Introduction To Micrometeorology / Edition 2

Introduction To Micrometeorology / Edition 2

by Paul S. Arya
     
 

ISBN-10: 0120593548

ISBN-13: 9780120593545

Pub. Date: 04/26/2001

Publisher: Elsevier Science

This book is intended as a textbook for courses in micrometeorology for undergraduate students (juniors or seniors) in meteorology or environmental science, as well as for an introductory graduate-level course in boundary-layer meteorology. It will also serve as a good reference for professional meteorologists, environmental scientists and engineers, particularly

Overview

This book is intended as a textbook for courses in micrometeorology for undergraduate students (juniors or seniors) in meteorology or environmental science, as well as for an introductory graduate-level course in boundary-layer meteorology. It will also serve as a good reference for professional meteorologists, environmental scientists and engineers, particularly those interested in problems of air pollution, atmospheric-biospheric interactions, wind-engineering and engineering meteorology.

The book outlines basic laws and concepts, before using qualitative descriptions to introduce more complex theories. This new edition is updated and expanded, as are the references. Each chapter features worked-through problems and exercises.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780120593545
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
04/26/2001
Series:
International Geophysics Series, #79
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
448
Product dimensions:
1.00(w) x 9.21(h) x 6.14(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to Second Editionxii
Preface to First Editionxiii
Symbolsxvii
Chapter 1Introduction1
1.1Scope of Micrometeorology1
1.2Micrometeorology versus Microclimatology5
1.3Importance and Applications of Micrometeorology6
Problems and Exercises9
Chapter 2Energy Budget Near the Surface11
2.1Energy Fluxes at an Ideal Surface11
2.2Energy Balance Equations12
2.3Energy Budgets of Bare Surfaces19
2.4Energy Budgets of Canopies20
2.5Energy Budgets of Water Surfaces25
2.6Applications25
Problems and Exercises26
Chapter 3Radiation Balance Near the Surface28
3.1Radiation Laws and Definitions28
3.2Shortwave Radiation32
3.3Longwave Radiation36
3.4Radiation Balance near the Surface38
3.5Observations of Radiation Balance39
3.6Radiative Flux Divergence41
3.7Applications43
Problems and Exercises44
Chapter 4Soil Temperatures and Heat Transfer46
4.1Surface Temperature46
4.2Subsurface Temperatures47
4.3Thermal Properties of Soils48
4.4Theory of Soil Heat Transfer51
4.5Thermal Wave Propagation in Soils52
4.6Measurement and Parameterization of Ground Heat Flux56
4.7Applications60
Problems and Exercises60
Chapter 5Air Temperature and Humidity in the PBL62
5.1Factors Influencing Air Temperature and Humidity62
5.2Basic Thermodynamic Relations and the Energy Equation63
5.3Local and Nonlocal Concepts of Static Stability71
5.4Mixed Layers, Mixing Layers and Inversions77
5.5Vertical Temperature and Humidity Profiles78
5.6Diurnal Variations82
5.7Applications85
Problems and Exercises86
Chapter 6Wind Distribution in the PBL89
6.1Factors Influencing Wind Distribution89
6.2Geostrophic and Thermal Winds89
6.3Friction Effects on the Balance of Forces95
6.4Stability Effects on the PBL Winds99
6.5Observed Wind Profiles101
6.6Diurnal Variations107
6.7Applications109
Problems and Exercises110
Chapter 7An Introduction to Viscous Flows113
7.1Inviscid and Viscous Flows113
7.2Laminar and Turbulent Flows116
7.3Navier-Stokes Equations of Motion117
7.4Laminar Plane-Parallel Flows119
7.5Laminar Ekman Layers124
7.6Developing Laminar Boundary Layers132
7.7Heat Transfer in Laminar Flows136
7.8Applications139
Problems and Exercises139
Chapter 8Fundamentals of Turbulence142
8.1Instability of Flow and Transition to Turbulence142
8.2The Generation and Maintenance of Turbulence146
8.3General Characteristics of Turbulence147
8.4Mean and Fluctuating Variables149
8.5Variances and Turbulent Fluxes152
8.6Eddies and Scales of Motion155
8.7Fundamental Concepts, Hypotheses, and Theories156
8.8Applications160
Problems and Exercises161
Chapter 9Models and Theories of Turbulence163
9.1Mathematical Models of Turbulent Flows163
9.2Gradient-transport Theories171
9.3Dimensional Analysis and Similarity Theories177
9.4Applications185
Problems and Exercises185
Chapter 10Near-neutral Boundary Layers188
10.1Velocity-profile Laws188
10.2Surface Roughness Parameters197
10.3Surface Drag and Resistance Laws203
10.4Turbulence208
10.5Applications211
Problems and Exercises211
Chapter 11Thermally Stratified Surface Layer213
11.1The Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory213
11.2Empirical Forms of Similarity Functions217
11.3Wind and Temperature Profiles223
11.4Drag and Heat Transfer Relations224
11.5Methods of Determining Momentum and Heat Fluxes226
11.6Applications239
Problems and Exercises239
Chapter 12Evaporation from Homogeneous Surfaces242
12.1The Process of Evaporation242
12.2Potential Evaporation and Evapotranspiration243
12.3Modified Monin-Obukhov Similarity Relations245
12.4Micrometeorological Methods of Determining Evaporation248
12.5Applications264
Problems and Exercises264
Chapter 13Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers266
13.1Types of Atmospheric Boundary Layers266
13.2Similarity Theories of the PBL270
13.3Mathematical Models of the PBL277
13.4Parameterization of the PBL310
13.5Applications317
Problems and Exercises317
Chapter 14Nonhomogeneous Boundary Layers321
14.1Types of Surface Inhomogeneities321
14.2Step Changes in Surface Roughness322
14.3Step Changes in Surface Temperature328
14.4Air Modifications over Water Surfaces334
14.5Air Modifications over Urban Areas336
14.6Building Wakes and Street Canyon Effects346
14.7Other Topographical Effects353
14.8Applications362
Problems and Exercises362
Chapter 15Agricultural and Forest Micrometeorology365
15.1Flux-profile Relations above Plant Canopies365
15.2Radiation Balance within Plant Canopies370
15.3Wind Distribution in Plant Canopies375
15.4Temperature and Moisture Fields378
15.5Turbulence in and above Plant Canopies381
15.6Applications388
Problems and Exercises389
References391
Index405
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