Introduction to Optical Mineralogy / Edition 2

Introduction to Optical Mineralogy / Edition 2

by William D. Nesse
     
 

ISBN-10: 0195060245

ISBN-13: 9780195060249

Pub. Date: 02/28/1991

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

This is an ideal textbook for both advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It contains valuable coverage of the optical properties of minerals, as well as up-to-date descriptions of common rock-forming minerals. The chapters on optical theory include discussions of the nature and properties of light, the petrographic microscope, and the behavior of light in

Overview

This is an ideal textbook for both advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It contains valuable coverage of the optical properties of minerals, as well as up-to-date descriptions of common rock-forming minerals. The chapters on optical theory include discussions of the nature and properties of light, the petrographic microscope, and the behavior of light in isotropic materials and in uniaxial and biaxial anisotropic materials. Thoroughly revised to include recent developments in the field, the book includes step-by-step procedures to guide students through the determination of all optical properties by which minerals are routinely identified with a petrographic microscope. Readers will find descriptive information on over 125 common rock forming minerals, and many photomicrographs and illustrations. The book also includes a flow sheet to guide students through the process of identifying an unknown mineral.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195060249
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
02/28/1991
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
352
Product dimensions:
9.30(w) x 7.50(h) x 1.00(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface


1. Light


1.1. The Nature of Light


1.2. Electromagnetic Radiation


1.3. Phase


1.4. The Perception of Color


1.5. Interaction of Light and Matter


1.5.1. Transmitted Light


1.5.1.1. Velocity


1.5.1.2. Index of Refraction


1.5.2. Reflection


1.5.3. Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection


1.5.4. Optical Class


1.5.5. Dispersion


1.5.6. Light Absorption and Color


1.6. Polarized Light


1.6.1. Polarization by Double Refraction


1.6.2. Polarization by Reflection


1.6.3. Polarization by Scattering


2. The Petrographic Microscope


2.1. Direction Conventions


2.2. Samples


2.3. Illuminator


2.4. Substage Assemby


2.5. Microscope Stage


2.6. Objective Lenses


2.7. Vertical Illuminator


2.8. Upper Polarizer


2.9. Bertrand Lens


2.10. Ocular Mechanism


2.11. Focusing Mechanism


2.12. Accessories


2.13. Additional Equipment


2.14. General Care of the Microscope


2.15. Adjustment of the Microscope


2.16. General Considerations


2.16.1. Adjusting the Oculars


2.16.2. Focusing


2.16.3. Adjusting the Illuminator


2.16.4. Adjusting the Substage


2.16.4. Alignment of the Polarizers


2.17. General Considerations


3. Refractometry


3.1. Relief


3.2. Becke LineMethod


3.2.1. Dispersion Effects


3.3. Oblique Illumination Method


3.4. Practical Considerations


3.5. Accuracy of the Immersion Method


3.6. Determining Indices of Refraction in Thin Section


4. Optics of Isotropic Materials


4.1. Isotropic Indicatrix


4.2. Distinguishing Between Isotropic and Anisotropic Minerals


4.3. Identification of Isotropic Materials


4.3.1. Grain Mount


4.3.2. Thin Section


5. Optics of Anisotropic Minerals: Introduction


5.1. Interference Phenomena


5.1.1. Monochromatic Illumination


5.1.1.1. Retardation


5.1.1.2. Birefringence


5.1.1.3. Interference of the Two Rays


5.1.2. Polychromatic Illumination


5.1.3. Orders of Interference Colors


5.1.4. Anomalous Interference Colors


5.2. Determining Thickness of a Sample


5.2.1. Thin Section


5.2.2. Grain Mount


5.3. Determining Birefringence from the Color Chart


5.3.1. Thin Section


5.3.2. Grain Mount


5.4. Recognizing the Different Orders of Interference Colors


5.5. Extinction


5.5.1. Categories of Extinction


5.6. Use of the Accessory Plates


5.7. Sign of Elongation


5.8. Relief


5.9. Pleochroism


6. Uniaxial Optics


6.1. Optic Sign


6.2. Crystallographic Considerations


6.3. Uniaxial Indicatrix


6.3.1. Use of the Indicatrix


6.4. Birefringence and Interference Colors


6.5. Extinction


6.5.1. Textragonal Minerals


6.5.2. Hexagonal Minerals


6.5.2.1. Rhombohedral Cleavage


6.5.2.2. Prismatic and Pinacoidal Cleavage


6.6. Pleochroism


6.7. Interference Figure


6.7.1. Optic Axis Interference Figure


6.7.1.1. Formation of Isochromes


6.7.1.2. Formation of Isogyres


6.7.1.3. Determining Optic Sign


6.7.2. Off-Center Optic Axis Figures


6.7.3. Flash Figure


6.8. Selecting Grains to Give Interference Figures


6.8.1. Optic Axis Figure


6.8.2. Flash Figure


6.9. Determining Indices of Refraction


6.9.1. Grain Mount


6.9.1.1. Determining nw


6.9.1.2. Determining ne


6.9.2. Thin Section


6.9.3. Spindle Stage


7. Biaxial Optics


7.1. Biaxial Indicatrix


7.1.1. Mathematical Relationships


7.2. Use of the Indicatrix


7.2.1. Normal Incidence Parallel to an Indicatrix Axis


7.2.2. Normal Incidence Parallel to an Optic Axis


7.2.3. Normal Incidence in a Random Direction


7.2.4. Inclined Incidence


7.3. Crystallographic Orientation of Indicatrix Axes


7.3.1. Orthorhombic Minerals


7.3.2. Monoclinic Minerals


7.3.3. Triclinic Minerals


7.4. Biaxial Interference Figure


7.4.1. Acute Bisectrix Figure


7.4.1.1. Formation of Isochromes


7.4.1.2. Vibration Directions and Formation of Isogyres


7.4.2. Centered Optic Axis Figure


7.4.3. Obtuse Bisectrix Figure


7.4.4. Optic Normal Figure


7.4.5. Off-Center Figure


7.5. Determining Optic Sign


7.5.1. Acute Bisectrix Figure


7.5.2. Obtuse Bisectrix Figure


7.5.3. Optic Axis Figure


7.5.4. Flash Figure


7.6. Determining 2V


7.6.1. 2V Versus 2E


7.6.2. Mallard's Method


7.6.3. Tobi's Method


7.6.4. Kamb's Method


7.6.5. Wright Method


7.7. Selecting Grains to Produce Interference Figures


7.8. Pleochroism


7.9. Extinction


7.9.1. Orthorhombic Minerals


7.9.2. Monoclinic Minerals


7.9.3. Triclinic Minerals


7.10. Sign of Elongations


7.11. Indicies of Refraction


7.11.1. Grain Mount


7.11.2. Spindle Stage


7.12. Dispersion in Biaxial Materials


7.12.1. Orthorhombic Minerals


7.12.2. Monoclinic Materials


7.12.3. Triclinic Materials


8. Reflected Light Optics


8.1. Physical Properties Observed with Polished Sections


8.1.1. Crystal Form and Habit


8.1.2. Hardness


8.2. Observation in Plane Polarized Light


8.2.1. Reflectance


8.2.2. Bireflectance


8.2.2.1. Measurement of Reflectance and Bireflectance


8.2.3. Color and Pleochroism


8.2.3.1. Isometric Minerals


8.2.3.2. Anisotropic Minerals.


8.3. Observations with Crossed Polarizers


8.3.1. Polarization Colors


8.3.1.1. Isometric Minerals


8.3.1.2. Anisotropic Minerals


8.4. Observations Related to Conoscopic Illumination


8.5. Practical Considerations


9. Identification of Minerals


9.1. Descriptive Features


9.2. Cleavage


9.3. Twinning


9.4. Alteration


9.5. Association


9.6. Tactics for Mineral Identification


9.6.1. Thin Section Identification


9.6.2. Grain Mount Identification


9.6.3. Polished Section Identification


9.6.4. Use of Identification Tables


9.7. Nonminerals


9.8. Problems in Paradise


9.8.1. Inconsistencies in Crystallographic Settings


9.8.2. Poor Data


10. Framework Silicates


10.1. Silica Group


10.1.1. Quartz


10.1.2. Chalcedony


10.1.3. Tridymite


10.1.4. Cristobalite


10.1.5. Opal


10.1.6. Volcanic Glass


10.2. Feldspars


10.2.1. Plagioclase


10.2.1.1. Thin Selection


10.2.1.2. Grain Mount


10.2.2. Alkali Feldspars


10.2.3. Sanidine


10.2.4. Orthoclase


10.2.5. Micorcline


10.2.6. Adularia


10.2.7. Anorthoclase


10.3. Feldspathoids


10.3.1. Nepheline


10.3.2. Sodalite Group


10.3.3. Leucite


10.3.4. Cancrinite-Vishnevite


10.4. Zeolites


10.4.1. Analcime (Analcite)


10.4.2. Natrolite


10.4.3. Thomsonite


10.4.4. Stilbite


10.4.5. Chabazite


10.4.6. Heulandite


10.4.7. Laumontite


10.5. Other Minerals and Mineraloids


10.5.1. Scapolite


11. Sheet Silicates


11.1. TO Layer Silicates


11.1.1. Kaolinite


11.1.2. Serpentine


11.2. TOT Layer Silicates


11.2.1. Pyrophyllite


11.2.2. Talc


11.3. TOT+ Interlayer Cation Layer Silicates


11.3.1. Muscovite


11.3.2. Biotite


11.3.3. Lepidolite


11.3.4. Glauconite


11.3.5. Margarite


11.3.6. Clintonite


11.4. TOT+O Layer Silicates


11.4.1. Chlorite


11.5. Clay Minerals


11.6. Other Sheet Silicates


11.6.1. Stilpnomelane


11.6.2. Prehnite


11.6.3. Apophyllite


12. Chain Silicates


12.1. Pyroxenes


12.1.1. Enstatite-Ferrosilite (Orthopyroxene)


12.1.2. Pigeonite


12.1.3. Calcic Clinopyroxene (Augite)


12.1.4. Aegirine, Aegirine-Augite


12.1.5. Omphacite


12.1.6. Jadeite


12.1.7. Spodumene


12.2. Aphiboles


12.2.1. Anthophyllite


12.2.2. Gedrite


12.2.3. Cummingtonite-Grunerite


12.2.4. Tremolite-Actinolite-Ferro-Actinolite


12.2.5. Hornblende


12.2.6. Oxyhornblende


12.2.7. Kaersutite


12.2.8. Richterite


12.2.9. Arfvedsonite and Eckermannite


12.2.10. Glaucophane-Riebeckite Series


12.3. Pyroxinoids


12.3.1. Wollastonite


12.3.2. Rhodonite


12.3.3. Pectolite


12.4. Other Chain Silicates


12.4.1. Sapphirine


13. Disilicates and Ring Silicates


13.1. Disilicates


13.1.1. Lawsonite


13.1.2. Pumpellyite


13.1.3. Melitite


13.1.4. Vesuvianite (Idocrase)


13.1.5. Epidote Group


13.1.6. Zoisite


13.1.7. Clinzoisite-Epidote


13.1.8. Piemontite


13.1.9. Allanite


13.2. Ring Silicates


13.2.1. Tourmalite


13.2.2. Axinite


13.2.3. Beryl


13.2.4. Cordierite


14. Orthosilicates


14.1. Olivine


14.2. Monticellite


14.3. Humite Group


14.4. Garnet Group


14.5. Andalusite


14.6. Sillimanite


14.7. Kyanite


14.8. Staurolite


14.9. Chloritoid


14.10. Titanite (Sphene)


14.11. Topaz


14.12. Zircon


14.13. Dumortierite


15. Carbonates, Borates, Sulfates, and Phosphates


15.1. Carbonates


15.1.1. Calcite


15.1.2. Magnesite


15.1.3. Siderite


15.1.4. Rhodochrosite


15.1.5. Dolomite-Ankerite


15.1.6. Aragonite


15.1.7. Strontianite


15.1.8. Witherite


15.2. Borates


15.2.1. Borax


15.2.2. Colemanite


15.3. Sulfates


15.3.1. Barite


15.3.2. Celestine (Celestite)


15.3.3. Gypsum


15.4. Phosphates


15.4.4. Anhydrite


15.4.5. Alunite


15.5. Phosphates


15.5.1. Apatite


15.5.2. Monazite


15.5.3. Xenotime


16. Native Elements, Sulfides, Halides, Oxides and Hydroxides


16.1. Native Elements


16.1.1. Sulfur


16.1.2. Graphite


16.1.3. Gold


16.1.5. Copperte


16.1.5. Copper


16.2. Sulfides and Related Minerals


16.2.1. Pyrite


16.2.2. Marcasite


16.2.3. Sphalerite Related Minerals


16.2.3. Sphalerite


16.2.5. Pyrrhotite


16.2.6. Chalcopyrite


16.3. Halides


16.3.1. Halite


16.3.2. Sylvite


16.4. Oxides


16.4.2. Cuprite


16.4.3. Rutile


16.4.4. Anatasese


16.4.4. Anatase


16.4.6. Corundum


16.4.6. Corundum


16.4.8. Ilmeniteite


16.4.8. Ilmenite


16.5. The Spinel Group


16.5.1. Spinel Series


16.5.2. Magnetitee


16.5.2. Magnetite


16.5.3. Chromite


16.6. Hydroxides


16.6.1. Brucite


16.6.3. Diaspore


16.6.4. Bohmite (Boehmite)


16.6.5. Goethite


16.6.6. Lepidocrocite


16.6.7. Limonite(Boehmite)


16.6.7. Limonite


Appendix A: Sample Preparation


Grain Mount


Thin Section


Spindle Stage


Polished Section


Appendix B: Identification Tables


Appendix C: Mineral Associations


Mineral Index


Subject Index


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