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Introduction to Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media / Edition 1

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Provides theoretical background for engineers and scientists engaged in modeling transport phenomena in porous media in connection with various engineering projects, and can serve as a text for senior and graduate courses. Systematically presents a methodology for constructing mathematical models on the basis of the continuum approach, applicable to problems such as water flow and transport of pollutants in aquifers and in the unsaturated zone; flow of oil, water, and gas in petroleum reservoirs; radioactive waste disposal in deep geological formations; heat storage in aquifers; and solute transport in reactors in the chemical industry. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Table of Contents

A General Theory.- 1 The Porous Medium.- 1.1 Definition and Classification of Porous Media.- 1.1.1 Definition of a porous medium.- 1.1.2 Classification of porous media.- 1.1.3 Some geometrical characteristics of porous media.- 1.1.4 Homogeneity and isotropy of a porous medium.- 1.2 The Continuum Model of a Porous Medium.- 1.2.1 The need for a continuum approach.- 1.2.2 Representative Elementary Volume (REV).- 1.2.3 Selection of REV.- 1.2.4 Representative Elementary Area (REA).- 1.3 Macroscopic Values.- 1.3.1 Volume and mass averages.- 1.3.2 Areal averages.- 1.3.3 Relationship between volume and areal averages.- 1.4 Higher-Order Averaging.- 1.4.1 Smoothing out macroscopic heterogeneity.- 1.4.2 The hydraulic approach.- 1.4.3 Compartmental models.- 1.5 Multicontinuum Models.- 1.5.1 Fractured porous media.- 1.5.2 Multilayer systems.- 2 Macroscopic Description of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media.- 2.1 Elements of Kinematics of Continua.- 2.1.1 Points and particles.- 2.1.2 Coordinates.- 2.1.3 Displacement and strain.- 2.1.4 Processes.- 2.1.5 Material derivative.- 2.1.6 Velocities.- 2.1.7 Flux and discharge.- 2.1.8 Gauss’ theorem.- 2.1.9 Reynolds’ transport theorem.- 2.1.10 Green’s vector theorem.- 2.1.11 Pathlines, transport lines and transport functions.- 2.1.12 Velocity potential and complex potential.- 2.1.13 Movement of a front.- 2.2 Microscopic Balance and Constitutive Equations.- 2.2.1 Derivation of balance equations.- 2.2.2 Particular cases of balance equations.- 2.2.3 Constitutive equations.- 2.2.4 Coupled transport phenomena.- 2.2.5 Phase equilibrium.- 2.3 Averaging Rules.- 2.3.1 Average of a sum.- 2.3.2 Average of a product.- 2.3.3 Average of a time derivative.- 2.3.4 Average of a spatial derivative.- 2.3.5 Average of a spatial derivative of a scalar satisfying—2G = 0.- 2.3.6 The coefficient T?*.- 2.3.7 Average of a material derivative.- 2.4 Macroscopic Balance Equations.- 2.4.1 General balance equation.- 2.4.2 Mass balance of a phase.- 2.4.3 Volume balance of a phase.- 2.4.4 Mass balance equation for a component of a phase.- 2.4.5 Balance equation for the linear momentum of a phase.- 2.4.6 Heat balance for a phase and for a saturated porous medium.- 2.4.7 Mass balance in a fractured porous medium.- 2.4.8 Megascopic balance equation.- 2.5 Stress and Strain in a Porous Medium.- 2.5.1 Total stress.- 2.5.2 Effective stress.- 2.5.3 Forces acting on the solid matrix.- 2.6 Macroscopic Fluxes.- 2.6.1 Advective flux of a single Newtonian fluid.- 2.6.2 Advective fluxes in a multiphase system.- 2.6.3 Diffusive flux.- 2.6.4 Dispersive flux.- 2.6.5 Transport coefficients.- 2.6.6 Coupled fluxes.- 2.6.7 Macrodispersive flux.- 2.7 Macroscopic Boundary Conditions.- 2.7.1 Macroscopic boundary.- 2.7.2 The general boundary condition.- 2.7.3 Boundary conditions between two porous media in single phase flow.- 2.7.4 Boundary conditions between two porous media in multiphase flow.- 2.7.5 Boundary between two fluids.- 2.7.6 Boundary with a ‘well mixed’ domain.- 2.7.7 Boundary with fluid phase change.- 2.7.8 Boundary between a porous medium and an overlying body of flowing fluid.- 3 Mathematical Statement of a Transport Problem.- 3.1 Standard Content of a Problem Statement.- 3.1.1 Conceptual model.- 3.1.2 Mathematical model.- 3.2 Multicontinuum Models.- 3.3 Deletion of Nondominant Effects.- 3.3.1 Methodology.- 3.3.2 Examples.- 3.3.3 Concluding remarks.- B Application.- 4 Mass Transport of a Single Fluid Phase Under Isothermal Conditions.- 4.1 Mass Balance Equations.- 4.1.1 The basic equation.- 4.1.2 Stationary rigid porous medium.- 4.1.3 Deformable porous medium.- 4.2 Boundary Conditions.- 4.2.1 Boundary of prescribed pressure or head.- 4.2.2 Boundary of prescribed mass flux.- 4.2.3 Semipervious boundary.- 4.2.4 Discontinuity in solid matrix properties.- 4.2.5 Sharp interface between two fluids.- 4.2.6 Phreatic surface.- 4.2.7 Seepage face.- 4.3 Complete Mathematical Model.- 4.4 Inertial Effects.- 5 Mass Transport of Multiple Fluid Phases Under Isothermal Conditions.- 5.1 Hydrostatics of a Multiphase System.- 5.1.1 Interfacial tension and capillary pressure.- 5.1.2 Capillary pressure curves.- 5.1.3 Three fluid phases.- 5.1.4 Saturation at medium discontinuity.- 5.2 Advective Fluxes.- 5.2.1 Two fluids.- 5.2.2 Two-phase effective permeability.- 5.2.3 Three-phase effective permeability.- 5.3 Mass Balance Equations.- 5.3.1 Basic equations.- 5.3.2 Nondeformable porous medium.- 5.3.3 Deformable porous medium.- 5.3.4 Buckley-Leverett approximation.- 5.3.5 Flow with interphase mass transfer.- 5.3.6 Immobile fluid phase.- 5.4 Complete Model of Multiphase Flow.- 5.4.1 Boundary and initial conditions.- 5.4.2 Complete model.- 5.4.3 Saturated-unsaturated flow domain.- 6 Transport of a Component in a Fluid Phase Under Isothermal Conditions.- 6.1 Balance Equation for a Component of a Phase.- 6.1.1 The dispersive flux.- 6.1.2 Diffusive flux.- 6.1.3 Sources and sinks at the solid-fluid interface.- 6.1.4 Sources and sinks within the liquid phase.- 6.1.5 Mass balance equation for a single component.- 6.1.6 Variable fluid density and deformable porous medium.- 6.1.7 Balance equations with immobile liquid.- 6.1.8 Fractured porous media.- 6.2 Boundary Conditions.- 6.2.1 Boundary of prescribed concentration.- 6.2.2 Boundary of prescribed flux.- 6.2.3 Boundary between two porous media.- 6.2.4 Boundary with a body of fluid.- 6.2.5 Boundary between two fluids.- 6.2.6 Phreatic surface.- 6.2.7 Seepage face.- 6.3 Complete Mathematical Model.- 6.4 Multicomponent systems.- 6.4.1 Radionuclide and other decay chains.- 6.4.2 Two multicomponent phases.- 6.4.3 Three multicomponent phases.- 7 Heat and Mass Transport.- 7.1 Fluxes.- 7.1.1 Advective flux.- 7.1.2 Dispersive flux.- 7.1.3 Diffusive flux.- 7.2 Balance Equations.- 7.2.1 Single fluid phase.- 7.2.2 Multiple fluid phases.- 7.2.3 Deformable porous medium.- 7.3 Initial and Boundary Conditions.- 7.3.1 Boundary of prescribed temperature.- 7.3.2 Boundary of prescribed flux.- 7.3.3 Boundary between two porous media.- 7.3.4 Boundary with a ‘well mixed’ domain.- 7.3.5 Boundary with phase change.- 7.4 Complete Mathematical Model.- 7.5 Natural Convection.- 8 Hydraulic Approach to Transport in Aquifers.- 8.1 Essentially Horizontal Flow Approximation.- 8.2 Integration Along Thickness.- 8.3 Conditions on the Top and Bottom Surfaces.- 8.3.1 General flux condition on a boundary.- 8.3.2 Conditions for mass transport of a single fluid phase.- 8.3.3 Conditions for a component of a fluid phase.- 8.3.4 Heat.- 8.3.5 Conditions for stress.- 8.4 Particular Balance Equations for an Aquifer.- 8.4.1 Single fluid phase.- 8.4.2 Component of a phase.- 8.4.3 Fluids separated by an abrupt interface.- 8.5 Aquifer Compaction.- 8.5.1 Integrated flow equation.- 8.5.2 Integrated equilibrium equation.- 8.6 Complete Statement of a Problem of Transport in an Aquifer.- 8.6.1 Mass of a single fluid phase.- 8.6.2 Mass of a component of a fluid phase.- 8.6.3 Saturated-unsaturated mass and component transport.- References.- Problems.

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