Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology / Edition 1

Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology / Edition 1

by Chris Binns

A clear primer on the basics of this emerging field

What is nanotechnology? What does it do, and why is it expected to have a significant impact on our lives? These seemingly simple questions do not have easy, direct answers. There are so many aspects to nanotechnology that the uninitiated often find it challenging to begin to understand and appreciate it.

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A clear primer on the basics of this emerging field

What is nanotechnology? What does it do, and why is it expected to have a significant impact on our lives? These seemingly simple questions do not have easy, direct answers. There are so many aspects to nanotechnology that the uninitiated often find it challenging to begin to understand and appreciate it. Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology explains the basics in clear language, even to those who do not have a scientific background. It reveals the present state of the art and latest applications in nanotechnology, makes estimates of where the technology is headed, and predicts what will be possible in the future.

The book begins by addressing how small the nanometer length scale is in comparison to macroscopic objects and why it is special. From a discussion of naturally occurring nanoparticles and nanoparticles composed of carbon, the book then presents the tools of nanotechnology that can build, image, and manipulate nanostructures to build materials and devices (such as MEMS devices and scanning probe technologies), as well as one of the most exciting aspects of the field—combining Bottom-up and Top-down approaches so that individual nanostructures can be probed.

Readers will learn about artificially produced nanostructures that have a built-in functionality, such as magnetic nanoparticles that can store a data bit. They'll see how it is possible to produce biologically active nanoparticles that can interact with specific cells in the body, which can lead to powerful new treatments for diseases such as cancer. In addition, they'll discover the potential for building autonomous machines with nanoscale components—and how the tools of nanotechnology may one day lead to a deeper understanding of our universe.

From new areas of biomedical applications to probing the "quantum vacuum," Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology is accessible to all general science readers, as well as to undergraduates and graduate students studying nanotechnology.

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Product Details

Publication date:
Wiley Survival Guides in Engineering and Science Series, #6
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Nanotechnology Time Line xiii

Introduction 1

0.1 Incremental Nanotechnology 3

0.2 Evolutionary Nanotechnology 4

0.3 Radical Nanotechnology 6

0.4 Bottom-Up/Top-Down Nanotechnology 8

References 10

1 Size Matters 11

1.1 The Fundamental Importance of Size 11

1.2 The Magnetic Behavior of Nanoparticles 14

1.3 The Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials 24

1.4 The Chemical Properties of Nanoparticles 26

1.5 Nanoparticles Interacting with Living Systems 28

Problems 30

References 31

2 Nanoparticles Everywhere 33

2.1 Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere 33

2.2 Atmospheric Nanoparticles and Health 38

2.3 Nanoparticles and Climate 41

2.4 Marine Aerosol 45

2.5 Nanoparticles in Space 46

Problems 50

References 51

3 Carbon Nanostructures: Bucky Balls and Nanotubes 53

3.1 Why Carbon? 53

3.2 Discovery of the First Fullerene: C60 55

3.3 Structural Symmetry of the Closed Fullerenes 58

3.4 Smaller Fullerenes and "Shrink-Wrapping" Atoms 60

3.5 Larger Fullerenes 63

3.6 Electronic Properties of Individual Fullerenes 66

3.7 Materials Produced by Assembling Fullerenes (Fullerites and Fullerides) 72

3.8 Discovery of Carbon Nanotubes 77

3.9 Structure of SWNTs 79

3.10 Electronic Properties of SWNTs 80

3.11 Electronic Transport in Carbon Nanotubes 83

3.12 Mechanical Properties of Nanotubes 86

3.13 Thermal Conductivity of Nanotubes 89

3.14 Carbon Nanohorns 90

3.15 Carbon Nanobuds and Pea Pods 90

Problems 93

References 94

4 The Nanotechnology Toolkit 96

4.1 Making Nanostructures Using Bottom-Up Methods 96

4.1.1 Making Nanoparticles Using Supersaturated Vapor 96

4.1.2 Sources Producing Nanoparticle Beams in Vacuum 99

4.1.3 Mass Selection of Charged Nanoparticle Beams in Vacuum 103

4.1.4 Aerodynamic Lensing and Mass Selection of Neutral Nanoparticles 110

4.1.5 Plasma, Spark, and Flame Metal Aerosol Sources 112

4.1.6 Size Selection of Nanoparticles in Aerosols 114

4.1.7 Chemical Synthesis of Nanoparticles in Liquid Suspensions 117

4.1.8 Biological Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles 120

4.1.9 Synthesis of Fullerenes 121

4.1.10 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes 122

4.1.11 Controlling the Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes 125

4.2 Making Nanostructures Using Top-Down Methods 127

4.2.1 Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) 128

4.2.2 Manufacturing Nanostructures Using Focused Ion Beams (FIB) 132

4.3 Combining Bottom-Up and Top-Down Nanostructures 138

4.4 Imaging, Probing, and Manipulating Nanostructures 142

4.4.1 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) 142

4.4.2 Manipulating Atoms and Molecules with STM 149

4.4.3 Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) 153

4.4.4 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 157

4.4.5 Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) 162

4.4.6 Electron Microscopy 165

Problems 170

References 172

5 Single-Nanoparticles Devices 176

5.1 Data Storage on Magnetic Nanoparticles 176

5.2 Quantum Dots 185

5.3 Nanoparticles as Transistors 190

5.4 Carbon Nanoelectronics 198

Problems 202

References 203

6 Magic Beacons and Magic Bullets: The Medical Applications of Functional Nanoparticles 205

6.1 Nanoparticles Interacting with Living Organisms 206

6.1.1 Targeted Nanovectors for Therapy and Diagnosis 206

6.1.2 Types of Core Nanoparticle in Nanovectors 210

6.1.3 Some Elementary Human Cell Biology 211

6.1.4 Uptake of Nanomaterials by the Body 214

6.1.5 Biological Targeting 215

6.1.6 Magnetic Targeting 220

6.2 Treatment of Tumors by Hyperthermia 223

6.2.1 Biological Response to Heating 223

6.2.2 Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia 229

6.2.3 Hyperthermia with Au Nanoparticles 238

6.2.4 Hyperthermia with Carbon Nanotubes 244

6.3 Medical Diagnosis and "Theranostics" Using Nanomaterials 247

6.3.1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Contrast Enhancement Using Magnetic Nanoparticles 247

6.3.2 Imaging Using Gold Nanoparticles 252

6.3.3 Imaging Using Quantum Dots 253

Problems 259

References 260

7 Radical Nanotechnology 263

7.1 Locomotion for Nanobots and Nanofactories 264

7.2 On-Board Processing for Nanomachines 273

7.3 Medical Nanobots 274

7.4 Molecular Assembly 277

References 280

8 Prodding the Cosmic Fabric 281

8.1 Zero-Point Energy of Space 281

8.2 The Casimir Force 286

8.3 The Casimir Force in Nanomachines 289

References 292

Glossary 295

Index 297

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