Introduction to Networks Course Booklet

Overview

The Introduction to Networks Course Booklet offers a way for students enrolled in a Cisco Networking Academy introduction to Networks course to easily read, highlight, and review on the go, wherever the Internet is not available. The text is extracted directly from the online course, with headings that have exact page correlations to the online course. An icon system directs the reader to the online course to take full advantage of the images, labs, Packet Tracer activities, and dynamic activities. The books are ...

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Overview

The Introduction to Networks Course Booklet offers a way for students enrolled in a Cisco Networking Academy introduction to Networks course to easily read, highlight, and review on the go, wherever the Internet is not available. The text is extracted directly from the online course, with headings that have exact page correlations to the online course. An icon system directs the reader to the online course to take full advantage of the images, labs, Packet Tracer activities, and dynamic activities. The books are intended to be used with the course.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587133114
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 8/16/2013
  • Series: Course Booklets Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 250
  • Sales rank: 302,833
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 0 Course Introduction 1

0.0 Welcome to Introduction to Networks 1

0.0.1 Message to the Student 1

0.0.1.1 Welcome 1

0.0.1.2 A Global Community 1

0.0.1.3 More Than Just Information 1

0.0.1.4 How We Teach 2

0.0.1.5 Practice Leads to Mastery 2

0.0.1.6 Mind Wide Open 2

0.0.1.7 Engineering Journals 2

0.0.1.8 Explore the World of Networking 2

0.0.1.9 Create Your Own Worlds 2

0.0.1.10 How Packet Tracer Helps Master Concepts 3

0.0.1.11 Course Overview 3

0.1 Navigating the Course 3

0.1.1 Control Your Experience 3

0.1.1.1 Course GUI Tutorial 3

Your Chapter Notes 4

Chapter 1 Exploring the Network 5

1.0 Exploring the Network 5

1.0.1.1 Introduction 5

1.0.1.2 Class Activity - Draw Your Concept of the Internet 5

1.1 Globally Connected 6

1.1.1 Networking Today 6

1.1.1.1 Networks in Our Daily Lives 6

1.1.1.2 Technology Then and Now 6

1.1.1.3 The Global Community 7

1.1.1.4 Networks Support the Way We Learn 7

1.1.1.5 Networks Support the Way We Communicate 8

1.1.1.6 Networks Support the Way We Work 9

1.1.1.7 Networks Support the Way We Play 9

1.1.1.8 Lab - Researching Network Collaboration Tools 10

1.1.2 Providing Resources in a Network 10

1.1.2.1 Networks of Many Sizes 10

1.1.2.2 Clients and Servers 11

1.1.2.3 Clients and Servers (Cont.) 11

1.1.2.4 Peer-to-Peer 11

1.2 LANs, WANs, and the Internet 12

1.2.1 Components of a Network 12

1.2.1.1 Components of the Network 12

1.2.1.2 End Devices 12

1.2.1.3 Intermediary Network Devices 13

1.2.1.4 Network Media 13

1.2.1.5 Network Representations 14

1.2.1.6 Topology Diagrams 14

1.2.1.7 Activity - Network Component Representations and Functions 15

1.2.2 LANs and WANs 15

1.2.2.1 Types of Networks 15

1.2.2.2 Local Area Networks 15

1.2.2.3 Wide Area Networks 15

1.2.3 The Internet 16

1.2.3.1 The Internet 16

1.2.3.2 Intranet and Extranet 16

1.2.3.3 Lab - Researching Converged Network Services 17

1.2.4 Connecting to the Internet 17

1.2.4.1 Internet Access Technologies 17

1.2.4.2 Connecting Remote Users to the Internet 17

1.2.4.3 Connecting Businesses to the Internet 18

1.2.4.4 Packet Tracer - Network Representation 19

1.3 The Network as a Platform 19

1.3.1 Converged Networks 19

1.3.1.1 The Converging Network 19

1.3.1.2 Planning for the Future 20

1.3.1.3 Lab - Mapping the Internet 20

1.3.2 Reliable Network 21

1.3.2.1 The Supporting Network Architecture 21

1.3.2.2 Fault Tolerance in Circuit Switched Networks 21

1.3.2.3 Fault Tolerance in Packet-Switched Networks 22

1.3.2.4 Scalable Networks 23

1.3.2.5 Providing QoS 23

1.3.2.6 Providing Network Security 24

1.3.2.7 Activity - Reliable Networks 25

1.4 The Changing Network Environment 25

1.4.1 Network Trends 25

1.4.1.1 New Trends 25

1.4.1.2 BYOD 26

1.4.1.3 Online Collaboration 27

1.4.1.4 Video Communication 27

1.4.1.5 Cloud Computing 28

1.4.1.6 Data Centers 29

1.4.2 Networking Technologies for the Home 30

1.4.2.1 Technology Trends in the Home 30

1.4.2.2 Powerline Networking 30

1.4.2.3 Wireless Broadband 30

1.4.3 Network Security 31

1.4.3.1 Security threats 31

1.4.3.2 Security Solutions 32

1.4.3.3 Activity - Network Security Terminology 33

1.4.4 Network Architectures 33

1.4.4.1 Cisco Network Architectures 33

1.4.4.2 CCNA 33

1.4.4.3 Lab - Researching IT and Networking Job Opportunities 33

1.5 Summary 34

1.5.1.1 Class Activity - Draw Your Concept of the Internet Now 34

1.5.1.2 Summary 34

Chapter 1 Quiz 36

Chapter 1 Exam 36

Your Chapter Notes 36

Chapter 2 Configuring a Network Operating System 37

2.0 Configuring a Network Operating System 37

2.0.1 Introduction 37

2.0.1.1 Introduction to Cisco IOS 37

2.0.1.2 Class Activity - It Is Just an Operating System 38

2.1 IOS Bootcamp 38

2.1.1 Cisco IOS 38

2.1.1.1 Operating Systems 38

2.1.1.2 Purpose of OS 39

2.1.1.3 Location of the Cisco IOS 39

2.1.1.4 IOS Functions 40

2.1.1.5 Video Demonstration - CCO Accounts and IOS Image Exploration 40

2.1.2 Accessing a Cisco IOS Device 41

2.1.2.1 Console Access Method 41

2.1.2.2 Telnet, SSH, and AUX Access Methods 41

2.1.2.3 Terminal Emulation Programs 42

2.1.2.4 Activity – Accessing Devices 42

2.1.3 Navigating the IOS 42

2.1.3.1 Cisco IOS Modes of Operation 42

2.1.3.2 Primary Modes 43

2.1.3.3 Global Configuration Mode and Submodes 44

2.1.3.4 Navigating between IOS Modes 45

2.1.3.5 Navigating between IOS Modes (Cont.) 45

2.1.3.6 Video Demonstration - Navigating the IOS 46

2.1.4 The Command Structure 46

2.1.4.1 IOS Command Structure 46

2.1.4.2 Cisco IOS Command Reference 47

2.1.4.3 Context-Sensitive Help 48

2.1.4.4 Command Syntax Check 49

2.1.4.5 Hot Keys and Shortcuts 49

2.1.4.6 IOS Examination Commands 51

2.1.4.7 The show version Command 52

2.1.4.8 Packet Tracer - Navigating the IOS 52

2.1.4.9 Lab - Establishing a Console Session with Tera Term 52

2.2 Getting Basic 53

2.2.1 Hostnames 53

2.2.1.1 Why the Switch 53

2.2.1.2 Device Names 53

2.2.1.3 Hostnames 54

2.2.1.4 Configuring Hostnames 54

2.2.2 Limiting Access to Device Configurations 55

2.2.2.1 Securing Device Access 55

2.2.2.2 Securing Privileged EXEC Access 56

2.2.2.3 Securing User EXEC Access 56

2.2.2.4 Encrypting Password Display 57

2.2.2.5 Banner Messages 57

2.2.3 Saving Configurations 58

2.2.3.1 Configuration Files 58

2.2.3.2 Capturing Text 60

2.2.3.3 Packet Tracer - Configuring Initial Switch Settings 61

2.3 Address Schemes 61

2.3.1 Ports and Addresses 61

2.3.1.1 IP Addressing of Devices 61

2.3.1.2 Interfaces and Ports 62

2.3.2 Addressing Devices 62

2.3.2.1 Configuring a Switch Virtual Interface 62

2.3.2.2 Manual IP Address Configuration for End Devices 63

2.3.2.3 Automatic IP Address Configuration for End Devices 63

2.3.2.4 IP Address Conflicts 64

2.3.2.5 Packet Tracer - Implementing Basic Connectivity 64

2.3.3 Verifying Connectivity 65

2.3.3.1 Test the Loopback Address on an End Device 65

2.3.3.2 Testing the Interface Assignment 65

2.3.3.3 Testing End-to-End Connectivity 65

2.3.3.4 Lab - Building a Simple Network 66

2.3.3.5 Lab - Configuring a Switch Management Address 66

2.4 Summary 66

2.4.1.1 Class Activity - Tutor Me 66

2.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 67

2.4.1.3 Summary 67

Chapter 3 Network Protocols and Communications 69

3.0 Network Protocols and Communications 69

3.0.1.1 Introduction 69

3.0.1.2 Class Activity - Designing a Communications System 69

3.1 Rules of Communication 70

3.1.1 The Rules 70

3.1.1.1 What is Communication? 70

3.1.1.2 Establishing the Rules 70

3.1.1.3 Message Encoding 71

3.1.1.4 Message Formatting and Encapsulation 72

3.1.1.5 Message Size 72

3.1.1.6 Message Timing 73

3.1.1.7 Message Delivery Options 73

3.2 Network Protocols and Standards 74

3.2.1 Protocols 74

3.2.1.1 Protocols: Rules that Govern Communications 74

3.2.1.2 Network Protocols 74

3.2.1.3 Interaction of Protocols 75

3.2.2 Protocol Suites 76

3.2.2.1 Protocol Suites and Industry Standards 76

3.2.2.2 Creation of the Internet and Development of TCP/IP 76

3.2.2.3 TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication Process 77

3.2.2.4 Activity – Mapping the Protocols of the TCP/IP Suite 78

3.2.3 Standards Organizations 78

3.2.3.1 Open Standards 78

3.2.3.2 ISOC, IAB, and IETF 78

3.2.3.3 IEEE 79

3.2.3.4 ISO 79

3.2.3.5 Other Standards Organizations 80

3.2.3.6 Lab - Researching Networking Standards 81

3.2.3.7 Activity - Standards Body Scavenger Hunt 81

3.2.4 Reference Models 81

3.2.4.1 The Benefits of Using a Layered Model 81

3.2.4.2 The OSI Reference Model 82

3.2.4.3 The TCP/IP Protocol Model 82

3.2.4.4 Comparing the OSI Model with the TCP/IP Model 82

3.2.4.5 Activity – Identify Layers and Functions 83

3.2.4.6 Packet Tracer - Investigating the TCP/IP and OSI Models in Action 83

3.2.4.7 Lab - Researching RFCs 83

3.3 Moving Data in the Network 84

3.3.1 Data Encapsulation 84

3.3.1.1 Communicating the Messages 84

3.3.1.2 Protocol Data Units (PDUs) 84

3.3.1.3 Encapsulation 85

3.3.1.4 De-encapsulation 85

3.3.1.5 Activity – Identify the PDU Layer 86

3.3.2 Accessing Local Resources 86

3.3.2.1 Network Addresses and Data Link addresses 86

3.3.2.2 Communicating with a Device on the Same Network 86

3.3.2.3 MAC and IP Addresses 87

3.3.3 Accessing Remote Resources 88

3.3.3.1 Default Gateway 88

3.3.3.2 Communicating with a Device on a Remote Network 88

3.3.3.3 Packet Tracer - Explore a Network 89

3.3.3.4 Lab - Using Wireshark to View Network Traffic 89

3.4 Summary 89

3.4.1.1 Class Activity - Guaranteed to Work! 89

3.4.1.2 Summary 90

Chapter 3 Quiz 91

Chapter 3 Exam 91

Your Chapter Notes 91

Chapter 4 Network Access 93

4.0 Network Access 93

4.0.1.1 Introduction 93

4.0.1.2 Class Activity – Managing the Medium 93

4.1 Physical Layer Protocols 94

4.1.1 Getting It Connected 94

4.1.1.1 Connecting to the Network 94

4.1.1.2 Network Interface Cards 95

4.1.2 Purpose of the Physical Layer 95

4.1.2.1 The Physical Layer 95

4.1.2.2 Physical Layer Media 96

4.1.2.3 Physical Layer Standards 96

4.1.2.4 Lab - Identifying Network Devices and Cabling 96

4.1.3 Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 97

4.1.3.1 Physical Layer Fundamental Principles 97

4.1.3.2 Bandwidth 98

4.1.3.3 Throughput 98

4.1.3.4 Types of Physical Media 99

4.1.3.5 Activity - Physical Layer Terminology 100

4.2 Network Media 100

4.2.1 Copper Cabling 100

4.2.1.1 Characteristics of Copper Media 100

4.2.1.2 Copper Media 101

4.2.1.3 Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable 101

4.2.1.4 Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable 101

4.2.1.5 Coaxial Cable 102

4.2.1.6 Copper Media Safety 102

4.2.1.7 Activity - Copper Media Characteristics 103

4.2.2 UTP Cabling 103

4.2.2.1 Properties of UTP Cabling 103

4.2.2.2 UTP Cabling Standards 103

4.2.2.3 UTP Connectors 104

4.2.2.4 Types of UTP Cable 104

4.2.2.5 Testing UTP Cables 105

4.2.2.6 Activity - Cable Pinouts 105

4.2.2.7 Lab - Building an Ethernet Crossover Cable 105

4.2.3.1 Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling 105

4.2.3.2 Fiber Media Cable Design 106

4.2.3.3 Types of Fiber Media 106

4.2.3.4 Network Fiber Connectors 107

4.2.3.5 Testing Fiber Cables 108

4.2.3.6 Fiber versus Copper 108

4.2.3.7 Activity - Fiber Optics Terminology 109

4.2.4 Wireless Media 109

4.2.4.1 Properties of Wireless Media 109

4.2.4.2 Types of Wireless Media 110

4.2.4.3 Wireless LAN 110

4.2.4.4 802.11 Wi-Fi Standards 111

4.2.4.5 Packet Tracer - Connecting a Wired and Wireless LAN 111

4.2.4.6 Lab - Viewing Wired and Wireless NIC Information 111

4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols 112

4.3.1 Purpose of the Data Link Layer 112

4.3.1.1 The Data Link Layer 112

4.3.1.2 Data Link Sublayers 112

4.3.1.3 Media Access Control 113

4.3.1.4 Providing Access to Media 113

4.3.2 Layer 2 Frame Structure 114

4.3.2.1 Formatting Data for Transmission 114

4.3.2.2 Creating a Frame 114

4.3.2.3 Activity - Generic Frame Fields 115

4.3.3 Layer 2 Standards 115

4.3.3.1 Data Link Layer Standards 115

4.3.3.2 Activity - Data Link Layer Standards Organizations 116

4.4 Media Access Control 116

4.4.1 Topologies 116

4.4.1.1 Controlling Access to the Media 116

4.4.1.2 Physical and Logical Topologies 116

4.4.2 WAN Topologies 117

4.4.2.1 Common Physical WAN Topologies 117

4.4.2.2 Physical Point-to-Point Topology 117

4.4.2.3 Logical Point-to-Point Topology 117

4.4.2.4 Half and Full Duplex 118

4.4.3 LAN Topologies 118

4.4.3.1 Physical LAN Topologies 118

4.4.3.2 Logical Topology for Shared Media 119

4.4.3.3 Contention-Based Access 119

4.4.3.4 Multi-Access Topology 120

4.4.3.5 Controlled Access 120

4.4.3.6 Ring Topology 121

4.4.3.7 Activity - Logical and Physical Topologies 121

4.4.4 Data Link Frame 121

4.4.4.1 The Frame 121

4.4.4.2 The Header 122

4.4.4.3 Layer 2 Address 123

4.4.4.4 The Trailer 123

4.4.4.5 LAN and WAN Frames 124

4.4.4.6 Ethernet Frame 125

4.4.4.7 PPP Frame 125

4.4.4.8 802.11 Wireless Frame 125

4.4.4.9 Activity - Frame Fields 127

4.5 Summary 127

4.5.1.1 Class Activity - Linked In! 127

4.5.1.2 Summary 128

Chapter 4 Quiz 129

Chapter 4 Exam 129

Your Chapter Notes 129

Chapter 5 Ethernet 131

5.0 Ethernet 131

5.0.1.1 Introduction 131

5.0.1.2 Class Activity – Join My Social Circle! 131

5.1 Ethernet Protocol 132

5.1.1 Ethernet Operation 132

5.1.1.1 LLC and MAC Sublayers 132

5.1.1.2 MAC Sublayer 133

5.1.1.3 Media Access Control 134

5.1.1.4 MAC Address: Ethernet Identity 134

5.1.1.5 Frame Processing 135

5.1.1.6 Activity - MAC and LLC Sublayers 136

5.1.2 Ethernet Frame Attributes 136

5.1.2.1 Ethernet Encapsulation 136

5.1.2.2 Ethernet Frame Size 136

5.1.2.3 Introduction to the Ethernet Frame 137

5.1.2.4 Activity - Ethernet Frame Fields 138

5.1.3 Ethernet MAC 138

5.1.3.1 MAC Addresses and Hexadecimal 138

5.1.3.2 MAC Address Representations 138

5.1.3.3 Unicast MAC Address 139

5.1.3.4 Broadcast MAC Address 139

5.1.3.5 Multicast MAC Address 139

5.1.3.6 Lab - Viewing Network Device MAC Addresses 140

5.1.4 MAC and IP 140

5.1.4.1 MAC and IP 140

5.1.4.2 End-to-End Connectivity, MAC, and IP 140

5.1.4.3 Lab - Using Wireshark to Examine Ethernet Frames 141

5.1.4.4 Packet Tracer - Identify MAC and IP Addresses 141

5.2 Address Resolution Protocol 141

5.2.1 ARP 141

5.2.1.1 Introduction to ARP 141

5.2.1.2 ARP Functions 142

5.2.1.3 ARP Operation 142

5.2.1.4 ARP Role in Remote Communication 143

5.2.1.5 Removing Entries from an ARP Table 143

5.2.1.6 ARP Tables on Networking Devices 144

5.2.1.7 Packet Tracer - Examine the ARP Table 144

5.2.1.8 Lab - Observing ARP with the Windows CLI, IOS CLI, and Wireshark 144

5.2.2 ARP Issues 144

5.2.2.1 How ARP Can Create Problems 144

5.2.2.2 Mitigating ARP Problems 145

5.3 LAN Switches 145

5.3.1 Switching 145

5.3.1.1 Switch Port Fundamentals 145

5.3.1.2 Switch MAC Address Table 145

5.3.1.3 Duplex Settings 146

5.3.1.4 Auto-MDIX 147

5.3.1.5 Frame Forwarding Methods on Cisco Switches 148

5.3.1.6 Cut-Through Switching 148

5.3.1.7 Activity - Frame Forwarding Methods 149

5.3.1.8 Memory Buffering on Switches 149

5.3.1.9 Activity - Switch It! 150

5.3.1.10 Lab - Viewing the Switch MAC Address Table 150

5.3.2 Fixed or Modular 150

5.3.2.1 Fixed versus Modular Configuration 150

5.3.2.2 Module Options for Cisco Switch Slots 151

5.3.3 Layer 3 Switching 152

5.3.3.1 Layer 2 versus Layer 3 Switching 152

5.3.3.2 Cisco Express Forwarding 152

5.3.3.3 Types of Layer 3 Interfaces 153

5.3.3.4 Configuring a Routed Port on a Layer 3 Switch 153

5.3.3.5 Packet Tracer - Configure Layer 3 Switches 154

5.4 Summary 154

5.4.1.1 Class Activity - MAC and Choose... 154

5.4.1.2 Summary 154

Chapter 5 Quiz 156

Chapter 5 Exam 156

Your Chapter Notes 156

Chapter 6 Network Layer 157

6.0 Network Layer 157

6.0.1.1 Introduction 157

6.0.1.2 Class Activity – The Road Less Traveled... 157

6.1 Network Layer Protocols 158

6.1.1 Network Layer in Communication 158

6.1.1.1 The Network Layer 158

6.1.1.2 Network Layer Protocols 159

6.1.2 Characteristics of the IP protocol 159

6.1.2.1 Characteristics of IP 159

6.1.2.2 IP – Connectionless 159

6.1.2.3 IP – Best Effort Delivery 160

6.1.2.4 IP – Media Independent 160

6.1.2.5 Encapsulating IP 161

6.1.2.6 Activity - IP Characteristics 161

6.1.3 IPv4 Packet 161

6.1.3.1 IPv4 Packet Header 161

6.1.3.2 IPv4 Header Fields 162

6.1.3.3 Sample IPv4 Headers 163

6.1.3.4 Activity - IPv4 Header Fields 163

6.1.4 IPv6 Packet 163

6.1.4.1 Limitations of IPv4 163

6.1.4.2 Introducing IPv6 164

6.1.4.3 Encapsulating IPv6 164

6.1.4.4 IPv6 Packet Header 165

6.1.4.5 Sample IPv6 Header 166

6.1.4.6 Activity - IPv6 Header Fields 166

6.2 Routing 166

6.2.1 How a Host Routes 166

6.2.1.1 Host Forwarding Decision 166

6.2.1.2 Default Gateway 167

6.2.1.3 IPv4 Host Routing Table 168

6.2.1.4 IPv4 Host Routing Entries 168

6.2.1.5 Sample IPv4 Host Routing Table 169

6.2.1.6 Sample IPv6 Host Routing Table 170

6.2.1.7 Activity - Identify Elements of a Host Routing Table Entry 170

6.2.2 Router Routing Tables 170

6.2.2.1 Router Packet Forwarding Decision 170

6.2.2.2 IPv4 Router Routing Table 171

6.2.2.3 Directly Connected Routing Table Entries 171

6.2.2.4 Remote Network Routing Table Entries 172

6.2.2.5 Next-Hop Address 173

6.2.2.6 Sample Router IPv4 Routing Table 173

6.2.2.7 Activity - Identify Elements of a Router Routing Table Entry 175

6.2.2.8 Lab - View Host Routing Tables 175

6.3 Routers 175

6.3.1 Anatomy of a Router 175

6.3.1.1 A Router is a Computer 175

6.3.1.2 Router CPU and OS 176

6.3.1.3 Router Memory 176

6.3.1.4 Inside a Router 177

6.3.1.5 Router Backplane 177

6.3.1.6 Connecting to a Router 178

6.3.1.7 LAN and WAN Interfaces 178

6.3.1.8 Activity - Identify Router Components 179

6.3.1.9 Lab - Exploring Router Physical Characteristics 179

6.3.1.10 Packet Tracer - Exploring Internetworking Devices 179

6.3.2 Router Boot-up 179

6.3.2.1 Cisco IOS 179

6.3.2.2 Bootset Files 180

6.3.2.3 Router Bootup Process 180

6.3.2.4 Show Version Output 181

6.3.2.5 Video Demonstration - The Router Boot Process 182

6.3.2.6 Activity - The Router Boot Process 182

6.4 Configuring a Cisco Router 182

6.4.1 Configure Initial Settings 182

6.4.1.1 Router Configuration Steps 182

6.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Configure Initial Router Settings 183

6.4.2 Configure Interfaces 183

6.4.2.1 Configure LAN Interfaces 183

6.4.2.2 Verify Interface Configuration 184

6.4.3 Configuring the Default Gateway 184

6.4.3.1 Default Gateway on a Host 184

6.4.3.2 Default Gateway on a Switch 185

6.4.3.3 Packet Tracer - Connect a Router to a LAN 185

6.4.3.4 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting Default Gateway Issues 186

6.4.3.5 Lab - Initializing and Reloading a Router and Switch 186

6.5 Summary 186

6.5.1.1 Class Activity – Can You Read This Map? 186

6.5.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 187

6.5.1.3 Summary 187

Chapter 6 Quiz 188

Chapter 6 Exam 188

Your Chapter Notes 188

Chapter 7 Transport Layer 189

7.0 Transportation Layer 189

7.0.1.1 Introduction 189

7.0.1.2 Class Activity - We Need to Talk - Game 190

7.1 Transport Layer Protocols 190

7.1.1 Transportation of Data 190

7.1.1.1 Role of the Transport Layer 190

7.1.1.2 Role of the Transport Layer (Cont.) 191

7.1.1.3 Conversation Multiplexing 191

7.1.1.4 Transport Layer Reliability 192

7.1.1.5 TCP 192

7.1.1.6 UDP 193

7.1.1.7 The Right Transport Layer Protocol for the Right Application 193

7.1.1.8 Activity - TCP, UDP or Both 194

7.1.2 Introducing TCP and UDP 194

7.1.2.1 Introducing TCP 194

7.1.2.2 Role of TCP 195

7.1.2.3 Introducing UDP 196

7.1.2.4 Role of UDP 196

7.1.2.5 Separating Multiple Communications 196

7.1.2.6 TCP and UDP Port Addressing 197

7.1.2.7 TCP and UDP Port Addressing (Cont.) 198

7.1.2.8 TCP and UDP Port Addressing (Cont.) 198

7.1.2.9 TCP and UDP Port Addressing (Cont.) 199

7.1.2.10 TCP and UDP Segmentation 199

7.1.2.11 Activity - Compare TCP and UDP Characteristics 200

7.2 TCP and UDP 200

7.2.1 TCP Communication 200

7.2.1.1 TCP Reliable Delivery 200

7.2.1.2 TCP Server Processes 200

7.2.1.3 TCP Connection Establishment and Termination 201

7.2.1.4 TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis - Step 1 202

7.2.1.5 TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis - Step 2 202

7.2.1.6 TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis - Step 3 203

7.2.1.7 TCP Session Termination Analysis 203

7.2.1.8 Lab - Using Wireshark to Observe the TCP 3-Way Handshake 204

7.2.1.9 Activity - TCP Connection and Termination Process 204

7.2.2 Reliability and Flow Control 204

7.2.2.1 TCP Reliability – Ordered Delivery 204

7.2.2.2 TCP Reliability – Acknowledgement and Window Size 205

7.2.2.3 TCP Reliability - Data Loss and Retransmission 205

7.2.2.4 TCP Flow Control – Window Size and Acknowledgements 206

7.2.2.5 TCP Flow Control - Congestion Avoidance 207

7.2.3 UDP Communication 207

7.2.3.1 UDP Low Overhead versus Reliability 207

7.2.3.2 UDP Datagram Reassembly 208

7.2.3.3 UDP Server Processes and Requests 208

7.2.3.4 UDP Client Processes 208

7.2.3.5 Lab - Using Wireshark to Examine a UDP DNS Capture 209

7.2.4 TCP or UDP, that is the Question 209

7.2.4.1 Applications that use TCP 209

7.2.4.2 Applications that use UDP 209

7.2.4.3 Lab - Using Wireshark to Examine FTP and TFTP Captures 210

7.3 Summary 210

7.3.1.1 Class Activity - We Need to Talk, Again - Game 210

7.3.1.2 Packet Tracer Simulation - TCP and UDP Communications 211

7.3.1.3 Summary 211

Chapter 7 Quiz 213

Chapter 7 Exam 213

Your Chapter Notes 213

Chapter 8 IP Addressing 215

8.0 IP Addressing 215

8.0.1.1 Introduction 215

8.0.1.2 Class Activity –The Internet of Everything (IoE) 215

8.1 IPv4 Network Addresses 216

8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure 216

8.1.1.1 Binary Notation 216

8.1.1.2 Binary Number System 217

8.1.1.3 Converting a Binary Address to Decimal 218

8.1.1.4 Activity - Binary to Decimal Conversions 218

8.1.1.5 Converting from Decimal to Binary 218

8.1.1.6 Converting from Decimal to Binary (Cont.) 219

8.1.1.7 Activity - Decimal to Binary Conversion Activity 219

8.1.1.8 Activity - Binary Game 219

8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask 219

8.1.2.1 Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address 219

8.1.2.2 Examining the Prefix Length 220

8.1.2.3 IPv4 Network, Host and Broadcast Addresses 220

8.1.2.4 First Host and Last Host Addresses 221

8.1.2.5 Bitwise AND Operation 221

8.1.2.6 Importance of ANDing 222

8.1.2.7 Lab - Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses 223

8.1.2.8 Lab - Converting IPv4 Addresses to Binary 223

8.1.2.9 Activity - ANDing to Determine the Network Address 223

8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast 223

8.1.3.1 Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host 223

8.1.3.2 Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host 224

8.1.3.3 Unicast Transmission 224

8.1.3.4 Broadcast Transmission 225

8.1.3.5 Multicast Transmission 226

8.1.3.6 Activity - Unicast, Broadcast, or Multicast 227

8.1.3.7 Activity - Calculate the Network, Broadcast and Host Addresses 227

8.1.3.8 Packet Tracer - Investigate Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Traffic 227

8.1.4 Types of IPv4 Addresses 227

8.1.4.1 Public and Private IPv4 Addresses 227

8.1.4.2 Activity - Pass or Block IPv4 Addresses 228

8.1.4.3 Special Use IPv4 Addresses 228

8.1.4.4 Legacy Classful Addressing 229

8.1.4.5 Assignment of IP Addresses 230

8.1.4.6 Assignment of IP Addresses (Cont.) 231

8.1.4.7 Activity - Public or Private IPv4 Addresses 232

8.1.4.8 Lab - Identifying IPv4 Addresses 232

8.2 IPv6 Network Addresses 232

8.2.1 IPv4 issues 232

8.2.1.1 The Need for IPv6 232

8.2.1.2 IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence 233

8.2.1.3 Activity – IPv4 Issues and Solutions 233

8.2.2 IPv6 Addressing 233

8.2.2.1 Hexadecimal Number System 233

8.2.2.2 IPv6 Address Representation 234

8.2.2.3 Rule 1 - Omitting Leading 0s 235

8.2.2.4 Rule 2 - Omitting All 0 Segments 235

8.2.2.5 Activity - Practicing IPv6 Address Representations 236

8.2.3 Types of IPv6 Addresses 236

8.2.3.1 IPv6 Address Types 236

8.2.3.2 IPv6 Prefix Length 236

8.2.3.3 IPv6 Unicast Addresses 236

8.2.3.4 IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses 238

8.2.3.5 Activity - Identify Types of IPv6 Addresses 238

8.2.4 IPv6 Unicast Addresses 238

8.2.4.1 Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address 238

8.2.4.2 Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address 239

8.2.4.3 Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using SLAAC 240

8.2.4.4 Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using DHCPv6 241

8.2.4.5 EUI-64 Process or Randomly Generated 242

8.2.4.6 Dynamic Link-local Addresses 243

8.2.4.7 Static Link-Local Addresses 244

8.2.4.8 Verifying IPv6 Address Configuration 244

8.2.5 IPv6 Multicast Addresses 245

8.2.5.1 Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses 245

8.2.5.2 Solicited-Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses 246

8.2.5.3 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv6 Addressing 247

8.2.5.4 Lab - Identifying IPv6 Addresses 247

8.2.5.5 Lab - Configuring IPv6 Addresses on Network Devices 247

8.3 Connectivity Verification 247

8.3.1 ICMP 247

8.3.1.1 ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages 247

8.3.1.2 ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages 249

8.3.1.3 ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement Messages 249

8.3.2 Testing and Verification 250

8.3.2.1 Ping - Testing the Local Stack 250

8.3.2.2 Ping - Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN 250

8.3.2.3 Ping - Testing Connectivity to Remote 251

8.3.2.4 Traceroute - Testing the Path 251

8.3.2.5 Packet Tracer - Verifying IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing 252

8.3.2.6 Packet Tracer - Pinging and Tracing to Test the Path 252

8.3.2.7 Lab - Testing Network Connectivity with Ping and Traceroute 252

8.3.2.8 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing 252

8.4 Summary 253

8.4.1.1 Class Activity - The Internet of Everything...Naturally! 253

8.4.1.2 Packet Tracer – Skills Integration Challenge 253

8.4.1.3 Summary 253

Chapter 8 Quiz 255

Chapter 8 Exam 255

Your Chapter Notes 255

Chapter 9 Subnetting IP Networks 257

9.0 Subnetting IP Networks 257

9.0.1.1 Introduction 257

9.0.1.2 Class Activity - Call Me! 257

9.1 Subnetting an IPv4 Network 258

9.1.1 Network Segmentation 258

9.1.1.1 Reasons for Subnetting 258

9.1.1.2 Communication Between Subnets 258

9.1.2 IP Subnetting is FUNdamental 259

9.1.2.1 The Plan 259

9.1.2.2 The Plan – Address Assignment 259

9.1.3 Subnetting an IPv4 Network 260

9.1.3.1 Basic Subnetting 260

9.1.3.2 Subnets in Use 261

9.1.3.3 Subnetting Formulas 261

9.1.3.4 Creating 4 Subnets 262

9.1.3.5 Creating 8 Subnets 263

9.1.3.6 Activity - Determining the Network Address - Basic 264

9.1.3.7 Activity - Calculate the Number of Hosts - Basic 264

9.1.3.8 Activity - Determining the Valid Addresses for Hosts - Basics 264

9.1.3.9 Activity - Calculate the Subnet Mask 264

9.1.3.10 Creating 100 Subnets with a /16 prefix 264

9.1.3.11 Calculating the Hosts 265

9.1.3.12 Calculating the Hosts 265

9.1.3.13 Activity - Determining the Network Address - Advanced 266

9.1.3.14 Activity - Calculating the Number of Hosts - Advanced 266

9.1.3.15 Activity - Determining the Valid Addresses for Hosts - Advanced 266

9.1.4 Determining the Subnet Mask 266

9.1.4.1 Subnetting Based on Host Requirements 266

9.1.4.2 Subnetting Network-Based Requirements 267

9.1.4.3 Subnetting to Meet Network Requirements 267

9.1.4.4 Subnetting To Meet Network Requirements, Cont. 267

9.1.4.5 Activity - Determining the Number of Bits to Borrow 268

9.1.4.6 Packet Tracer - Subnetting Scenario 1 268

9.1.4.7 Packet Tracer - Subnetting Scenario 2 268

9.1.4.8 Lab - Calculating IPv4 Subnets 268

9.1.4.9 Lab - Subnetting Network Topologies 268

9.1.4.10 Lab - Researching Subnet Calculators 269

9.1.5 Benefits of Variable Length Subnet Masking 269

9.1.5.1 Traditional Subnetting Wastes Addresses 269

9.1.5.2 Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) 269

9.1.5.3 Basic VLSM 270

9.1.5.4 VLSM in Practice 270

9.1.5.5 VLSM Chart 271

9.1.5.6 Activity - Practicing VLSM 272

9.2 Addressing Schemes 272

9.2.1 Structured Design 272

9.2.1.1 Planning to Address the Network 272

9.2.1.2 Assigning Addresses to Devices 272

9.2.1.3 Lab - Designing and Implementing a Subnetted IPv4 Addressing Scheme 274

9.2.1.4 Lab - Designing and Implementing a VLSM Addressing Scheme 274

9.2.1.5 Packet Tracer - Designing and Implementing a VLSM Addressing Scheme 274

9.3 Design Considerations for IPv6 275

9.3.1 Subnetting an IPv6 Network 275

9.3.1.1 Subnetting Using the Subnet ID 275

9.3.1.2 IPv6 Subnet Allocation 275

9.3.1.3 Subnetting into the Interface ID 275

9.3.1.4 Packet Tracer - Implementing a Subnetted IPv6 Addressing Scheme 276

9.4 Summary 276

9.4.1.1 Class Activity - Can you call me now? 276

9.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 277

9.4.1.3 Summary 277

Chapter 9 Quiz 278

Chapter 9 Exam 278

Your Chapter Notes 278

Chapter 10 Application Layer 279

10.0 Application Layer 279

10.0.1.1 Introduction 279

10.0.1.2 Class Activity - Application Investigation 279

10.1 Application Layer Protocols 280

10.1.1 Application, Session and Presentation 280

10.1.1.1 OSI and TCP/IP Models Revisited 280

10.1.1.2 Application Layer 280

10.1.1.3 Presentation and Session Layers 281

10.1.1.4 TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols 281

10.1.1.5 Activity – Application Protocols and Standards 282

10.1.2 How Application Protocols Interact with End-User Applications 282

10.1.2.1 Peer-to-Peer Networks 282

10.1.2.2 Peer-to-Peer Applications 283

10.1.2.3 Common P2P Applications 283

10.1.2.4 Lab - Researching Peer-to-Peer File Sharing 284

10.1.2.5 Client-Server Model 284

10.2 Well-Known Application Layer Protocols and Services 284

10.2.1 Common Application Layer Protocols 284

10.2.1.1 Application Layer Protocols Revisited 284

10.2.1.2 Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Hypertext Markup Language 285

10.2.1.3 HTTP and HTTPS 285

10.2.1.4 SMTP, POP, and IMAP 286

10.2.1.5 SMTP, POP, and IMAP (cont.) 287

10.2.1.6 SMTP, POP, and IMAP (cont.) 287

10.2.1.7 SMTP, POP, and IMAP (cont.) 287

10.2.1.8 Packet Tracer - Web and Email 288

10.2.2 Providing IP Addressing Services 288

10.2.2.1 Domain Name Service 288

10.2.2.2 DNS Message Format 288

10.2.2.3 DNS Hierarchy 289

10.2.2.4 nslookup 290

10.2.2.5 Syntax Checker - DNS CLI Commands in Windows and UNIX 290

10.2.2.6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 290

10.2.2.7 DHCP Operation 291

10.2.2.8 Packet Tracer - DNS and DHCP 292

10.2.2.9 Lab - Observing DNS Resolution 292

10.2.3 Providing File Sharing Services 292

10.2.3.1 File Transfer Protocol 292

10.2.3.2 Packet Tracer - FTP 293

10.2.3.3 Lab - Exploring FTP 293

10.2.3.4 Server Message Block 293

10.3 The Message Heard Around the World 294

10.3.1 Move It! 294

10.3.1.1 The Internet of Things 294

10.3.1.2 Message Travels Through a Network 294

10.3.1.3 Getting the Data to the End Device 295

10.3.1.4 Getting the Data through the Internetwork 295

10.3.1.5 Getting the Data to the Right Application 296

10.3.1.6 Warriors of the Net 297

10.4 Summary 297

10.4.1.1 Class Activity - Make it happen! 297

10.4.1.2 Packet Tracer Multiuser - Tutorial 298

10.4.1.3 Packet Tracer Multiuser - Implement Services 298

10.4.1.4 Summary 298

Chapter 10 Quiz 300

Chapter 10 Exam 300

Your Chapter Notes 300

Chapter 11 It’s a Network 301

11.0 It’s a Network 301

11.0.1.1 Introduction 301

11.0.1.2 Class Activity – Did You Notice...? 301

11.1 Create and Grow 301

11.1.1 Devices in a Small Network 301

11.1.1.1 Small Network Topologies 301

11.1.1.2 Device Selection for a Small Network 302

11.1.1.3 IP Addressing for a Small Network 303

11.1.1.4 Redundancy in a Small Network 304

11.1.1.5 Design Considerations for a Small Network 304

11.1.1.6 Identifying Devices in a Small Network 305

11.1.2 Protocols in a Small Network 305

11.1.2.1 Common Applications in a Small Network 305

11.1.2.2 Common Protocols in a Small Network 305

11.1.2.3 Real-Time Applications for a Small Network 306

11.1.3 Growing to Larger Networks 307

11.1.3.1 Scaling a Small Network 307

11.1.3.2 Protocol Analysis of a Small Network 307

11.1.3.3 Evolving Protocol Requirements 308

11.2 Keeping the Network Safe 309

11.2.1 Network Device Security Measures 309

11.2.1.1 Categories of Threats to Network Security 309

11.2.1.2 Physical Security 309

11.2.1.3 Types of Security Vulnerabilities 310

11.2.1.4 Activity – Security Threats and Vulnerabilities 310

11.2.2 Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks 310

11.2.2.1 Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses 310

11.2.2.2 Reconnaissance Attacks 311

11.2.2.3 Access Attacks 311

11.2.2.4 DoS Attacks 312

11.2.2.5 Activity – Types of Attack 312

11.2.2.6 Lab - Researching Network Security Threats 312

11.2.3 Mitigating Network Attacks 312

11.2.3.1 Backup, Upgrade, Update, and Patch 312

11.2.3.2 Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting 313

11.2.3.3 Firewalls 314

11.2.3.4 Endpoint Security 315

11.2.4 Securing Devices 315

11.2.4.1 Introduction to Securing Devices 315

11.2.4.2 Passwords 315

11.2.4.3 Basic Security Practices 316

11.2.4.4 Enable SSH 317

11.2.4.5 Lab - Accessing Network Devices with SSH 318

11.2.4.6 Lab - Securing Network Devices 318

11.3 Basic Network Performance 318

11.3.1 Ping 318

11.3.1.1 Interpreting Ping Results 318

11.3.1.2 Extended Ping 319

11.3.1.3 Network Baseline 320

11.3.2 Tracert 321

11.3.2.1 Interpreting Tracert Messages 321

11.3.2.2 Packet Tracer - Test Connectivity with Traceroute 321

11.3.2.3 Lab - Testing Network Latency with Ping and Traceroute 321

11.3.3 Show Commands 322

11.3.3.1 Common show Commands Revisited 322

11.3.3.2 Viewing Router Settings with the show version Command 322

11.3.3.3 Viewing Switch Settings with the show version Command 323

11.3.3.4 Packet Tracer - Using show Commands 323

11.3.4 Host and IOS Commands 323

11.3.4.1 ipconfig Command Options 323

11.3.4.2 arp Command Options 324

11.3.4.3 show cdp neighbors Command Options 324

11.3.4.4 Using the show ip interface brief Command 325

11.3.4.5 Activity – Show Commands 326

11.3.4.6 Lab - Using the CLI to Gather Network Device Information.pdf 326

11.4 Managing IOS Configuration Files 326

11.4.1 Router and Switch File Systems 326

11.4.1.1 Router File Systems 326

11.4.1.2 Switch File Systems 327

11.4.2 Back up and Restore Configuration files 327

11.4.2.1 Backing up and Restoring using Text Files 327

11.4.2.2 Backing up and Restoring using TFTP 328

11.4.2.3 Using USB Ports on a Cisco Router 329

11.4.2.4 Backing up and Restoring using a USB 329

11.4.2.5 Packet Tracer - Backing up Configuration Files 330

11.4.2.6 Lab - Managing Router Configuration Files with Tera Term 330

11.4.2.7 Lab - Managing Device Configuration Files Using TFTP, Flash, and USB 330

11.4.2.8 Lab - Researching Password Recovery Procedures 330

11.5 Integrated Routing Services 331

11.5.1 Integrated Router 331

11.5.1.1 Multi-Function Device 331

11.5.1.2 Types of Integrated Routers 331

11.5.1.3 Wireless Capability 332

11.5.1.4 Basic Security of Wireless 332

11.5.2 Configuring the Integrated Router 333

11.5.2.1 Configuring the Integrated Router 333

11.5.2.2 Enabling Wireless 334

11.5.2.3 Configure a Wireless Client 334

11.5.2.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring a Linksys Router 335

11.6 Summary 335

11.6.1.1 Capstone Project - Design and Build a Small Business Network 335

11.6.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 336

11.6.1.3 Summary 336

Chapter 11 Quiz 338

Chapter 11 Exam 338

Your Chapter Notes 338

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