1.25(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
List of Symbols
xvii
Chemical Equilibrium
1(24)
Equilibrium Constants
2(4)
An Example of Equilibrium: Hydrogen Chloride
6(2)
The Effect of Temperature
8(2)
A Second Example: Carbon Dioxide in Water
10(2)
A Third Example: Calcium Sulfate
12(4)
Le Chatelier's Rule
16(2)
Stability
18(2)
Conventions
20(1)
A Word about Problem Solving
20(5)
Aqueous Solutions
25(36)
Acids and Bases
27(8)
Solute Hydrolysis
35(2)
Estimating Ionic Concentrations
37(3)
Buffers
40(3)
Electrolyte Solutions and Ion-Ion Association
43(6)
Activity and Activity Coefficients
49(5)
Conventions Regarding Activities
54(1)
Activity Corrections Applied to Sphalerite Solubility
55(6)
Summary
58(3)
Solution---Mineral Equilibria: Part 1: Carbonates
61(25)
Solubility of Calcite
61(4)
Calcium Carbonate: Solubility Calculations
65(5)
Calcite and Aragonite
70(1)
Supersaturation
71(2)
Effect of Grain Size on Solubility
73(1)
Effect of Ion Association on Solubility
73(1)
Effect of Organisms on Solubility
74(1)
Precipitation of CaCo3 in Seawater
75(3)
Other Simple Carbonates
78(1)
The Dolomite Problem
79(7)
Summary
83(3)
Solution---Mineral Equilibria: Part 2: Silicates
86(21)
Quartz Solubility
87(5)
Kaolinite Solubility
92(6)
Feldspar-Solution Equilibria
98(2)
Theoretical Activity-Activity Phase Diagrams
100(7)
Summary
104(3)
Crystal Chemistry
107(28)
Structure of NaCl
108(4)
Other Ionic Solids
112(3)
Covalent Bonds
115(1)
Electronegativity
116(3)
General Rules about Bond Type
119(1)
Silicate Structures
120(3)
Polymorphism
123(2)
Isomorphism and Substitutional Order-Disorder
125(5)
The Periodic Law
130(5)
Summary
132(3)
Surface Chemistry: The Solution---Mineral Interface
135(30)
Nature of the Interface
136(6)
Sorption
142(8)
Ion Exchange
150(4)
Colloids
154(11)
Summary
162(3)
Chemical Thermodynamics: Fundamental Principles
165(26)
Thermodynamic Systems
165(4)
The Laws of Thermodynamics
169(4)
Enthalpy
173(7)
Free Energy
180(11)
Summary: Uses and Limitations of Free Energy
187(4)
Chemical Thermodynamics: Phase Equilibria
191(26)
Chemical Potential
191(6)
Fugacity
197(1)
Activity and Standard States
198(2)
The Equilibrium Constant
200(3)
Equilibrium Constants: Temperature and Pressure Dependence
203(8)
The Phase Rule
211(6)
Summary
212(5)
Oxidation and Reduction
217(24)
Oxidation Potentials
218(2)
Relation of Oxidation Potential to Free Energy
220(2)
Redox Potentials
222(3)
Limits of pH and Eh in Nature
225(1)
Eh-pH Diagrams
226(8)
Fugacity Diagrams
234(7)
Isotope Geochemistry
241(32)
Kinds of Isotopes
241(2)
Radiogenic Isotopes: Age Dating
243(9)
Radiogenic Isotopes: Petrogenesis
252(8)
Stable Isotopes of Low Atomic Number
260(13)
Summary
270(3)
Reaction Rates and Mass Transfer
273(27)
Kinetics and Equilibrium
273(1)
Reaction Rates
274(9)
Effect of Temperature on Rates
283(4)
Other Influences on Reaction Rates
287(2)
Mass Transfer
289(11)
Summary
295(5)
The Fluid Envelopes
300(25)
Air
300(4)
The Water Envelope: Rain, Streams, and Lakes
304(5)
The Water Envelope: Oceans
309(8)
Environmental Geochemistry
317(8)
Summary
321(4)
Weathering and Soils
325(31)
General Nature of Weathering Reactions
325(2)
Changes in Rock Composition
327(3)
Sequence of Silicate Mineral Alteration
330(1)
Agents of Chemical Weathering
331(2)
Dissolution of Carbonates
333(1)
Oxidation
334(2)
Hydrolysis of Silicates
336(2)
Clay Minerals
338(9)
Formation of Soils
347(2)
Classification of Soils
349(7)
Sedimentation and Diagenesis: Inorganic Geochemistry
356(29)
Carbonate Sediments
357(1)
Silica Sediments
358(2)
Iron Sediments
360(3)
Manganese Sediments
363(4)
Phosphate Sediments
367(3)
Evaporites
370(3)
Diagenesis
373(12)
Sedimentation and Diagenesis: Organic Geochemistry
385(26)
The Chemistry of Carbon Compounds
386(10)
Organic Reactions
396(3)
Carbon in Rocks
399(1)
Origin of Petroleum
400(4)
Origin of Coal
404(1)
Organic Matter in Black Shales
405(2)
Carbon Compounds as Reducing Agents
407(4)
Metamorphism
411(33)
Conditions of Metamorphism
411(4)
Equilibrium Relations
415(11)
Metamorphic Facies
426(4)
Examples of Experimental Studies on Metamorphic Reactions
430(6)
High-Pressure Facies
436(3)
Ultrametamorphism
439(5)
Formation and Crystallization of Magmas
444(34)
The Phase Rule Applied to Magmas
445(1)
Eutectics and Solid Solutions
445(3)
Theoretical Crystallization Curves
448(2)
Complex Binary Systems
450(5)
Ternary Systems
455(5)
Mafic and Intermediate Magmas
460(5)
Felsic Magmas
465(4)
Effect of Pressure on Differentiation
469(2)
Origin of Basaltic and Granitic Magmas
471(7)
Summary
474(4)
Volatiles and Magmas
478(24)
Kinds of Evidence Available
479(1)
Phase Relations
480(4)
The Critical Point
484(6)
Pegmatite and Aplite Dikes
490(2)
Quartz---Sulfide Vein and Replacement Deposits
492(2)
Volcanic Gases and Hot Springs
494(4)
Recapitulation
498(4)
Hydrothermal Ore Deposits
502(32)
Ore-Forming Solutions
503(9)
Temperatures and Pressures of Ore Formation
512(5)
Estimates of pH, fo2, and fs2
517(4)
Origin of Hydrothermal Solutions
521(2)
Weathering of Ore Deposits
523(6)
Environmental Effects of Ore-Deposit Weathering
529(1)
Summary and General Reflections
530(4)
Distribution of the Elements
534(25)
Goldschmidt's Geochemical Classification
535(3)
Distribution of Elements in Igneous Rocks
538(12)
Distribution in Sedimentary Rocks
550(5)
Distribution in Metamorphic Rocks
555(4)
Historical Geochemistry
559(26)
Composition of the Earth
560(5)
Origin of the Earth
565(1)
Early History
566(4)
Later Geochemical History of Crust and Mantle
570(3)
History of the Atmosphere
573(5)
History of Seawater
578(2)
Some Larger Problems
580(5)
Appendixes 585(48)
I Constants and Numerical Factors
585(2)
II The Geologic Time Scale
587(1)
III Large-Scale Data about the Earth
588(1)
IV Average Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Continental Crust, in Three Common Rocks, and in Seawater (in Parts Per Million)
589(3)
V Symbols, Atomic Numbers, and Atomic Weights of the Naturally Occurring Elements
592(3)
VI Ionic Radii and Electronegativities
595(3)
VII Equilibrium Constants
598(6)
Table VII-1. Activity Solubility Products
598(2)
Table VII-2. Dissociation Constants of Acids
600(1)
Table VII-3. Dissociation Constants of Hydroxides
600(2)
Table VII-4. Equilibrium Constants for Complex Ions and Molecules
602(1)
Table VII-5. Mineral Hydrolysis Constants
603(1)
VIII Standard Free Energies, Enthalpies, and Entropies
604(7)
IX Standard Electrode Potentials
611(3)
X Balancing Oxidation and Reduction Equations
614(4)
XI Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Problems
618(15)
Index 633

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