Introduction to Networks Companion Guide [NOOK Book]

Overview

Introduction to Networks Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Introduction to Networks course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

The course introduces the architecture, structure, functions, components, and models of the Internet and computer networks. The principles of IP addressing and fundamentals of Ethernet concepts, media, and operations are introduced to provide a foundation for the curriculum. By the end of ...

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Introduction to Networks Companion Guide

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Overview

Introduction to Networks Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Introduction to Networks course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

The course introduces the architecture, structure, functions, components, and models of the Internet and computer networks. The principles of IP addressing and fundamentals of Ethernet concepts, media, and operations are introduced to provide a foundation for the curriculum. By the end of the course, you will be able to build simple LANs, perform basic configurations for routers and switches, and implement IP addressing schemes.

The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.

The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:


  • Chapter Objectives–Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.

  • Key Terms–Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.

  • Glossary–Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 195 terms.

  • Summary of Activities and Labs–Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.

  • Check Your Understanding–Evaluate your readiness with the end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.

Related Title:

Introduction to Networks Lab Manual

ISBN-10: 1-58713-312-1

ISBN-13: 978-1-58713-312-1


  • How To–Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.

  • Interactive Activities–Reinforce your understanding of topics with more than 50 different exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.

  • Videos–Watch the videos embedded within the online course.

  • Packet Tracer Activities–Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters.

  • Hands-on Labs–Work through all 66 course labs and Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Lab Manual.

This book is part of the Cisco Networking Academy Series from Cisco Press®. Books in this series support and complement the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133475418
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 11/29/2013
  • Series: Companion Guide
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 720
  • Sales rank: 318,924
  • File size: 38 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Mark A. Dye

Mark is the lead network engineer for Kwajalein Range Services at Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site on Kwajalein, Marshall Islands. He is responsible for the network team that provides design, deployment, and operation of all the missile test range data networks across ten islands as well as three continental U.S. locations.

He has previously worked as subject matter expert and content team lead for the Cisco Academy Program as well as an author for multiple Cisco Network Academy Fundamentals online courses. He worked to develop and review courseware and assessments for both the Academy and certification programs.

For more than 20 years, Mark served as technology manager for The Bevill Center for Advanced Manufacturing Technology of Alabama Technology Network. He developed and implemented comprehensive network strategies for intranet and Internet, including policies, administrative procedures, network security, and interconnectivity. He also implemented and taught Cisco Networking Academy Fundamentals of Wireless LANs, Fundamentals of Network Security, and CCNA and CCNP courses at The Bevill Center for instructors and students.

Allan D. Reid

Allan is a professor and program supervisor at Centennial College in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, where he teaches courses in networking, network security, virtualization, and cloud computing. He is the lead for the Centennial College ASC/ITC and has been teaching the academy curriculum since one of the earliest versions.

Allan has authored multiple books and online courses for the Cisco Academy program, where he is a subject matter expert and content team lead. He works as part of the core team to develop state-of-the-art assessments and courseware.

Outside of his academic responsibilities, Allan has been active in the computer and networking fields for more than 30 years and is currently a principal in a company involved in the design, installation, and management of network solutions for small to medium-sized companies.

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Table of Contents

Introduction xxvi

Chapter 1 Exploring the Network 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Globally Connected (1.1) 4

Networking Today (1.1.1) 4

Networks in Our Daily Lives (1.1.1.1) 4

Technology Then and Now (1.1.1.2) 5

The Global Community (1.1.1.3) 6

Networks Support the Way We Learn (1.1.1.4) 7

Networks Support the Way We Communicate (1.1.1.5) 8

Networks Support the Way We Work (1.1.1.6) 10

Networks Support the Way We Play (1.1.1.7) 10

Providing Resources in a Network (1.1.2) 11

Networks of Many Sizes (1.1.2.1) 12

Clients and Servers (1.1.2.2, 1.1.2.3) 13

Peer-to-Peer (1.1.2.4) 13

LANs, WANs, and the Internet (1.2) 14

Components of a Network (1.2.1, 1.2.1.1) 15

End Devices (1.2.1.2) 16

Intermediary Network Devices (1.2.1.3) 16

Network Media (1.2.1.4) 17

Network Representations (1.2.1.5) 18

Topology Diagrams (1.2.1.6) 19

LANs and WANs (1.2.2) 21

Types of Networks (1.2.2.1) 21

Local-Area Networks (1.2.2.2) 22

Wide-Area Networks (1.2.2.3) 22

The Internet (1.2.3, 1.2.3.1) 22

Intranet and Extranet (1.2.3.2) 23

Internet Access Technologies (1.2.4.1) 25

Connecting Remote Users to the Internet (1.2.4.2) 25

Connecting Businesses to the Internet (1.2.4.3) 27

The Network as a Platform (1.3) 28

The Converging Network (1.3.1.1) 29

Planning for the Future (1.3.1.2) 30

The Supporting Network Architecture (1.3.2.1) 31

Fault Tolerance in Circuit-Switched Networks (1.3.2.2) 32

Fault Tolerance 32

Circuit-Switched Connection-Oriented Networks 33

Fault Tolerance in Packet-Switched Networks (1.3.2.3) 34

Packet-Switched Networks 34

Scalable Networks (1.3.2.4) 35

Scalability 35

Providing QoS (1.3.2.5) 37

Quality of Service 37

Providing Network Security (1.3.2.6) 39

Security 39

The Changing Network Environment (1.4) 41

Network Trends (1.4.1) 41

New Trends (1.4.1.1) 41

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) (1.4.1.2) 43

Online Collaboration (1.4.1.3) 43

Video Communication (1.4.1.4) 44

Cloud Computing (1.4.1.5) 46

Data Centers (1.4.1.6) 47

Technology Trends in the Home (1.4.2.1) 48

Powerline Networking (1.4.2.2) 49

Wireless Broadband (1.4.2.3) 50

Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP) 50

Wireless Broadband Service 50

Security Threats (1.4.3.1) 50

Security Solutions (1.4.3.2) 51

Cisco Network Architectures (1.4.4.1) 52

CCNA (1.4.4.2) 53

Summary (1.5) 54

Practice 55

Class Activities 55

Labs 55

Packet Tracer Activities 55

Check Your Understanding 56

Chapter 2 Configuring a Network Operating System 59

Objectives 59

Key Terms 59

Introduction (2.0.1) 60

Introduction to Cisco IOS (2.0.1.1) 60

IOS Boot Camp (2.1) 61

Cisco IOS (2.1.1) 61

Operating Systems (2.1.1.1) 61

Purpose of OS (2.1.1.2) 63

Location of the Cisco IOS (2.1.1.3) 63

IOS Functions (2.1.1.4) 64

Accessing a Cisco IOS Device (2.1.2) 65

Console Access Method (2.1.2.1) 65

Telnet, SSH, and AUX Access Methods (2.1.2.2) 66

Terminal Emulation Programs (2.1.2.3) 67

Navigating the IOS (2.1.3) 67

Cisco IOS Modes of Operation (2.1.3.1) 68

Primary Modes (2.1.3.2) 69

Global Configuration Mode and Submodes (2.1.3.3) 69

Navigating Between IOS Modes (2.1.3.4, 2.1.3.5) 71

The Command Structure (2.1.4) 72

IOS Command Structure (2.1.4.1) 73

Cisco IOS Command Reference (2.1.4.2) 75

Context-Sensitive Help (2.1.4.3) 76

Command Syntax Check (2.1.4.4) 78

Hot Keys and Shortcuts (2.1.4.5) 79

IOS Examination Commands (2.1.4.6) 83

The show version Command (2.1.4.7) 83

Getting Basic (2.2) 86

Host Names (2.2.1) 86

Why the Switch (2.2.1.1) 86

Device Names (2.2.1.2) 87

Host Names (2.2.1.3) 87

Configuring Host Names (2.2.1.4) 88

Limiting Access to Device Configurations (2.2.2) 89

Securing Device Access (2.2.2.1) 89

Securing Privileged EXEC Access (2.2.2.2) 90

Securing User EXEC Access (2.2.2.3) 91

Encrypting Password Display (2.2.2.4) 92

Banner Messages (2.2.2.5) 94

Saving Configurations (2.2.3) 96

Configuration Files (2.2.3.1) 96

Capturing Text (2.2.3.2) 98

Address Schemes (2.3) 100

Ports and Addresses (2.3.1) 100

IP Addressing of Devices (2.3.1.1) 100

Interfaces and Ports (2.3.1.2) 101

Addressing Devices (2.3.2) 102

Configuring a Switch Virtual Interface (2.3.2.1) 102

Manual IP Address Configuration for End Devices (2.3.2.2) 103

Automatic IP Address Configuration for End Devices (2.3.2.3) 104

IP Address Conflicts (2.3.2.4) 105

Verifying Connectivity (2.3.3) 106

Test the Loopback Address on an End Device (2.3.3.1) 106

Testing the Interface Assignment (2.3.3.2) 107

Testing End-to-End Connectivity (2.3.3.3) 108

Summary (2.4) 109

Practice 110

Class Activities 110

Labs 111

Packet Tracer Activities 111

Check Your Understanding 111

Chapter 3 Network Protocols and Communications 115

Objectives 115

Key Terms 115

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 116

Rules of Communication (3.1) 116

The Rules (3.1.1) 117

What Is Communication? (3.1.1.1) 117

Establishing the Rules (3.1.1.2) 118

Message Encoding (3.1.1.3) 119

Message Formatting and Encapsulation (3.1.1.4) 120

Message Size (3.1.1.5) 121

Message Timing (3.1.1.6) 121

Message Delivery Options (3.1.1.7) 122

Network Protocols and Standards (3.2) 123

Protocols (3.2.1) 123

Protocols: Rules That Govern Communications (3.2.1.1) 123

Network Protocols (3.2.1.2) 124

Interaction of Protocols (3.2.1.3) 125

Protocol Suites (3.2.2) 127

Protocol Suites and Industry Standards (3.2.2.1) 127

Creation of the Internet and Development of TCP/IP (3.2.2.2) 128

TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication Process (3.2.2.3) 129

Standards Organizations (3.2.3) 133

Open Standards (3.2.3.1) 133

ISOC, IAB, and IETF (3.2.3.2) 134

IEEE (3.2.3.3) 135

ISO (3.2.3.4) 136

Other Standards Organizations (3.2.3.5) 136

Reference Models (3.2.4) 137

The Benefits of Using a Layered Model (3.2.4.1) 138

The OSI Reference Model (3.2.4.2) 139

The TCP/IP Protocol Model (3.2.4.3) 140

Comparing the OSI Model with the TCP/IP Model (3.2.4.4) 141

Moving Data in the Network (3.3) 143

Data Encapsulation (3.3.1) 143

Communicating the Messages (3.3.1.1) 143

Protocol Data Units (PDU) (3.3.1.2) 144

Encapsulation (3.3.1.3) 145

Deencapsulation (3.3.1.4) 146

Accessing Local Resources (3.3.2) 146

Network Addresses and Data-Link Addresses (3.3.2.1) 146

Communicating with a Device on the Same Network (3.3.2.2) 148

MAC and IP Addresses (3.3.2.3) 149

Accessing Remote Resources (3.3.3) 150

Default Gateway (3.3.3.1) 150

Communicating with a Device on a Remote Network (3.3.3.2) 151

Summary (3.4) 154

Practice 155

Class Activities 155

Labs 155

Packet Tracer Activities 155

Check Your Understanding 156

Chapter 4 Network Access 161

Objectives 161

Key Terms 161

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 163

Physical Layer Protocols (4.1) 164

Getting It Connected (4.1.1) 164

Connecting to the Network (4.1.1.1) 164

Network Interface Cards (4.1.1.2) 165

Purpose of the Physical Layer (4.1.2) 166

The Physical Layer (4.1.2.1) 166

Physical Layer Media (4.1.2.2) 167

Physical Layer Standards (4.1.2.3) 168

Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 (4.1.3) 169

Physical Layer Fundamental Principles (4.1.3.1) 169

Bandwidth (4.1.3.2) 171

Throughput (4.1.3.3) 172

Types of Physical Media (4.1.3.4) 173

Network Media (4.2) 173

Copper Cabling (4.2.1) 173

Characteristics of Copper Media (4.2.1.1) 173

Copper Media (4.2.1.2) 175

Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable (4.2.1.3) 176

Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable (4.2.1.4) 176

Coaxial Cable (4.2.1.5) 177

Copper Media Safety (4.2.1.6) 178

UTP Cabling (4.2.2) 179

Properties of UTP Cabling (4.2.2.1) 179

UTP Cabling Standards (4.2.2.2) 180

UTP Connectors (4.2.2.3) 182

Types of UTP Cable (4.2.2.4) 183

Testing UTP Cables (4.2.2.5) 185

Fiber-Optic Cabling (4.2.3) 185

Properties of Fiber-Optic Cabling (4.2.3.1) 185

Fiber Media Cable Design (4.2.3.2) 186

Types of Fiber Media (4.2.3.3) 187

Network Fiber Connectors (4.2.3.4) 189

Testing Fiber Cables (4.2.3.5) 191

Fiber Versus Copper (4.2.3.6) 192

Wireless Media (4.2.4) 193

Properties of Wireless Media (4.2.4.1) 193

Types of Wireless Media (4.2.4.2) 194

Wireless LAN (4.2.4.3) 196

802.11 Wi-Fi Standards (4.2.4.4) 196

Data Link Layer Protocols (4.3) 198

Purpose of the Data Link Layer (4.3.1) 198

The Data Link Layer (4.3.1.1) 198

Data Link Sublayers (4.3.1.2) 199

Media Access Control (4.3.1.3) 200

Providing Access to Media (4.3.1.4) 201

Layer 2 Frame Structure (4.3.2) 202

Formatting Data for Transmission (4.3.2.1) 202

Creating a Frame (4.3.2.2) 203

Layer 2 Standards (4.3.3) 204

Data Link Layer Standards (4.3.3.1) 204

Media Access Control (4.4) 205

Topologies (4.4.1) 206

Controlling Access to the Media (4.4.1.1) 206

Physical and Logical Topologies (4.4.1.2) 207

WAN Topologies (4.4.2) 208

Common Physical WAN Topologies (4.4.2.1) 208

Physical Point-to-Point Topology (4.4.2.2) 209

Logical Point-to-Point Topology (4.4.2.3) 209

Half and Full Duplex (4.4.2.4) 210

LAN Topologies (4.4.3) 210

Physical LAN Topologies (4.4.3.1) 210

Logical Topology for Shared Media (4.4.3.2) 211

Contention-Based Access (4.4.3.3) 212

Multiaccess Topology (4.4.3.4) 213

Controlled Access (4.4.3.5) 213

Ring Topology (4.4.3.6) 214

Data-Link Frame (4.4.4) 215

The Frame (4.4.4.1) 215

The Header (4.4.4.2) 215

Layer 2 Address (4.4.4.3) 216

The Trailer (4.4.4.4) 217

LAN and WAN Frames (4.4.4.5) 218

Ethernet Frame (4.4.4.6) 220

PPP Frame (4.4.4.7) 221

802.11 Wireless Frame (4.4.4.8) 222

Summary (4.5) 225

Practice 227

Class Activities 227

Labs 227

Packet Tracer Activities 227

Check Your Understanding 227

Chapter 5 Ethernet 231

Objectives 231

Key Terms 231

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 233

Ethernet Protocol (5.1) 234

Ethernet Operation (5.1.1) 234

LLC and MAC Sublayers (5.1.1.1) 235

MAC Sublayer (5.1.1.2) 235

Media Access Control (5.1.1.3) 236

MAC Address: Ethernet Identity (5.1.1.4) 238

Frame Processing (5.1.1.5) 239

Ethernet Frame Attributes (5.1.2) 240

Ethernet Encapsulation (5.1.2.1) 241

Ethernet Frame Size (5.1.2.2) 242

Introduction to the Ethernet Frame (5.1.2.3) 243

Ethernet MAC (5.1.3) 244

MAC Addresses and Hexadecimal (5.1.3.1) 244

MAC Address Representations (5.1.3.2) 246

Unicast MAC Address (5.1.3.3) 247

Broadcast MAC Address (5.1.3.4) 248

Multicast MAC Address (5.1.3.5) 248

MAC and IP (5.1.4, 5.1.4.1) 249

End-to-End Connectivity, MAC, and IP (5.1.4.2) 250

Address Resolution Protocol (5.2, 5.2.1, 5.2.1.1) 252

ARP Functions (5.2.1.2) 252

ARP Operation (5.2.1.3) 253

ARP Role in Remote Communication (5.2.1.4) 256

Removing Entries from an ARP Table (5.2.1.5) 258

ARP Tables on Networking Devices (5.2.1.6) 258

ARP Issues (5.2.2) 259

How ARP Can Create Problems (5.2.2.1) 259

Mitigating ARP Problems (5.2.2.2) 260

LAN Switches (5.3) 260

Switching (5.3.1) 260

Switch Port Fundamentals (5.3.1.1) 261

Switch MAC Address Table (5.3.1.2) 261

Duplex Settings (5.3.1.3) 263

Auto-MDIX (5.3.1.4) 265

Frame-Forwarding Methods on Cisco Switches (5.3.1.5) 265

Cut-Through Switching (5.3.1.6) 266

Memory Buffering on Switches (5.3.1.8) 267

Fixed or Modular (5.3.2) 268

Fixed Versus Modular Configuration (5.3.2.1) 268

Module Options for Cisco Switch Slots (5.3.2.2) 270

Layer 3 Switching (5.3.3) 272

Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 Switching (5.3.3.1) 272

Cisco Express Forwarding (5.3.3.2) 273

Types of Layer 3 Interfaces (5.3.3.3) 274

Configuring a Routed Port on a Layer 3 Switch (5.3.3.4) 275

Summary (5.4) 277

Practice 278

Class Activities 278

Labs 279

Packet Tracer Activities 279

Check Your Understanding 279

Chapter 6 Network Layer 283

Objectives 283

Key Terms 283

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 284

Network Layer Protocols (6.1) 285

Network Layer in Communication (6.1.1) 285

The Network Layer (6.1.1.1) 285

Network Layer Protocols (6.1.1.2) 286

Characteristics of the IP Protocol (6.1.2) 287

Characteristics of IP (6.1.2.1) 287

IP—Connectionless (6.1.2.2) 288

IP—Best-Effort Delivery (6.1.2.3) 288

IP—Media Independent (6.1.2.4) 289

Encapsulating IP (6.1.2.5) 290

IPv4 Packet (6.1.3) 291

IPv4 Packet Header (6.1.3.1) 291

IPv4 Header Fields (6.1.3.2) 293

Sample IPv4 Headers (6.1.3.3) 293

IPv6 Packet (6.1.4) 295

Limitations of IPv4 (6.1.4.1) 295

Introducing IPv6 (6.1.4.2) 296

Encapsulating IPv6 (6.1.4.3) 297

IPv6 Packet Header (6.1.4.4) 298

Sample IPv6 Header (6.1.4.5) 298

Routing (6.2) 299

How a Host Routes (6.2.1) 299

Host Forwarding Decision (6.2.1.1) 300

Default Gateway (6.2.1.2) 300

IPv4 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.3) 301

IPv4 Host Routing Entries (6.2.1.4) 303

Sample IPv4 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.5) 305

Sample IPv6 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.6) 306

Router Routing Tables (6.2.2) 307

Router Packet-Forwarding Decision (6.2.2.1) 307

IPv4 Router Routing Table (6.2.2.2) 308

Directly Connected Routing Table Entries (6.2.2.3) 310

Remote Network Routing Table Entries (6.2.2.4) 311

Next-Hop Address (6.2.2.5) 312

Sample Router IPv4 Routing Table (6.2.2.6) 312

Routers (6.3) 315

Anatomy of a Router (6.3.1) 315

A Router Is a Computer (6.3.1.1) 315

Router CPU and OS (6.3.1.2) 315

Router Memory (6.3.1.3) 316

Inside a Router (6.3.1.4) 318

Router Backplane (6.3.1.5) 319

Connecting to a Router (6.3.1.6) 320

LAN and WAN Interfaces (6.3.1.7) 321

Router Bootup (6.3.2) 322

Cisco IOS (6.3.2.1) 322

Bootset Files (6.3.2.2) 323

Router Bootup Process (6.3.2.3) 323

Show Version Output (6.3.2.4) 325

Configuring a Cisco Router (6.4) 326

Configure Initial Settings (6.4.1) 326

Router Configuration Steps (6.4.1.1) 326

Configure Interfaces (6.4.2) 328

Configure LAN Interfaces (6.4.2.1) 328

Verify Interface Configuration (6.4.2.2) 330

Configuring the Default Gateway (6.4.3) 332

Default Gateway on a Host (6.4.3.1) 332

Default Gateway on a Switch (6.4.3.2) 333

Summary (6.5) 335

Practice 336

Class Activities 337

Labs 337

Packet Tracer Activities 337

Check Your Understanding 337

Chapter 7 Transport Layer 341

Objectives 341

Key Terms 341

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 342

Learning Objectives 342

Transport Layer Protocols (7.1) 343

Transportation of Data (7.1.1) 343

Role of the Transport Layer (7.1.1.1, 7.1.1.2) 343

Conversation Multiplexing (7.1.1.3) 347

Transport Layer Reliability (7.1.1.4) 347

TCP (7.1.1.5) 348

UDP (7.1.1.6) 349

The Right Transport Layer Protocol for the Right

Application (7.1.1.7) 350

Introducing TCP and UDP (7.1.2) 352

Introducing TCP (7.1.2.1) 352

Role of TCP (7.1.2.2) 353

Introducing UDP (7.1.2.3) 355

Role of UDP (7.1.2.4) 355

Separating Multiple Communications (7.1.2.5) 356

TCP and UDP Port Addressing (7.1.2.6 – 7.1.2.9) 357

TCP and UDP Segmentation (7.1.2.10) 362

TCP and UDP (7.2) 363

TCP Communication (7.2.1) 364

TCP Reliable Delivery (7.2.1.1) 364

TCP Server Processes (7.2.1.2) 364

TCP Connection Establishment and Termination (7.2.1.3) 365

TCP Three-Way Handshake Analysis—Step 1 (7.2.1.4) 367

TCP Three-Way Handshake Analysis—Step 2 (7.2.1.5) 368

TCP Three-Way Handshake Analysis—Step 3 (7.2.1.6) 369

TCP Session Termination Analysis (7.2.1.7) 370

Reliability and Flow Control (7.2.2) 373

TCP Reliability—Ordered Delivery (7.2.2.1) 373

TCP Reliability—Acknowledgement and Window Size (7.2.2.2) 374

TCP Reliability—Data Loss and Retransmission (7.2.2.3) 376

TCP Flow Control—Window Size and Acknowledgements (7.2.2.4) 376

TCP Flow Control—Congestion Avoidance (7.2.2.5) 378

UDP Communication (7.2.3) 379

UDP Low Overhead Versus Reliability (7.2.3.1) 379

UDP Datagram Reassembly (7.2.3.2) 380

UDP Server Processes and Requests (7.2.3.3) 381

UDP Client Processes (7.2.3.4) 381

TCP or UDP, That Is the Question (7.2.4) 382

Applications That Use TCP (7.2.4.1) 382

Applications That Use UDP (7.2.4.2) 382

Summary (7.3) 384

Practice 386

Class Activities 386

Labs 386

Packet Tracer Activities 386

Check Your Understanding 386

Chapter 8 IP Addressing 391

Objectives 391

Key Terms 391

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 393

IPv4 Network Addresses (8.1) 393

IPv4 Address Structure (8.1.1) 394

Binary Notation (8.1.1.1) 394

Binary Number System (8.1.1.2) 395

Converting a Binary Address to Decimal (8.1.1.3) 397

Converting from Decimal to Binary (8.1.1.5, 8.1.1.6) 399

IPv4 Subnet Mask (8.1.2) 400

Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address (8.1.2.1) 400

Examining the Prefix Length (8.1.2.2) 402

IPv4 Network, Host, and Broadcast Addresses (8.1.2.3) 403

First Host and Last Host Addresses (8.1.2.4) 405

Bitwise AND Operation (8.1.2.5) 406

Importance of ANDing (8.1.2.6) 407

IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast (8.1.3) 408

Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host (8.1.3.1) 408

Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host (8.1.3.2) 409

Unicast Transmission (8.1.3.3) 410

Broadcast Transmission (8.1.3.4) 412

Multicast Transmission (8.1.3.5) 413

Types of IPv4 Addresses (8.1.4) 416

Public and Private IPv4 Addresses (8.1.4.1) 416

Special-Use IPv4 Addresses (8.1.4.3) 417

Legacy Classful Addressing (8.1.4.4) 419

Assignment of IP Addresses (8.1.4.5, 8.1.4.6) 422

IPv6 Network Addresses (8.2) 424

IPv4 Issues (8.2.1) 424

The Need for IPv6 (8.2.1.1) 425

IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence (8.2.1.2) 426

IPv6 Addressing (8.2.2) 427

Hexadecimal Number System (8.2.2.1) 427

IPv6 Address Representation (8.2.2.2) 429

Rule 1: Omit Leading 0s (8.2.2.3) 430

Rule 2: Omit All 0 Segments (8.2.2.4) 430

Types of IPv6 Addresses (8.2.3) 431

IPv6 Address Types (8.2.3.1) 431

IPv6 Prefix Length (8.2.3.2) 432

IPv6 Unicast Addresses (8.2.3.3) 432

IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses (8.2.3.4) 434

IPv6 Unicast Addresses (8.2.4) 435

Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address (8.2.4.1) 435

Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address (8.2.4.2) 437

Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Using SLAAC (8.2.4.3) 439

Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address

Using DHCPv6 (8.2.4.4) 441

EUI-64 Process or Randomly Generated (8.2.4.5) 442

Dynamic Link-Local Addresses (8.2.4.6) 444

Static Link-Local Addresses (8.2.4.7) 445

Verifying IPv6 Address Configuration (8.2.4.8) 447

IPv6 Multicast Addresses (8.2.5) 449

Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses (8.2.5.1) 449

Solicited-Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses (8.2.5.2) 450

Connectivity Verification (8.3) 451

ICMP (8.3.1) 451

ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages (8.3.1.1) 451

ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages (8.3.1.2) 453

ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor

Advertisement Messages (8.3.1.3) 454

Testing and Verification (8.3.2) 455

Ping: Testing the Local Stack (8.3.2.1) 455

Ping: Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN (8.3.2.2) 456

Ping: Testing Connectivity to Remote (8.3.2.3) 456

Traceroute: Testing the Path (8.3.2.4) 456

Summary (8.4) 460

Practice 461

Class Activities 462

Labs 462

Packet Tracer Activities 462

Check Your Understanding 462

Chapter 9 Subnetting IP Networks 465

Objectives 465

Key Terms 465

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 466

Subnetting an IPv4 Network (9.1) 467

Network Segmentation (9.1.1) 467

Reasons for Subnetting (9.1.1.1) 467

Communication Between Subnets (9.1.1.2) 468

IP Subnetting Is FUNdamental (9.1.2) 468

The Plan (9.1.2.1) 468

The Plan: Address Assignment (9.1.2.2) 470

Subnetting an IPv4 Network (9.1.3) 470

Basic Subnetting (9.1.3.1) 470

Subnets in Use (9.1.3.2) 472

Subnetting Formulas (9.1.3.3) 474

Creating Four Subnets (9.1.3.4) 475

Creating Eight Subnets (9.1.3.5) 478

Creating 100 Subnets with a /16 prefix (9.1.3.10) 481

Calculating the Hosts (9.1.3.11) 483

Calculating the Hosts (9.1.3.12) 484

Determining the Subnet Mask (9.1.4) 487

Subnetting Based on Host Requirements (9.1.4.1) 487

Subnetting Network-Based Requirements (9.1.4.2) 488

Subnetting to Meet Network Requirements (9.1.4.3, 9.1.4.4) 488

Benefits of Variable-Length Subnet Masking (9.1.5) 492

Traditional Subnetting Wastes Addresses (9.1.5.1) 492

Variable-Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) (9.1.5.2) 493

Basic VLSM (9.1.5.3) 494

VLSM in Practice (9.1.5.4) 495

VLSM Chart (9.1.5.5) 496

Addressing Schemes (9.2) 498

Structured Design (9.2.1) 498

Planning to Address the Network (9.2.1.1) 498

Assigning Addresses to Devices (9.2.1.2) 499

Design Considerations for IPv6 (9.3) 501

Subnetting an IPv6 Network (9.3.1) 501

Subnetting Using the Subnet ID (9.3.1.1) 502

IPv6 Subnet Allocation (9.3.1.2) 503

Subnetting into the Interface ID (9.3.1.3) 505

Summary (9.4) 507

Practice 508

Class Activities 508

Labs 509

Packet Tracer Activities 509

Check Your Understanding 509

Chapter 10 Application Layer 515

Objectives 515

Key Terms 515

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 516

Application Layer Protocols (10.1) 517

Application, Session, and Presentation (10.1.1) 517

OSI and TCP/IP Models Revisited (10.1.1.1) 517

Application Layer (10.1.1.2) 518

Presentation and Session Layers (10.1.1.3) 518

TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols (10.1.1.4) 519

How Application Protocols Interact with End-User Applications (10.1.2) 520

Peer-to-Peer Networks (10.1.2.1) 520

Peer-to-Peer Applications (10.1.2.2) 521

Common P2P Applications (10.1.2.3) 522

Client-Server Model (10.1.2.5) 523

Well-Known Application Layer Protocols and Services (10.2) 525

Common Application Layer Protocols (10.2.1) 525

Application Layer Protocols Revisited (10.2.1.1) 525

Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Hypertext Markup Language (10.2.1.2) 525

HTTP and HTTPS (10.2.1.3) 526

SMTP, POP, and IMAP (10.2.1.4-10.2.1.7) 527

Providing IP Addressing Services (10.2.2) 530

Domain Name System (10.2.2.1) 530

DNS Message Format (10.2.2.2) 530

DNS Hierarchy (10.2.2.3) 532

Nslookup (10.2.2.4) 533

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (10.2.2.6) 534

DHCPv4 Operation (10.2.2.7) 535

Providing File-Sharing Services (10.2.3) 538

File Transfer Protocol (10.2.3.1) 538

Server Message Block (10.2.3.4) 539

The Message Heard Around the World (10.3) 540

Move It! (10.3.1) 540

The Internet of Things (10.3.1.1) 540

Message Travels Through a Network (10.3.1.2) 540

Getting the Data to the End Device (10.3.1.3) 542

Getting the Data Through the Internetwork (10.3.1.4) 542

Getting the Data to the Right Application (10.3.1.5) 543

Warriors of the Net (10.3.1.6) 545

Summary (10.4) 546

Practice 548

Class Activities 548

Labs 548

Packet Tracer Activities 548

Check Your Understanding 549

Chapter 11 It’s a Network 551

Objectives 551

Key Terms 551

Introduction (11.0.1.1) 552

Create and Grow (11.1) 553

Devices in a Small Network (11.1.1) 553

Small-Network Topologies (11.1.1.1) 553

Device Selection for a Small Network (11.1.1.2) 554

IP Addressing for a Small Network (11.1.1.3) 555

Redundancy in a Small Network (11.1.1.4) 556

Design Considerations for a Small Network (11.1.1.5) 557

Protocols in a Small Network (11.1.2) 559

Common Applications in a Small Network (11.1.2.1) 559

Common Protocols in a Small Network (11.1.2.2) 560

Real-Time Applications for a Small Network (11.1.2.3) 561

Growing to Larger Networks (11.1.3) 562

Scaling a Small Network (11.1.3.1) 562

Protocol Analysis of a Small Network (11.1.3.2) 563

Evolving Protocol Requirements (11.1.3.3) 564

Keeping the Network Safe (11.2) 564

Network Device Security Measures (11.2.1) 565

Categories of Threats to Network Security (11.2.1.1) 565

Physical Security (11.2.1.2) 566

Types of Security Vulnerabilities (11.2.1.3) 566

Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks (11.2.2) 569

Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses (11.2.2.1) 569

Reconnaissance Attacks (11.2.2.2) 570

Access Attacks (11.2.2.3) 570

DoS Attacks (11.2.2.4) 572

Mitigating Network Attacks (11.2.3) 574

Backup, Upgrade, Update, and Patch (11.2.3.1) 574

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (11.2.3.2) 575

Firewalls (11.2.3.3) 577

Endpoint Security (11.2.3.4) 578

Securing Devices (11.2.4) 578

Introduction to Securing Devices (11.2.4.1) 578

Passwords (11.2.4.2) 579

Basic Security Practices (11.2.4.3) 580

Enable SSH (11.2.4.4) 581

Basic Network Performance (11.3) 583

Ping (11.3.1) 583

Interpreting Ping Results (11.3.1.1) 583

Extended Ping (11.3.1.2) 585

Network Baseline (11.3.1.3) 586

Tracert (11.3.2) 587

Interpreting Tracert Messages (11.3.2.1) 587

Show Commands (11.3.3) 588

Common Show Commands Revisited (11.3.3.1) 588

Viewing Router Settings with the show version Command (11.3.3.2) 593

Viewing Switch Settings with the show version Command (11.3.3.3) 595

Host and IOS Commands (11.3.4) 595

ipconfig Command Options (11.3.4.1) 595

arp Command Options (11.3.4.2) 597

show cdp neighbors Command Options (11.3.4.3) 597

Using the show ip interface brief Command (11.3.4.4) 600

Managing IOS Configuration Files (11.4) 603

Router and Switch File Systems (11.4.1) 603

Router File Systems (11.4.1.1) 603

Switch File Systems (11.4.1.2) 606

Back Up and Restore Configuration Files (11.4.2) 607

Backing Up and Restoring Using Text Files (11.4.2.1) 607

Backing Up and Restoring Using TFTP (11.4.2.2) 608

Using USB Ports on a Cisco Router (11.4.2.3) 609

Backing Up and Restoring Using a USB Flash Drive (11.4.2.4) 610

Integrated Routing Services (11.5) 611

Integrated Router (11.5.1) 611

Multifunction Device (11.5.1.1) 611

Types of Integrated Routers (11.5.1.2) 613

Wireless Capability (11.5.1.3) 614

Basic Security of Wireless (11.5.1.4) 615

Configuring the Integrated Router (11.5.2) 616

Configuring the Integrated Router (11.5.2.1) 616

Enabling Wireless (11.5.2.2) 617

Configure a Wireless Client (11.5.2.3) 618

Summary (11.6) 620

Practice 622

Class Activities 622

Labs 622

Packet Tracer Activities 623

Check Your Understanding Questions 623

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions 627

Glossary 641

TOC, 9781587133169, 11/7/2013

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