Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology / Edition 1

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Overview

Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology explains nanotechnology to an audience that does not necessarily have a scientific background. It covers all aspects, including the new areas of biomedical applications and the use of nanotechnology to probe the "quantum vacuum." After discussing the present state of the art in nanotechnology, the book makes estimates of where these technologies are going and what will be possible in the future.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This work is especially valuable for undergraduates as well as beginning graduate students. Moreover, even general readers with some science background should be able to follow the text. Highly recommended." (Choice , 1 April 2011)

"It would be incomprehensible to a layman, but provides an interesting overview at graduate level of some aspects of the subject". (Chemistry & Industry, 10 January 2011)

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Product Details

Meet the Author

CHRIS BINNS, PhD, is Professor of Nanoscience in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leicester, United Kingdom. He spent two years working at Synchrotron Radiation Sources (SSRL, Stanford and NSLS, Brookhaven) in the USA. Professor Binns then obtained a permanent academic post at the University of Leicester and continued synchrotron radiation experiments. In the last decade his research has focused on magnetic nanoparticles, and at present is moving into the new areas of biomedical applications of nanoparticles and in Casimir force measurements using scanning probe microscopes.

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Nanotechnology Time Line xiii

Introduction 1

0.1 Incremental Nanotechnology 3

0.2 Evolutionary Nanotechnology 4

0.3 Radical Nanotechnology 6

0.4 Bottom-Up/Top-Down Nanotechnology 8

References 10

1 Size Matters 11

1.1 The Fundamental Importance of Size 11

1.2 The Magnetic Behavior of Nanoparticles 14

1.3 The Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials 24

1.4 The Chemical Properties of Nanoparticles 26

1.5 Nanoparticles Interacting with Living Systems 28

Problems 30

References 31

2 Nanoparticles Everywhere 33

2.1 Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere 33

2.2 Atmospheric Nanoparticles and Health 38

2.3 Nanoparticles and Climate 41

2.4 Marine Aerosol 45

2.5 Nanoparticles in Space 46

Problems 50

References 51

3 Carbon Nanostructures: Bucky Balls and Nanotubes 53

3.1 Why Carbon? 53

3.2 Discovery of the First Fullerene: C60 55

3.3 Structural Symmetry of the Closed Fullerenes 58

3.4 Smaller Fullerenes and "Shrink-Wrapping" Atoms 60

3.5 Larger Fullerenes 63

3.6 Electronic Properties of Individual Fullerenes 66

3.7 Materials Produced by Assembling Fullerenes (Fullerites and Fullerides) 72

3.8 Discovery of Carbon Nanotubes 77

3.9 Structure of SWNTs 79

3.10 Electronic Properties of SWNTs 80

3.11 Electronic Transport in Carbon Nanotubes 83

3.12 Mechanical Properties of Nanotubes 86

3.13 Thermal Conductivity of Nanotubes 89

3.14 Carbon Nanohorns 90

3.15 Carbon Nanobuds and Pea Pods 90

Problems 93

References 94

4 The Nanotechnology Toolkit 96

4.1 Making Nanostructures Using Bottom-Up Methods 96

4.1.1 Making Nanoparticles Using Supersaturated Vapor 96

4.1.2 Sources Producing Nanoparticle Beams in Vacuum 99

4.1.3 Mass Selection of Charged Nanoparticle Beams in Vacuum 103

4.1.4 Aerodynamic Lensing and Mass Selection of Neutral Nanoparticles 110

4.1.5 Plasma, Spark, and Flame Metal Aerosol Sources 112

4.1.6 Size Selection of Nanoparticles in Aerosols 114

4.1.7 Chemical Synthesis of Nanoparticles in Liquid Suspensions 117

4.1.8 Biological Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles 120

4.1.9 Synthesis of Fullerenes 121

4.1.10 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes 122

4.1.11 Controlling the Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes 125

4.2 Making Nanostructures Using Top-Down Methods 127

4.2.1 Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) 128

4.2.2 Manufacturing Nanostructures Using Focused Ion Beams (FIB) 132

4.3 Combining Bottom-Up and Top-Down Nanostructures 138

4.4 Imaging, Probing, and Manipulating Nanostructures 142

4.4.1 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) 142

4.4.2 Manipulating Atoms and Molecules with STM 149

4.4.3 Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) 153

4.4.4 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 157

4.4.5 Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) 162

4.4.6 Electron Microscopy 165

Problems 170

References 172

5 Single-Nanoparticles Devices 176

5.1 Data Storage on Magnetic Nanoparticles 176

5.2 Quantum Dots 185

5.3 Nanoparticles as Transistors 190

5.4 Carbon Nanoelectronics 198

Problems 202

References 203

6 Magic Beacons and Magic Bullets: The Medical Applications of Functional Nanoparticles 205

6.1 Nanoparticles Interacting with Living Organisms 206

6.1.1 Targeted Nanovectors for Therapy and Diagnosis 206

6.1.2 Types of Core Nanoparticle in Nanovectors 210

6.1.3 Some Elementary Human Cell Biology 211

6.1.4 Uptake of Nanomaterials by the Body 214

6.1.5 Biological Targeting 215

6.1.6 Magnetic Targeting 220

6.2 Treatment of Tumors by Hyperthermia 223

6.2.1 Biological Response to Heating 223

6.2.2 Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia 229

6.2.3 Hyperthermia with Au Nanoparticles 238

6.2.4 Hyperthermia with Carbon Nanotubes 244

6.3 Medical Diagnosis and "Theranostics" Using Nanomaterials 247

6.3.1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Contrast Enhancement Using Magnetic Nanoparticles 247

6.3.2 Imaging Using Gold Nanoparticles 252

6.3.3 Imaging Using Quantum Dots 253

Problems 259

References 260

7 Radical Nanotechnology 263

7.1 Locomotion for Nanobots and Nanofactories 264

7.2 On-Board Processing for Nanomachines 273

7.3 Medical Nanobots 274

7.4 Molecular Assembly 277

References 280

8 Prodding the Cosmic Fabric 281

8.1 Zero-Point Energy of Space 281

8.2 The Casimir Force 286

8.3 The Casimir Force in Nanomachines 289

References 292

Glossary 295

Index 297

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