Introduction to Phenomenological Research / Edition 1

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Introduction to Phenomenological Research, volume 17 of Martin Heidegger’s Gesamtausgabe, contains his first lectures given at Marburg in the winter semester of 1923–1924. In these lectures, Heidegger introduces the notion of phenomenology by tracing it back to Aristotle’s treatments of phainomenon and logos. This extensive commentary on Aristotle is an important addition to Heidegger’s ongoing interpretations which accompany his thinking during the period leading up to Being and Time. Additionally, these lectures develop critical differences between Heidegger’s phenomenology and that of Descartes and Husserl and elaborate questions of facticity, everydayness, and flight from existence that are central in his later work. Here, Heidegger dismantles the history of ontology and charts a new course for phenomenology by defining and distinguishing his own methods.

Indiana University Press

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780253345707
  • Publisher: Indiana University Press
  • Publication date: 5/1/2005
  • Series: Studies in Continental Thought Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 272
  • Sales rank: 837,384
  • Product dimensions: 6.12 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 0.85 (d)

Meet the Author

Daniel O. Dahlstrom, Professor of Philosophy at Boston University, is author of Heidegger’s Concept of Truth.

Indiana University Press

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Table of Contents

Translator's Foreword xiii
Preliminary Remark
Part 1 [Phi]Ainomenon and [characters not reproducible] in Aristotle and Husserl's Self-Interpretation of Phenomenology
Chapter 1 Elucidation of the expression "phenomenology" by going back to Aristotle
1 Clarification of [characters not reproducible] on the basis of the Aristotelian analysis of perceiving the world by way of seeing 4
a) [characters not reproducible] as a distinctive manner of an entity's presence: existence during the day 4
b) [characters not reproducible] as anything that of itself shows itself in daylight or darkness 7
2 The Aristotelian determination of [characters not reproducible] 9
a) Talk ([characters not reproducible]) as a voice that means something ([characters not reproducible]); [characters not reproducible] and [characters not reproducible] 9
b) The ostensive talk ([characters not reproducible]) that reveals ([characters not reproducible]) or conceals ([characters not reproducible]) the existing world in affirming ([characters not reproducible]) and denying ([characters not reproducible]); the [characters not reproducible] 14
c) The possibility of deception, the [characters not reproducible] and the [characters not reproducible] 18
d) The three aspects of [characters not reproducible]. The factical existence of speaking as an authentic source of deception. Circumstantiality and elusiveness of the world 23
e) Speaking and the world in its possibilities of deception. The shift of the meaning of [characters not reproducible] into illusion 29
f) [characters not reproducible] and [characters not reproducible] as the realm of the possibilities of the true and the false 30
Chapter 2 Present-day phenomenology in Husseri's self-interpretation
3 Recapitulation of the facts of the matter gathered from the interpretation of Aristotle. Anticipation of the predominance of care about the idea of certainty and evidence over freeing up possibilities of encountering fundamental facts of the matter 32
4 Consciousness as the theme of present-day phenomenology 35
a) Greek philosophy without a concept of consciousness 36
b) Phenomenology's breakthrough in Husserl's Logical Investigations and their basic tendency 37
c) The orientation of Greek philosophy and the question of its reversal 38
5 The theme of "consciousness" in the Logical Investigations 39
a) The Logical Investigations between a traditional orientation and primordial questioning 39
b) Ideal meaning and acts of meaning; emptily meaning something and meaning-fulfillment; consciousness as the region of experiences; intentional experiences as acts; consciousness as inner perception 40
6 The care about already known knowledge, in which consciousness stands 42
a) Care and its possibilities of disclosing, holding onto, and shaping what it takes care of; its commitment to and loss of itself in what it takes care of 42
b) Care about already known knowledge 43
7 Husserl's polemic with contemporary philosophy in the essay "Philosophy as Rigorous Science" and the care about already known knowledge at work in it. The general aim of this essay 45
8 Husserl's critique of naturalism 47
a) Naturalization of consciousness 47
b) Naturalization of ideas 49
c) Nature's being as experimental psychology's horizon 50
d) The peculiar being of consciousness as the true object of philosophy and the method of discerning essences to acquire universally binding sentences 51
9 Clarification of the problems as purification and radicalization of their bias. The care about securing and justifying an absolute scientific status 52
10 Clarification of problems 53
a) The question and its structures 54
b) The problem and the factors of its being: clarifying the problem as a matter of co-deciding on what is to be interrogated, what it is asked, the regard in question, and the tendency of the answer 56
c) Husserl's clarification of the tendency of the problem of naturalism through transcendental and eidetic purification of consciousness. Absolute validity and evidence 58
11 Order of the inquiry and clue to the explication of the structure of all experiential connections 59
a) Orientation toward connections among disciplines: philosophy as a science of norms and values 59
b) Theoretical knowing as the clue 60
12 Characteristic factors of care about already known knowledge in Husserl's critique of naturalism: back-flash, falling-prey, pre-constructing, ensnarement, neglect 61
13 Husserl's critique of historicism 64
a) The different basis of this critique 64
b) The neglect of human existence, in the deficient care, care about absolute, normative lawfulness 65
14 Critique of historicism on the path of the clarification of problems 66
a) Husserl's critique of Dilthey 66
b) Historical existence as the object of neglect 67
c) Origin and legitimacy of the contrast between matter of factness and validity 68
d) The reproach of skepticism and the care revealing itself therein, care about already known knowledge as anxiety in the face of existence 69
e) The preconceptions about existence at work in this care 70
15 Making more precise what care about already known knowledge is 72
a) Care about justified knowledge, about a universally binding character that is evident 73
b) "To the matters themselves": care about matters prefigured by a universally binding character 73
c) Care about the rigor of science as derivative seriousness; the mathematical idea of rigor, uncritically set up as an absolute norm 74
16 Disclosing the thematic field of "consciousness" through the care about already known knowledge. Return to the historical, concrete instance of the care 75
a) Care's circumspection and aim 75
b) Descartes' research as a factically-historical, concrete instance of the care in its disclosing of the thematic field of "consciousness" 76
Part 2 Return to Descartes and The Scholastic Ontology That Determines Him
Chapter 1 Making sense of the return to Descartes by recalling what has been elaborated up to this point
17 The hermeneutic situation of the investigations up to this point and of those standing before us 79
18 Becoming free from the discipline and traditional possibilities as a way of becoming free for existence. Investigation as destruction in the ontological investigation of existence 81
19 Return to the genuine being of care about already known knowledge in its primordial past as a return to Descartes 83
20 Destruction as the path of the interpretation of existence. Three tasks for the explication of how, in its being, care about already known knowledge is disclosive. The question of the sense of the truth of knowledge in Descartes 85
Chapter 2 Descartes. The how and the what of the being-qua-disclosing of care about knowledge already known
21 Determinations of "truth" 89
22 Three possibilities of care about already known knowledge: curiosity, certitude, being binding 91
Chapter 3 Descartes' determination of falsum and verum
23 Preview of the context of the question 94
24 The cogito sum, the clara et distincta perceptio, and the task of securing, in keeping with being, the criterion of truth 95
25 Descartes' classification of the variety of cogitationes. The judicium as the place for the verum and falsum 98
26 The distinction between the idea as repraesentans aliquid and its repraesentatum; realitas objectiva and realitas formalis sive actualis [the distinction between the idea as representing something and what it represents; objective reality and formal or actual reality] 101
27 The question of the being of the falsum and error 107
a) The constitution of error: intellectus and voluntas as libertas; Descartes' two concepts of freedom 107
b) The concursus of intellectus and voluntas [the concurrence of the intellect and the will] as the being of error. Theological problems as the foundation of both concepts of freedom 112
28 The sense of being of error: error as res and as privatio, as detrimental to the genuine being of the created human being (creatum esse). Perceptum esse and creatum esse as basic determinations of the esse of the res cogitans 116
Chapter 4 Going back to Scholastic ontology: the verum esse in Thomas Aquinas
29 The connection of the verum and the ens: being-true as a mode of being (De veritate, q. 1, art. 1) 120
30 The genuine being of the verum as convenientia in intellectus (De veritate, q. 1, art. 1-3) 126
31 In what sense the verum is in the intellectus (De veritate, q. 1, art. 9) 132
32 The grounding of verum's genuine being in the primordial truth of God (De veritate, q. 1, art. 4 and 8) 137
33 The ways of being able to determine God's being from the perspective of Aristotelian ontology (Summa theologica, vol. 1, q. 2-3) 142
Chapter 5 The care of knowledge in Descartes
34 Descartes' determination of knowing's manner of being as judging, against the horizon of being as creatum esse 148
35 The regimentation of judging: clara et distincta perceptio as a universal rule of knowing 152
36 The origin of clarity and distinctness. Descartes' idea of science and the rules for the direction of the mind 156
37 The care of knowing as care about certainty, as mistaking oneself 168
38 The care that tranquilizes. Descartes' interpretation of the verum as certum while retaining Scholastic ontology 171
Chapter 6 The character of being of the res cogitans, of consciousness
39 The certum aliquid as what is sought by the care of knowing 174
40 The caring search as dubitare, remotio and suppositio falsi 175
41 The path of the caring dubitatio in the First Meditation subject to the regula generalis: the being of the searcher (ego sum) as the first thing found 176
42 The caring search in the Second Meditation for what the ego sum is under the guidance of the regula generalis: the ego cogito 184
43 What is found by the care about certainty: a valid, universally binding proposition 186
Part 3 Demonstrating the Neglect of the Question of Being As a Way of Pointing to Existence
Chapter 1 Misplacing the question of the res cogitans' specific being through care about certainty
44 Descartes' perversion of "having-oneself-with" into a formally-ontological proposition 191
45 Summary characterization of the res cogitans found by Descartes: misplacing the possibility of access to the res cogitans' genuine being 194
Chapter 2 Descartes' inquiry into res cogitans' being-certain and the lack of specification of the character of being of consciousness as the thematic field of Husserl's phenomenology
46 Descartes and Husserl: fundamental differences 196
a) Descartes' way of doubt (remotio) and Husserl's reduction 199
b) Descartes' cogito and Husserl's consciousness 200
c) The absolutum of Descartes' res cogitans and the absoluteness of Husserl's pure consciousness 202
d) Descartes' res cogitans as ens creatum and Husserl's pure consciousness as ens regionale 203
e) The connection that ultimately motivates Descartes' research and the tendencies that are ultimately decisive for Husserl's phenomenology 203
47 Husserl and Descartes: connection and uniform basic tendency in the care about certainty 205
a) Undiscussed appropriation of the cogito sum 205
b) Explicitly laying claim to the certitudo for the absolute region of being 205
c) The uprooting that occurs in taking over the cogito sum as the certum for the process of setting up consciousness' absolute self-evidence as the nucleus 206
d) Care about certainty as care about the formation of science 206
Chapter 3 Husserl's more primordial neglect of the question of being, opposite the thematic field of phenomenology, and the task of seeing and explicating existence in its being
48 Husserl's mangling of phenomenological finds through the care, derived from Descartes, about certainty 208
a) Intentionality as specific, theoretical behavior 209
b) Evidence as theoretical knowing's evidence in grasping and determining 209
c) Eidetic reduction of pure consciousness under the guidance of ontological determinations alien to consciousness 210
49 Investigation of the history of the origin of the categories as a presupposition for seeing and determining existence 211
50 Retrieval of the characteristics of the care of knowing that have been run through and pointing to existence itself in terms of some fundamental determinations 213
a) Three groups of characters of care about already known knowledge and their determination as a unity 214
[alpha]) Overstepping oneself, mistaking-oneself, tranquilizing, and masking as remoteness from being 215
[beta]) Misplacing, rise of needlessness, and falling prey as the absence of existence's temporality 216
[gamma]) Obstructing and diverting as leveling being 217
b) Flight of existence in the face of itself and the uncoveredness of its being-in-a-world, burying any possibility of encountering it, distorting as a basic movement of existence 217
c) Facticity, threat, eeriness, everydayness 220
Appendix Supplements to the lectures from the lecture notes of Helene Weiss and Herbert Marcuse
Supplement 1 (to p. 4) 223
Supplement 2 (to p. 6) 223
Supplement 3 (to p. 21) 224
Supplement 4 (to p. 22) 224
Supplement 5 (to p. 30) 225
Supplement 6 (to p. 36) 227
Supplement 7 (to p. 41) 227
Supplement 8 (to p. 52) 227
Supplement 9 (to p. 65) 228
Supplement 10 (to p. 69) 228
Supplement 11 (to p. 69) 229
Supplement 12 (to p. 74) 229
Supplement 13 (to p. 74) 230
Supplement 14 (to p. 77) 231
Supplement 15 (to p. 79) 231
Supplement 16 (to p. 93) 233
Supplement 17 (to p. 98) 233
Supplement 18 (to p. 106) 234
Supplement 19 (to p. 107) 234
Supplement 20 (to p. 112) 234
Supplement 21 (to p. 116) 235
Supplement 22 (to p. 123) 236
Supplement 23 (to p. 152) 236
Supplement 24 (to p. 160) 237
Supplement 25 (to p. 189) 237
Supplement 26 (to p. 197) 239
Supplement 27 (to p. 207) 239
Supplement 28 (to p. 208) 239
Supplement 29 (to p. 210) 240
Supplement 30 (to p. 221) 240
Editor's Afterword 245
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