Introduction to Nanomedicine and Nanobioengineering [NOOK Book]

Overview

This book is an introduction to the emerging field of nanomedicine and its applications to health care. It describes the many multidisciplinary challenges facing nanomedicine and discusses the required collaboration between chemists, physicists, engineers and clinicians. The book introduces the reader to nanomedicine's vast potential to improve and extend human life through the application of nanomaterials in diagnosis and treatment of disease.
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Introduction to Nanomedicine and Nanobioengineering

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Overview

This book is an introduction to the emerging field of nanomedicine and its applications to health care. It describes the many multidisciplinary challenges facing nanomedicine and discusses the required collaboration between chemists, physicists, engineers and clinicians. The book introduces the reader to nanomedicine's vast potential to improve and extend human life through the application of nanomaterials in diagnosis and treatment of disease.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“This volume is most handy for those in the physics, chemistry, or materials science fields who are interested in biomedical applications of nanotechnology; it would also be useful for those in the biological or medical fields who are interested in learning how nanotechnology would be beneficial to their research. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above.” (Choice, 1 January 2013)
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Product Details

Meet the Author

PARAS N. PRASAD, PhD, is the SUNY Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, Physics, Electrical Engineering, and Medicine; the Samuel P. Capen Chair of Chemistry; and the Executive Director of the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics at the University at Buffalo. He was named among the top 50 science and technology leaders in the world by Scientific American in 2005. He has published 700 scientific and technical papers in high-impact journals, three monographs that practically defined the fields of organic nonlinear optics, biophotonics, and nanophotonics, eight edited books, and holds numerous patents. He is the recipient of many scientific awards and honors (Morley Medal; Schoellkopf Medal; Guggenheim Fellowship; Sloan Fellowship; Western New York Health Care Industries Technology/Discovery Award; Fellow of the APS, OSA, and SPIE). He is a pioneer in nanomedicine and nanobioengineering, and has been giving plenary, opening, and keynote lectures worldwide in this field.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xiii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xv

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1. Nanomedicine: A Global Vision 1

1.2. The Nanotechnology Revolution: Realization of Asimov's Fiction 3

1.3. Nanomedicine: A New Era in Personalized Medicine 7

1.4. Nanomedicine: A Promise or Reality? 9

1.5. A New Frontier: Multidisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities 10

1.6. Scope of the Book: Multidisciplinary Education, Training, and Research 12

2 THE HUMAN BODY 15

2.1. Introductory Concepts 16

2.2. Cellular Structure 18

2.3. Various Types of Cells 23

2.4. Biochemical Makeup of Cells 25

2.5. Other Important Cellular Components 29

2.6. Cellular Processes 30

2.7. Organization of Cells into Tissues 37

2.8. Types of Tissues and Their Functions 39

2.9. Various Organs and Organ Systems in the Body 40

2.10. Tumors and Cancers 45

3 NANOCARRIERS 51

3.1. Nanocarriers: Delivering Payloads to Needed Sites 52

3.2. The Various Nanoformulations for Nanomedicine 53

3.3. Viruses as Nanocarriers 55

3.4. Polymeric Nanocarriers 56

3.5. Lipid-Based Nanocarriers 58

3.6. Dendrimers 59

3.7. Carbon Nanostructures 61

3.8. Inorganic Nanoparticles 63

3.9. PEBBLE 65

3.10. Nanoclinics 66

3.11. Nanoplexes 68

3.12. New-Generation Nanocarriers 69

4 NANOCHEMISTRY OF NANOCARRIERS 77

4.1. Nanochemistry and Nanomedicine 78

4.2. Top-Down Approaches 78

4.3. Bottom-Up Approaches 83

4.4. Combination of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Approaches 92

4.5. Nanoparticle Surface Modification 93

4.6. Functionalization and Bioconjugation 95

5 MULTIFUNCTIONALITIES FOR DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY 103

5.1. The Various Functionalities 104

5.2. Optical Functionalities 105

5.3. Optical Nanoprobes 110

5.4. Magnetic Functionality 116

5.5. Thermal Functionality 120

5.6. Radioactive Functionality 121

5.7. Biological Functionality 124

5.8. Multifunctionality 125

6 CROSSING THE BIOLOGICAL BARRIERS 135

6.1. Various Delivery Pathways 135

6.2. Various Biological Barriers 137

6.3. Stealth Nanoparticles 140

6.4. The Various In Vitro Barrier Models 141

7 BIOTARGETING 149

7.1. Biotargeting: Why We Need It 149

7.2. Targeted Biological Sites 150

7.3. Intracellular Uptake 151

7.4. Targeting Strategies 153

7.5. Targeting Groups 155

8 MULTIMODAL BIOMEDICAL IMAGING 163

8.1. Biomedical Imaging Techniques 164

8.2. Optical Bioimaging 170

8.3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 185

8.4. X-Ray CT Imaging 188

8.5. Radio Imaging 190

8.6. Ultrasound Imaging 190

8.7. Photoacoustic Imaging 191

8.8. Multimodal Imaging 192

9 BIOSENSING 207

9.1. Principles of Biosensing 208

9.2. Optical Biosensors 211

9.3. Magnetic Biosensors 228

9.4. Electrical Biosensing 234

9.5. Electrochemical Biosensing 236

9.6. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensing 238

9.7. In Vivo Bioelectronic Sensors 239

10 HIGH-THROUGHPUT MULTIPLEXED DIAGNOSTICS 253

10.1. Comprehensive Diagnostic Strategy 254

10.2. Flow Cytometry 255

10.3. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) 264

10.4. Microarrays Technology 269

10.5. Suspension Bead Assay 277

11 NANOPHARMACOTHERAPY 291

11.1. Nanopharmacotherapy: An Overview 292

11.2. Modes of Nanoformulation for Nanopharmacotherapy 294

11.3. Pharmacokinetics 296

11.4. Biodistribution 297

11.5. Pharmacodynamics 298

11.6. Controlled Release by External Activation 299

12 THE HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM AND THERANOSTICS 305

12.1. Blood Fluidics and Cardiovascular System 306

12.2. Circulatory-System-Based Disease Profiling 309

12.3. Methods to Monitor Blood Flow 312

12.4. Therapeutic Approaches Utilizing Manipulation of Blood Flow 318

12.5. Lymph Node Mapping 320

12.6. Lymphatic Drug Delivery 322

13 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR CANCER 331

13.1. Benefits of Cancer Nanotechnology 332

13.2. Chemotherapy 335

13.3. Cancer Gene Therapy 339

13.4. Photodynamic Therapy 340

13.5. Magnetic Therapy 349

13.6. Photothermal Therapy 353

13.7. Neutron Capture Therapy 357

13.8. Circulating Tumor Cells 359

13.9. NCI Alliance for Cancer Nanotechnology 360

14 GENE THERAPY 371

14.1. The Principles, Steps, and Impact of Gene Therapy 372

14.2. Methods of Gene Delivery 374

14.3. Gene Augmentation Therapy 381

14.4. Gene Silencing Therapy 381

14.5. Indirect Gene Therapy Modulating Innate Immune Response 384

14.6. Transmucosal Gene Delivery 385

15 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES 393

15.1. Pathogen Infections and Nanoparticle-Based Approaches 394

15.2. HIV 401

15.3. Influenza 408

15.4. Tuberculosis 410

15.5. Malaria 416

16 REJUVENATION THERAPY 433

16.1. Rejuvenation Therapy: Fantasy or Reality? 433

16.2. Free Radical Scavenging 436

16.3. Chelation Therapy 439

16.4. Hormone Therapy 441

17 STEM CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY 447

17.1. Stem Cell Biotechnology: Overview 448

17.2. Cell Reprogramming 449

17.3. Gene Transfection 452

17.4. Somatic Cell Transdifferentiation 453

17.5. Stem Cell Sorting 454

17.6. Stem Cell Tracking 454

18 TISSUE ENGINEERING 461

18.1. Tissue Engineering: Overview 462

18.2. Tissue Regeneration 464

18.3. Nanotechnology in Tissue Engineering 467

18.4. Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering 472

18.5. Nanoparticle Delivery of Biomolecules 473

18.6. Magnetically Assisted Tissue Engineering 474

18.7. Tissue/Organ Printing 475

18.8. Tissue Bonding 477

19 NANODERMATOLOGY AND NANOCOSMETICS 487

19.1. Delivery Through Skin 487

19.2. Skin Care and Nanotechnology 488

19.3. Various Nanoparticles for Dermatology and Cosmetics 491

19.4. Nanodermatology 492

19.5. Nanocosmetics 494

19.6. Nanotoxicology of the Skin 497

20 NANODENTISTRY 503

20.1. Nanotechnology for Dental Care 504

20.2. Nanoparticles for Preventive Dentistry 507

20.3. Nanomaterials for Restorative Dentistry 509

20.4. Regenerative Dentistry 516

20.5. Nanoparticle-Enhanced Dental Imaging and Oral Diagnostics 519

20.6. Nanorobotics for Dentistry 522

21 NANOTOXICITY 529

21.1. Toxicity of Nanoparticles 529

21.2. Cytotoxicity 533

21.3. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assays 535

21.4. In Vivo Toxicity 539

21.5. In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation 542

21.6. Nanotoxicity Studies on Selected Nanoparticles 542

Highlights of the Chapter 547

Exercises 550

References 551

INDEX 555

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