Introduction to Modern Digital Electronics: Preliminary Edition

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Introduction to Modern Digital Electronics (Preliminary Edition) is an undergraduate textbook for electrical and computer engineering students that is dedicated solely to digital CMOS electronics. It covers the same topics as graduate level textbooks, but in an introductory style specifically crafted (and course tested) for undergraduates. Students will not need a prerequisite in analog electronics, allowing instructors flexibility in course scheduling.While there are several textbooks which include both analog and digital electronics and are used for both courses, their digital modules continue to focus attention on outdated bipolar and nMOS logic.

Introduction to Modern Digital Electronics teaches the fundamentals of modern CMOS technology by focusing on central themes and avoiding overwhelming details. Extensive examples, self-exercises, and end-of-chapter problems assist in teaching the current practices of industry and subjects taught by graduate courses in microelectronics. Computer engineering curriculums can remove the analog electronics prerequisite altogether when adopting this book. The flow of material begins with a review of previous courses in circuit and logic theory relevant to digital electronics. Elementary semiconductor physics then gives students an intuitive feel for how diodes and transistors work, followed by chapters on transistors and how they are combined to make simple logic gates. The book then shows how transistor logic circuits are designed from the logical Boolean equations that form the initial launch of a design, with designing for lower power consumption as a priority subject.

Introduction to Modern Digital Electronics is also unique in that it presents timing, the most difficult of the computer designer's tasks, and an issue that is avoided by all other textbooks. The remaining chapters describe memory, metal thermal and capacitive properties, FPGAs, layout, and then concludes with a chapter on how circuits are made in a chip factory.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781891121074
  • Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
  • Publication date: 3/5/2010
  • Edition description: Preliminary Edition
  • Pages: 417
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Charles Hawkins has been teaching undergraduate and graduate EE courses in digital and analog electronics for over 30 years and has been teaching short courses to the chip industry in the USA, Europe, and Australia for 25 years. He has completed on-sire research projects with Sandia National Labs, Intel, AMD, Qualcomm, Philips Semiconductors, and Philips Research Lab and has co-authored three books on CMOS electronics and circuit analysis.

Jaume Segura is a Professor in the Physics Deparment at the Universitat de les Iles Balears in Spain. He has taught graduate courses in VLSI design and microelectronics test engineering as well as undergraduate courses in digital and analog electronics and microprocessors and logic design. He has conducted extensive research or consulted with Intel, Airbus, and Philips Semiconductor and is the co-author of two books.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1. Logic Gates and Boolean Algebra

1.2. Boolean and Logic Gate Reduction

1.3. Sequential Circuits

1.4. Voltage and Current Laws

1.4.1. Terminal Resistance by Inspection

1.4.2. Node Voltage Analysis by Inspection Using Voltage Dividers

1.4.3. Branch Current Analysis by Inspection Using Current Dividers

1.4.4. Mixing Voltage and Current Dividers

1.5. Power Loss in Resistors

1.6. Capacitance

1.6.1 Capacitor Energy and Power

1.6.2 Capacitor Voltage Dividers

1.7. Inductance

1.8. Diodes

1.8.1 Diode Resistor Analysis

1.9. Some Words About Power

1.10. Summary

Chapter 2 Semiconductor Physics

2.1 Semiconductor Fundamentals

2.1.1 Metals, Inductors, and Semiconductors

2.1.2 Carriers in Semiconductors: Electrons and Holes

2.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors

2.2.1 n-Type Semiconductors

2.2.2 p-Type Semiconductors

2.2.3 Carrier Concentration with n- and p-doped semiconductors

2.3 Carrier Transport

2.3.1 Drift Current

2.3.2 Diffusion Current

2.4 The pn Junction

2.5 Biasing the pn Junction

2.5.1 pn Junction Under Forward Bias

2.5.2 pn Junction Under Revcrse Bias

2.6 Diode Junction Capacitance

2.7 Summary

Chapter 3 MOSFET Transistors

3.1 Principles of Operation

3.1.1 The MOSFET as a Digital Switch

3.1.2 Physical Structure of MOSFETs

3.1.3 MOS Transistor Operation: A Descriptive Approach

3.1.4 nMOS Input Characteristics

3.1.5 nMOS Output Characteristics

3.1.6 pMOS Output Characteristics

3.2 Threshold Voltage in MOS Transistors

3.3 Summary

Chapter 4 Metal Interconnect Properties

4.1 Interconnections

4.2 Metal Resistance

4.2.1 Resistance and Thermal Effects

4.2.2 Sheet Resistance

4.2.3 Via Resistance

4.3 Capacitance

4.3.1 Capacitive Power Review

4.4 Inductance

4.4.1 Charging and Discharging Inductors

4.4.2 Inductive Power

4.5 Interconnect Models

4.5.1 C-Model for Short Lines

4.5.2 RC Model (Elmore)

4.6 Summary

Chapter 5 CMOS Inverter

5.1 The CMOS Inverter

5.1.1 Inverter Static Operation

5.2 Noise Margins

5.3 Voltage and Current Transfer Curves

5.3.1 Symmetrical Voltage Transfer Curves

5.3.2 Current Characteristics

5.4 Graphical Analysis of Bias Regions

5.4.1 Static Transfer Curves

5.4.2 Dynamic Transfer Curves

5.5 Inverter Transition Speed Model

5.6 CMOS Inverter Power

5.6.1 Transient Power (CL)

5.6.2 Short Circuit Power

5.7 Power and Power Supply Scaling

5.8 Sizing Inverter Buffers to Drive Large Loads

5.9 Summary

Chapter 6 CMOS NAND, NOR, and Transmission Gates

6.1 NAND Gate

6.1.1 NAND Gate Transistor Sizing

6.2 NOR Gate

6.2.1 NOR Gate Transistor Sizing

6.3 Pass Gates and CMOS Transmission Gates

6.3.1 Pass Gates

6.3.2 CMOS Transmission Gates

6.3.3 Tri-State Transmission Gates

6.4 Summary

Chapter 7 CMOS Design Styles

7.1 CMOS Static Logic

7.1.1 Synthesis of DeMorgan Circuits

7.2 Dynamic CMOS Logic

7.2.1 Dynamic CMOS Properties

7.2.2 Charge Sharing in Dynamic Circuits

7.3 Domino Dynamic CMOS Logic

7.4 NORA CMOS Logic

7.5 Pass Transistor Logic

7.6 CMOS Transmission Gates

7.7 Power and Activity Coefficient

7.8 Summary

Chapter 8 Sequential Logic Gate Design and Timing

8.1 Latches

8.1.1 CMOS Clocked Latches

8.1.2 Gated Latches

8.1.3 CMOS Latch with Transmission Gates

8.2 Edge-Triggered Storage Element

8.3 Timing Rules for Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop

8.4 tsu and thold with Delay Elements

8.5 Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop with Set and Reset

8.6 Clock Generation Circuitry

8.7 Metal Interconnect

8.8 Timing Skew and Jitter

8.9 Overall System Timing in Chip Design

8.10 Timing and Environmental Noise

8.11 Summary

Chapter 9 Memory Circuits

9.1 Memory Circuit Organization

9.2 Memory Cell

9.3 Decoders

9.3.1 Row Decoders

9.3.2 Column Decoders

9.4 The Read Operation

9.4.1 Width to Length Ratio Design for Read Operation

9.5 The Write Operation

9.5.1 Cell and Write Operation

9.5.2 Latch Transfer Curve

9.5.3 Write Operation Sizing

9.5.4 Column Write Circuits

9.6 Read Operation and Sense Amplifier

9.7 Dynamic Memories (DRAMs)

9.7.1 3-Transistor DRAM Cell

9.7.2 1-Transistor DRAM Cell

9.8 Conclusion

CHAPTER 10 Programmable Logic - FPGAs

10.1 A simple Programmable Circuit - The PLA

10.1.1 Programmable logic gates

10.1.2 AND/OR matrix gates - The PLA

10.2 The next step: implementing sequential circuits - The CPLDs

10.2.1 Incorporating Sequential Blocks - The Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD)

10.2.2 Advanced CPLDs

10.3 Advanced Programmable Logic Circuits - The FPGA

10.3.1 Actel ACT FGPAs

10.3.2 Xilinx Spartan FPGAs

10.3.3 Altera Cyclone III FPGAs

10.3.4 Today FPGAs

10.3.5 Working with FPGA's - Design Tools

10.4 Understanding the Programmable technology

10.4.1 Antifuse technology

10.4.2 EEPROM Technology

10.4.3 Static RAM switch technology

10.5 References

Chapter 11 CMOS Circuit Layout

11.1 Layout and Design Rules

11.2 Layout Approach: Boolean Equations, Transistor Schematic, and Stick Diagrams

11.3 Laying Out a Circuit with PowerPoint

11.4 Design Rules and Minimum Spacing

11.4.1 p-MOS Transistor Layout

11.4.2 Revisiting the Design Rules of the p-MOS transistor Layout

11.4.3 n-MOS Transistor Layout

11.4.4 Merged Transistors to a Common Polygate

11.5 Completed CMOS Inverter Drawn to Design Rule Minimum Dimensions

11.6 Multi-Input Logic Gate Layouts

11.6.1 2NAND Gate Layout

11.7 Merging Logic Gate Standard Cell Layouts

11.8 More on Layout

11.9 Layout Computer Aided Design (CAD) Tools

11.10 Conclusion

Chapter 12 How Chips are Made

12.1 IC Fabrication Overview

12.2 Wafer Construction

12.3 Front and Back End of Line Fabrication

12.4 Front End of Line (FOL) Fab Techniques

12.4.1 Oxidation of Silicon

12.5 Photolithography

12.5.1 Etching

12.5.2 Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Ion-Implantation Diffusion

12.6 Cleaning and Safety Operations

12.7 Transistors

12.8 Back End of Line (BOL) Fab Techniques

12.8.1 Sputtering

12.8.2 Dual Damascene

12.8.3 Interlevel Dielectric and Final Passivation

12.9 Fabricating a CMOS Inverter

12.9.1 Front End of Line Operation

12.9.2 Back End of Line Operation

12.10 Packaging

12.11 IC Testing

12.12 Conclusion

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