Introduction To Radiometry And Photometry / Edition 1

Introduction To Radiometry And Photometry / Edition 1

by William Ross Mccluney
     
 

ISBN-10: 0890066787

ISBN-13: 9780890066782

Pub. Date: 12/01/1994

Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated

This book describes in detail the relationship between radiometry and photometry. It covers information needed to solve problems in radiation transfer and detection, detectors, measuring instruments, and concepts in colorimetry.

Overview

This book describes in detail the relationship between radiometry and photometry. It covers information needed to solve problems in radiation transfer and detection, detectors, measuring instruments, and concepts in colorimetry.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780890066782
Publisher:
Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date:
12/01/1994
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
424
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.06(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
Chapter 1Fundamental Concepts of Radiometry1
1.1Electromagnetic Radiation1
1.2Terminology Conventions3
1.3Wavelength Notations and Solid Angle4
1.4Fundamental Definitions7
1.5Lambertian Radiators and Lambert's Cosine Law13
1.6Radiance, Irradiance, Intensity, and Flux Relationships15
1.7Connection with Electromagnetic Theory20
1.8Polarization22
1.9Photon Flux25
Example Problem 1.128
Example Problem 1.230
References32
Chapter 2Fundamental Concepts of Photometry33
2.1Light33
2.2Photometric Definitions37
2.2.1Radiation Luminous Efficacy, K[superscript r], and the V-lambda Function41
2.2.2Lighting System Luminous Efficacy, K[superscript s]43
2.3Luminance and Brightness45
2.4Luminance and Vision47
2.5Disability Glare50
2.6Discomfort Glare52
2.7Illumination54
2.7.1Illuminance Selection55
Example Problem 2.157
Example Problem 2.259
Example Problem 2.361
References61
Chapter 3Blackbodies and Other Sources63
3.1Blackbody Radiation63
3.2Planck's Law64
3.3Wien Displacement Law68
3.4Luminous Efficacy of Blackbody Radiation69
3.5Color and Distribution Temperatures71
3.6Emission into an Imperfect Vacuum72
3.7Radiation Exchange73
3.8Experimental Approximation of a Blackbody73
3.9Other Real Sources74
Example Problem 3.182
Example Problem 3.282
Example Problem 3.383
Example Problem 3.483
Example Problem 3.584
References84
Chapter 4Source/Receiver Flux Transfer Calculations87
4.1Introduction87
4.2Geometry and Definitions87
4.2.1Case 190
4.2.2Case 291
4.2.3Case 392
4.2.4Case 493
4.2.5Case 595
4.2.6Case 696
4.2.7Case 798
4.2.8Monte Carlo Method99
4.3Configuration Factor100
4.4Net Exchange of Radiation102
4.5Summary103
Example Problem 4.1104
References105
Chapter 5The Invariance of Radiance and the Limits of Optical Concentration107
5.1Introduction107
5.2Radiance is a Field Quantity107
5.3Pencils of Rays108
5.4Elementary Beam of Radiation109
5.5Radiance Invariance111
5.6Radiance Invariance at an Interface112
5.7Radiance Through a Lens114
5.8Radiance in Absorbing and Scattering Media115
5.9Concentrating Radiance Meter116
5.10The Limits of Optical Concentration120
Example Problem 5.1123
Example Problem 5.2124
References125
Chapter 6Optical Properties of Materials127
6.1Introduction127
6.2Terminology128
6.3Surface and Interface Optical Properties130
6.3.1Conductor Optical Properties130
6.3.2Nonconductor Optical Properties131
6.3.3Surface Emission Properties132
6.3.4Angular Dependence of Dielectric Optical Properties136
6.3.5Rough Surfaces141
6.4Bulk Medium Optical Properties142
6.5Properties of Plane Parallel Plates148
6.5.1Nonscattering Media148
6.5.2Scattering Media154
6.6Angular Dependence156
6.7Broadband Angle Properties160
6.7.1Transmittance and Reflectance Equations160
6.7.2Specular and Diffuse Optical Properties162
6.8Spectral Dependence164
6.9Broadband Spectral Properties165
6.10Spectral Selectivity167
Example Problem 6.1174
Example Problem 6.2175
References175
Chapter 7The Detection of Radiation179
7.1Introduction179
7.2Basic Concepts180
7.3Classification of Detectors187
7.3.1Thermal Detectors187
7.3.2Photemissive Detectors191
7.3.3Semiconductor Devices197
7.3.4Multi-element Detectors, Charge Transfer Devices, and Imagers205
7.4Detector Noise209
7.5Signal Modulation and Radiation Chopping211
7.6Characterization of Detector Performance215
7.6.1Responsivity, R216
7.6.2Quantum Efficiency, [eta]216
7.6.3Noise Equivalent Power, NEP217
7.6.4Detectivity, D218
7.6.5Photon Noise-Limited Performance219
7.7Flux Conditioning Prior to the Detector220
7.7.1Cosine Response Correction221
7.7.2Photopic Correction224
7.7.3Spectral Filtering224
7.8Signal Conditioning After the Detector227
7.9Detector Calibration227
7.10Example Detectors and Their Characteristics229
Example Problem 7.1234
References237
Appendix 7A240
Chapter 8Optical Systems243
8.1Introduction243
8.2Optical Axis244
8.3Idealized (Thin) Lens Theory245
8.4Radiance and Irradiance of Images250
8.5Vignetting253
8.6Aberrations254
8.6.1Spherical Aberration254
8.6.2Chromatic Aberration257
8.6.3Distortion258
8.6.4Coma258
8.6.5Astigmatism259
8.6.6Field Curvature261
8.6.7Correcting Aberrations261
8.6.8The Diffraction Limit261
8.7Image Quality263
8.8Flux Distribution265
8.9Nonimaging Optical Systems266
8.10Throughput269
8.11Integrating Spheres271
8.11.1Cosine Correction274
8.11.2Transmissometers and Reflectometers274
8.12Monochromators280
8.12.1Spectral Filters280
8.12.2Scanning Monochromators287
8.13Windows293
8.14Sources294
8.15Goniometers295
8.16Transmissometers/Reflectometers296
8.17Scattering Meters, Nephelometers, Turbidimeters, and Haze Meters296
Example Problem 8.1297
References300
Chapter 9Radiometers and Photometers303
9.1Introduction303
9.2General Design Factors305
9.3Broadband Irradiance and Radiance Meters306
9.4Restricted Spectral Band Irradiance Meters for the Ultraviolet Through the Infrared310
9.5Illuminance and Luminance Meters311
9.6Spectroradiometers312
9.7Calibration of Radiometers and Photometers314
9.7.1Transfer Standards316
9.7.2Broadband Irradiance Standard Sources318
9.7.3Standard Sources for Spectral Irradiance and Spectral Radiance319
9.7.4Absolute Radiometry322
9.7.5Standard Illuminance and Luminance Sources326
9.7.6Radiometer/Photometer Calibration Using Standard Sources327
9.7.7Spectroradiometer Calibration328
9.7.8National Standards Laboratories329
Example Problem 9.1329
Example Problem 9.2330
References330
Chapter 10Metric Primer and Additional Radiometric and Photometric Quantities and Units333
10.1Introduction333
10.2The SI System of Units334
10.2.1Basic Metric Principles334
10.2.2Metric Units for Radiometry and Photometry336
10.3The I-P System of Units336
10.4Photon Flux Units336
10.5Other Quantities and Units338
References340
Chapter 11Basic Concepts of Color Science343
11.1Introduction343
11.2Basic Concepts and Definitions344
11.3Systems of Color Specification349
11.3.1Munsell Color System349
11.3.2CIE 1976 (L*a*b*) Color Space352
11.3.3Tristimulus Colorimetry352
11.4CIE 1931 Color System354
11.5CIE 1964 Supplementary Observer Color System359
11.6CIE 1976 Uniform Color Space359
11.7Color Temperature364
11.8Standard Illuminants and Reflection Colorimetry366
11.8.1Blackbody Illuminants367
11.8.2Daylight Illuminants369
11.8.3Reflection Colorimetry371
11.9Color Rendering Index372
References375
AppendixCorrespondence Between Finite Elements and the Calculus377
A.1Introduction377
A.2Definition of the Derivative378
A.3Definition of the Integral380
A.4Integrals as Sums382
A.5Sums Over Solid Angles383
References387
About the Author389
Index391

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