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Introduction to Modern Philosophy: Examining the Human Condition / Edition 7

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Overview

This popular introduction to modern philosophy features question-based chapters with a stimulating debate-style format, and intersperses primary sources with commentary. Each chapter deals with a fundamental question about human existence, exploring the subject through representative readings by classic, modern, and contemporary philosophers--with at least two contrasting perspectives for each main position. What Is Philosophy? Am I a Body and a Mind? Am I Free or Determined? What Grounds Do I Have For Belief in God? On What Principle Do I Judge Things Right or Wrong? When Should I Obey the Law? What Things Shall I Call Art? When Can I Say "I Know?" What Is Science? Positivism to Post-Modernism. Applied Ethics (medical ethics, business ethics, environmental ethics). Making Sense Out Of Life (a multi-cultural perspective). For anyone interested in modern philosophy.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130194589
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 9/20/2000
  • Edition description: Subsequent
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 672
  • Sales rank: 753,071
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Read an Excerpt

A Note on the Seventh Edition

Throughout the various editions of this text, the aim has been to introduce students to the wonder and rigor of philosophical analysis. We have tried to achieve a balance between making things plain for beginners and displaying conventional philosophical rigor for the more advanced student. This is the justification for our editorial comments breaking up the original sources in many of the readings. Sometimes the material is just too difficult or too long for beginning students, who often need to be reassured that they have actually understood a passage before they continue their reading.

While our strategy of shaping each chapter to reflect answers to the enduring questions of philosophy remains unchanged in this edition, nevertheless every chapter has undergone revisions ranging from enhanced editorial comments to new primary sources. Chapter 2 on the mind-body problem includes new material from Searle as well as a critique of him by Paul and Patricia Churchland. Chapter 3 has been enriched by a reading from John Hospers exploring the implications of psychology for the free will/determinism debate. Chapter 4 dealing with grounds for belief in God now includes St. Anselm's ontological argument for the existence of God. In discussing social and political philosophy in Chapter 6, we have added readings from John Locke, Robert Paul Wolff, and John Rawls. We enhanced our discussion of art in Chapter 7 by including material from Clive Bell, Paul Ziff, and Susan Sontag, and our examination of science in Chapter 9 by adding a discussion of the feminist philosophy of science by Helen Longino. We have also added another epilogue. The first epilogue deals with applied ethics in the fields of medicine, business, and the environment. The second epilogue continues to explore human cosmic stories from the biblical, Buddhist, African, Marxian, and existentialist traditions that invest life with meaning but concludes with an essay by Peter Geach on postdeath survival that introduces the issue of whether death is going to sleep or going on a journey, whether one's story ends at death or continues.

Adding new material led to the painful decision to delete some of the material included in the sixth edition. We believe that our editorial decisions have made for a better text of which Alburey Castell, who edited the first edition in 1943 and continued to be senior editor until his death in 1987, would be proud.

We would like to thank the Prentice-Hall staff, especially our production editor, Kim Gueterman, for the first-class professional assistance they have given us. Also, we are grateful to the secretaries in the Philosophy Department, Penny Schall and Patricia Black, who have aided us in so many ways.

Finally, our wives, Mary Ellen and Laurie, deserve our gratitude for their encouragement and support during the many hours we spent in bringing this project to completion.

Donald M. Borchert Arthur Zucker Ohio University Athens, Ohio

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Table of Contents

1. What Is Philosophy?

The Examined Life, Socrates.

2. Am I a Body and a Mind?

I Am a Mind (Rex Cogitans) and a Body (Res Extensa), René Descartes. Descartes Was Confused, Gilbert Ryle. The Identity Theory, J.J.C. Smart. Functionalism as a Critique of Identity Theory and Logical Behaviorism, Jerry Fodor. Can Machines Think?, A.M. Turing. Computers Cannot Think, John Searle. Searle Is Mistaken, Paul and Patricia Churchland.

3. Am I Free or Determined?

I Am Determined, Baron D'Holbach. I Am Free, Jean-Paul Sartre. I Am Determined and Free, Walter T. Space. Psychology Shows We Are Not Free, John Hospers. A Defense of Compatibilism, John W. Bender. An Argument for Indeterminism, Karl Popper.

4. What Grounds Do I Have for Belief in God?

Belief Leads to Understanding, St. Anselm. Belief Supported by Proofs, Thomas Aquinas. Belief without Proofs, Blaise Pascal. Doubts about Natural Theology, David Hume. A Finite God, John Stuart Mill. Agnosticism—The Only Legitimate Response, Thomas Henry Huxley. Legitimate Belief in Spite of Agnosticism, William James. Falsification and Verification, Antony Flew and John Hick.

5. On What Principle Do I Judge Things Right or Wrong?

The Will the God, William Paley. The Categorical Imperative, Immanuel Kant. The Maximization of Happiness, John Stuart Mill. The Relativity of Morality, Friedrich Nietzsche. Emotivism Affirmed, A.J. Ayer. Emotivism Refined, C. L. Stevenson. Emotivism Critiqued, Brand Blanshard. Morality, Bernard Gert. The Moral Prism, Dorothy Emmet.

6. Why Should I Obey the Law?

The Case for the Legislative Life, Thomas Hobbes. The Case for Resistance, John Locke. The Case for the Common Cold, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The Case for Revolution, Karl Marx. The Case for Liberty and Law, John Stuart Mill. The Case for Civil Disobedience with Religious Warrant, Martin Luther King. The Case for Anarchy, Robert Paul Wolff. The Case for Civil Disobedience with Secular Warrant, John Rawls.

7. What Things Shall I Call Art?

The Aesthetic Hypothesis, Clive Bell. Anything Viewed Might Be Art?, Paul Ziff. Art as Representation of Reality, H. Gene Blocker. Art as Communication of Emotion, Leo Tolstoy. Critique of Expressionism, John Hospers. Is Aesthetics Founded on a Mistake?, Morris Weitz. Against Interpretation, Susan Sontag.

8. When Can I Say “I Know?”

An Appeal to Experience, David Hume. A Critique of Reason in Experience, Immanuel Kant. A Logical Positivist Critique, A.J. Ayer. The Presuppositions of Knowledge, R.G. Collingwood. The Elements of Epistemology, Alvin Goldman. The Analysis of Knowledge, Keith Lehrer.

9. What Is Science? Positivism to Postmodernism.

The Positivist View of Science, Herbert Feigl. Problems with the Positivistic Interpretations of Science, Thomas Kuhn. Relativism, Even in Science, Is the Only Conclusion, Paul Feyerabend. Kuhn Has Misread Science and Its History, Larry Laudan. Science Is Neither Objective nor Unemotional, Alison Jaggar. Can There Be a Feminist Science?, Helen Longino. Relativism Means the End of Philosophy, Richard Rorty. An Explanation of Postmodernism, H. Gene Blocker.

Epilogue I: Applied Ethics.

Medical Ethics: Euthanasia, Timothy E. Quill. Business Ethics: Making Profits, Milton Friedman. Environmental Ethics: Inescapable Speciesism, Arthur Zucker.

Epilogue II: Making Sense out of Life.

The Will to Meaning, Viktor E. Frankl. The Story of the God Who Acts, The Biblical Tradition. The Story of Transcending Suffering, The Buddhist Tradition. The Story of Pursuing the Moral Ideal, The African Tradition. The Story of Combatting Suffering, Albert Camus. Is the Story to Be Continued?, Peter Geach.

Glossary.

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Preface

A Note on the Seventh Edition

Throughout the various editions of this text, the aim has been to introduce students to the wonder and rigor of philosophical analysis. We have tried to achieve a balance between making things plain for beginners and displaying conventional philosophical rigor for the more advanced student. This is the justification for our editorial comments breaking up the original sources in many of the readings. Sometimes the material is just too difficult or too long for beginning students, who often need to be reassured that they have actually understood a passage before they continue their reading.

While our strategy of shaping each chapter to reflect answers to the enduring questions of philosophy remains unchanged in this edition, nevertheless every chapter has undergone revisions ranging from enhanced editorial comments to new primary sources. Chapter 2 on the mind-body problem includes new material from Searle as well as a critique of him by Paul and Patricia Churchland. Chapter 3 has been enriched by a reading from John Hospers exploring the implications of psychology for the free will/determinism debate. Chapter 4 dealing with grounds for belief in God now includes St. Anselm's ontological argument for the existence of God. In discussing social and political philosophy in Chapter 6, we have added readings from John Locke, Robert Paul Wolff, and John Rawls. We enhanced our discussion of art in Chapter 7 by including material from Clive Bell, Paul Ziff, and Susan Sontag, and our examination of science in Chapter 9 by adding a discussion of the feminist philosophy of science by Helen Longino. We have also added another epilogue. The first epilogue deals with applied ethics in the fields of medicine, business, and the environment. The second epilogue continues to explore human cosmic stories from the biblical, Buddhist, African, Marxian, and existentialist traditions that invest life with meaning but concludes with an essay by Peter Geach on postdeath survival that introduces the issue of whether death is going to sleep or going on a journey, whether one's story ends at death or continues.

Adding new material led to the painful decision to delete some of the material included in the sixth edition. We believe that our editorial decisions have made for a better text of which Alburey Castell, who edited the first edition in 1943 and continued to be senior editor until his death in 1987, would be proud.

We would like to thank the Prentice-Hall staff, especially our production editor, Kim Gueterman, for the first-class professional assistance they have given us. Also, we are grateful to the secretaries in the Philosophy Department, Penny Schall and Patricia Black, who have aided us in so many ways.

Finally, our wives, Mary Ellen and Laurie, deserve our gratitude for their encouragement and support during the many hours we spent in bringing this project to completion.

Donald M. Borchert
Arthur Zucker
Ohio University
Athens, Ohio

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