Introduction to Robotics in CIM Systems / Edition 5

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Overview

Written from a manufacturing perspective, this book takes readers step-by-step through the theory and application techniques of designing and building a robot-driven automated work cell—from selection of hardware through programming of the devices to economic justification of the project. All-inclusive in approach, it covers not only robot automation, but all the other technology needed in the automated work cell to integrate the robot with the work environment and with the enterprise data base. Robot and other required automation hardware and software are introduced in the order in which they would be selected in an actual industrial automation design. Includes system troubleshooting guides, case studies problems, and worked example problems. Robot Classification. Automated Work Cells and CIM Systems. End-of-Arm Tooling. Automation Sensors. Work-Cell Support Systems. Robot and System Integration. Work-Cell Programming. Justification and Applications of Work Cells. Safety. Human Interface: Operator Training, Acceptance, and Problems. For those interested in Robotics and Manufacturing Automation or Production Design.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130602435
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 3/8/2002
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 510
  • Sales rank: 240,613
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

James A. Rehg, CMfgE, is an associate professor of engineering at Penn State-Altoona. He earned a BS and MS in electrical engineering from St. Louis University and has completed additional graduate work at Wentworth Institute, University of Missouri, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, and Clemson University. Before moving to Penn State, he was director of the Computer Integrated Manufacturing project and department head of CAD/CAM and Machine Tool Technology at Tri-County Technical College, and previous to that he was director of Academic Computing and the Manufacturing Productivity Center at Trident Technical College. Professor Rehg also served as director of the Robotics Resource Center at Piedmont Technical College and department head of Electronic Engineering Technology at Forest Park Community College. His industrial experience includes work in instrumentation at McDonnell Douglas Corporation and consulting in the areas of computer-aided design, robotics, computer-integrated manufacturing, and programmable logic controllers.

Professor Rehg has written five texts on robotics and automation and many articles on subjects related to training in automation and robotics. His most recent text is Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 2nd ed., with coauthor Henry Kraebber of Purdue University, published by Prentice Hall in 2000. Professor Rehg has received numerous state awards for excellence in teaching, including the outstanding instructor in the nation by the Association of Community College Trustees and the Penn State Engineering Society Outstanding Teaching Award in 1998.

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Read an Excerpt

INTRODUCTION

An industrial robot is just another industrial machine. This statement has been used frequently by those in education and industry to calm fears about mass worker displacement or to encourage corporate management to adopt flexible automation. Like the numerical control turning center or the lathe that preceded it, the industrial robot is a machine designed to increase productivity, improve quality, and reduce direct labor cost, but the robot is not just another industrial machine.

Robots are versatile: They can be used in every industry that provides goods and services; they can be adapted to numerous job functions; they can change job functions easily; and they work with uncanny skill and unmatched endurance. Robots are different from any industrial machine in the history of automated production. The potential of the robot as an agent of change in manufacturing and in our daily lives has not been fully realized.

Employment in the robotics area has changed significantly from the early days of robots. Engineers and technicians working in the robotics field do not concentrate on just robot technology as they did when robots were first introduced. Today the engineer and technician must be capable of working on the entire production system, which often includes robot technology. The job might be in an automation system design company that designs, builds, and installs robot-based automation for other companies, or in an automation design department in a large manufacturing company that designs automation systems for its plants. The automotive industry is a good example of companies in the latter category. Engineers and technicians with robotand automation systems skills are also needed by companies using the technology to produce products. In these companies, they work either individually or in teams to make the automation system perform to specifications. This includes work on robots, programmable logic controllers, and computer numerical machines; system controller programming; troubleshooting system and production problems; performing system upgrades; and training operators on the proper use of the technology. Positions for robot technicians are not plentiful; however, the need for engineers and technicians who can design, develop, implement, and support automated production systems with robots is significant and expanding.

Although robots are unique, they share one element with other automated production equipment; namely, to be effective, they must be integrated into the total solution. Education in robotics must reflect this emphasis on the total system as well. The first edition of this text focused on the robot as part of an integrated production cell. The interfaces between the robot and cell devices were emphasized. In the second through fourth editions, the integration of the robot-automated cell with the computer-integrated enterprise was introduced. Now this edition takes the integration of the robot with the automated cell and system to another level. While robots remain the primary focus of the text, additional emphasis is placed on the hardware, software, and programming that support the implementation of automated work cells and manufacturing systems. CHANGES TO THE FIFTH EDITION

Major additions and changes to the fifth edition include the addition of chapter goals and objectives at the beginning of every chapter. A Career Spotlight section was added at the start of every chapter as well. The Career Spotlight focuses on the career opportunities for the technology areas covered in the chapter. A major change in Chapter 1 was the addition of a robot safety section at the end. Safety is an important issue in robotics and in all manufacturing. While safety is addressed in great detail in Chapter 10, I was encouraged by users of the text to stress safety early. Another important skill for both engineers and technicians is the ability to troubleshoot technical systems. To help in learning these important skills, an introduction to troubleshooting was added to Chapter 3. That was followed with a discussion on troubleshooting sensor system at the end of Chapter 5. In addition, the sensor information in the chapter was revised and updated. Major updates and additions were made to the programmable logic controller and robot programming topics in Chapter 8. A full section was added covering the program commands for the Yaskawa robot. The chapter presentation gives students detailed information about the most frequently used commands and shows them how to translate a task point graph into a robot program using Yaskawa code. In addition, a number of new figures were added to help illustrate important concepts, and the text was changed at numerous places to make it easier to read and understand. I hope you find these changes useful and helpful. FOR THE STUDENTS

More graduates of engineering and engineering technology programs are working in manufacturing automation because production systems have become increasingly complex and highly automated. As a result, students need to understand the theory and operation of robotics and automation as they apply to production systems in industry. The primary goal for this text was to create a clear and comprehensive text for students in two- and four-year engineering and engineering technology programs to learn industrial robotics and automation systems. Every effort was made to present the material in a logical order, to express the concepts in a fashion that a first-time reader could understand, and to keep the needs of the student foremost in every part of the text development. Authors often use technical terms to describe a new concept that have not been previously defined or that are not common knowledge for the students. A special effort was made in this text to not use any terms or technical language that were not introduced or defined earlier in the text. The text can be used in semester and quarter length courses.

I hope this text helps you build a comprehensive understanding of the concepts that embody industrial robotics and automation systems. I have a friend and former student who once said, "There are things that I know and things that I know I know." This is an interesting observation on learning, and I asked him what he meant by "know I know." He said that certain lessons were presented in such a way that he could remember some of the concepts only as they were being presented. The lesson material was never internalized, though; he only knew it as it was presented. However, after working example problems and spending time thinking about a concept, he understood that idea in a new way. He had internalized the concept, theorem, or algorithm so that he could use it to solve problems that were different from the one in which it was originally presented. His depth of understanding meant that he would never forget the material. The concept just made sense; it was like remembering his name. To reach this level of understanding of a subject takes effort and time, and it often takes revisiting the concept numerous times. I hope you will reach that level of knowing you know some of the concepts presented in this text. If the presentations of some material help you get by previous learning barriers, I would like to know. Please e-mail me at jamesa@rehg.org and share the learning experience. On the other hand, if you think that some area could be presented more clearly, I would like to know about that as well. I hope you enjoy the text and find it useful; it was written for you. CHAPTER CONTENT

Industrial robots and the concept of a work-cell system are introduced in Chapter 1. A brief history of robots is included along with a rationale for the renewed interest in robot applications in the 1990s and in the new century. The definition of an industrial robot, a description of a basic robot system, and the new terms used to describe its operation are included, along with an introduction to the manufacturing systems that are most appropriate for robot automation. A safety section was added to emphasize the importance of robotics and manufacturing safety. In Chapter 2, the different types of robot systems are classified by arm geometry, power sources, control techniques, and path control. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of system are discussed. In addition, a section on drive systems is included, along with a section on design guidelines for automated cells. Numerous quantitative problems are included throughout and at the end of the chapter. Additional automated cell design problems are included at the end of the chapter.

Chapter 3, Automated Work Cells and CIM Systems, is a chapter focusing on the basic process used in the implementation of a single work cell or an entire CIM system. In addition, a detailed discussion of system troubleshooting has been added. Flexible and fixed automation cells and systems are described and the use of robotics in each is discussed. Two industry case studies are presented as examples of automated system design, and a number of numerical problems are provided at the end of the chapter. End-of-arm tooling is covered in Chapter 4. The many different types of grippers are classified into several categories. The wrist interface section is integrated into the tooling section, and coverage of robot tool changers has been expanded. In addition, the section on active and passive compliance includes force/torque sensing in the tool interface. Sections cover gripping force calculations, as well as collision systems. The use of numerical problem examples and problems at the end of the chapter has been expanded.

Chapter 5, Automation Sensors, covers limit switches and proximity and photoelectric sensors. Sections cover the design of trip dogs for limit switch applications, the operation of proximity and capacitive sensors, and sensors that support the field-bus standard. All sections have been revised and updated with new figures and descriptions. Numerous example problems have been added, along with problems at the end of the chapter. In Chapter 6, Work-Cell Support Systems, the devices and systems traditionally used in automation cells to support the robot are explained. Topics include vision, material handling, automatic storage and retrieval systems, part feeding, inspection, and automatic tracking. The vision section encompasses back lighting and front and structured lighting concepts. Additional case studies are available at the end of the chapter.

Chapter 7, Robot and System Integration, focuses on the control architecture required in the automated enterprise. The major topics are the enterprise network, numerical control, servo and nonservo robot controllers, and simple and complex sensor interfaces. Case study problems are available at the end of the chapter. Chapter 8 covers the programming issues associated with an automated system. Topics include cell control software, programming the programmable logic controller, robot reference frames, and servo and nonservo robot programming using on- and off-line programming software. The chapter was significantly expanded by the addition of a section on programming using the Yaskawa command language.

Chapter 9 covers work-cell justification and applications. Justification is explained in terms of payback, return on investment, and cash flow methods with an introduction to future value of money and discounting techniques. A spreadsheet demonstrating a discounted cash flow process is included on the CD-ROM supplied with the Instructor's Manual. Robot applications are described by means of industrial application case studies.

Chapter 10 includes safety standards, a thorough description of proximity sensing devices, light curtains, calculation of safe distances, sensing mats, interlock devices, risk assessment and estimation, hazard reduction, personal protection equipment, design guidelines, and safety justification. Numerous examples and end-of-chapter problems and cases are also included. Chapter 11 deals with the problems created by automation with the human interface. In addition, the chapter describes self-directed work teams and how they function.

Chapter 12 contains the West-Electric (W-E) case study. Parts of the West Electric case study can be used as an activity at the end of each chapter (except Chapter 1), or the case can be used as a capstone project at the end of the course. In either implementation, students follow the progress of an industrial design team as they automate one part of the manual production system. Students are also invited to join in the design process and create an automated cell for an adjacent manual production process. In their solution, students have an opportunity to use skills learned in each chapter of the text, plus skills from computer-aided design and programmable logic controllers courses. This case study uses a videotape to show all the manual manufacturing processes as a starting point for the introduction of automation. The tape, Forging, is number 150 and is available from Genium Publishing Corporation in Schenectady, New York, 1-800-243-6486. Numerous cell design problems are included. The robot work-cell design component of the text is integrated into the W -E case study at two levels. The first level is a study of the design process used by the W-E automation team on the automation of the upset forging work cell. The second level is the design of an automated cell to support the extrusion process. Some of the detail is intentionally missing from the W-E team design so that class discussion of the case can take place. The production information for the entire turbine blade line is provided so that other work-cell projects are possible from the same case.

Appendixes A, B, and C include robot data sheets, vendor Internet sites, and justification spreadsheet documentation, respectively. CD-ROM SUPPORT

The Instructor's Manual for the text comes with a CD-ROM containing items useful in developing lecture material and using the case studies. The CD-ROM includes PowerPoint transparencies for every chapter.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Industrial Robotics.

2. Robot Classification.

3. Automated Work Cells and CIM Systems.

4. End-of-Arm Tooling.

5. Automation Sensors.

6. Work-Cell Support Systems.

7. Robot and System Integration.

8. Work-Cell Programming.

9. Justification and Applications of Work Cells.

10. Safety.

11. Human Interface: Operator Training, Acceptance, and Problems.

12. Work-Cell Design Case Study.

Appendix A. Hardware Specifications.

Appendix B. Internet Resources.

Appendix C. Justification Program.

Appendix D. Glossary.

Index.

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Preface

INTRODUCTION

An industrial robot is just another industrial machine. This statement has been used frequently by those in education and industry to calm fears about mass worker displacement or to encourage corporate management to adopt flexible automation. Like the numerical control turning center or the lathe that preceded it, the industrial robot is a machine designed to increase productivity, improve quality, and reduce direct labor cost, but the robot is not just another industrial machine.

Robots are versatile: They can be used in every industry that provides goods and services; they can be adapted to numerous job functions; they can change job functions easily; and they work with uncanny skill and unmatched endurance. Robots are different from any industrial machine in the history of automated production. The potential of the robot as an agent of change in manufacturing and in our daily lives has not been fully realized.

Employment in the robotics area has changed significantly from the early days of robots. Engineers and technicians working in the robotics field do not concentrate on just robot technology as they did when robots were first introduced. Today the engineer and technician must be capable of working on the entire production system, which often includes robot technology. The job might be in an automation system design company that designs, builds, and installs robot-based automation for other companies, or in an automation design department in a large manufacturing company that designs automation systems for its plants. The automotive industry is a good example of companies in the latter category. Engineers and technicians with robot and automation systems skills are also needed by companies using the technology to produce products. In these companies, they work either individually or in teams to make the automation system perform to specifications. This includes work on robots, programmable logic controllers, and computer numerical machines; system controller programming; troubleshooting system and production problems; performing system upgrades; and training operators on the proper use of the technology. Positions for robot technicians are not plentiful; however, the need for engineers and technicians who can design, develop, implement, and support automated production systems with robots is significant and expanding.

Although robots are unique, they share one element with other automated production equipment; namely, to be effective, they must be integrated into the total solution. Education in robotics must reflect this emphasis on the total system as well. The first edition of this text focused on the robot as part of an integrated production cell. The interfaces between the robot and cell devices were emphasized. In the second through fourth editions, the integration of the robot-automated cell with the computer-integrated enterprise was introduced. Now this edition takes the integration of the robot with the automated cell and system to another level. While robots remain the primary focus of the text, additional emphasis is placed on the hardware, software, and programming that support the implementation of automated work cells and manufacturing systems.

CHANGES TO THE FIFTH EDITION

Major additions and changes to the fifth edition include the addition of chapter goals and objectives at the beginning of every chapter. A Career Spotlight section was added at the start of every chapter as well. The Career Spotlight focuses on the career opportunities for the technology areas covered in the chapter. A major change in Chapter 1 was the addition of a robot safety section at the end. Safety is an important issue in robotics and in all manufacturing. While safety is addressed in great detail in Chapter 10, I was encouraged by users of the text to stress safety early. Another important skill for both engineers and technicians is the ability to troubleshoot technical systems. To help in learning these important skills, an introduction to troubleshooting was added to Chapter 3. That was followed with a discussion on troubleshooting sensor system at the end of Chapter 5. In addition, the sensor information in the chapter was revised and updated. Major updates and additions were made to the programmable logic controller and robot programming topics in Chapter 8. A full section was added covering the program commands for the Yaskawa robot. The chapter presentation gives students detailed information about the most frequently used commands and shows them how to translate a task point graph into a robot program using Yaskawa code. In addition, a number of new figures were added to help illustrate important concepts, and the text was changed at numerous places to make it easier to read and understand. I hope you find these changes useful and helpful.

FOR THE STUDENTS

More graduates of engineering and engineering technology programs are working in manufacturing automation because production systems have become increasingly complex and highly automated. As a result, students need to understand the theory and operation of robotics and automation as they apply to production systems in industry. The primary goal for this text was to create a clear and comprehensive text for students in two- and four-year engineering and engineering technology programs to learn industrial robotics and automation systems. Every effort was made to present the material in a logical order, to express the concepts in a fashion that a first-time reader could understand, and to keep the needs of the student foremost in every part of the text development. Authors often use technical terms to describe a new concept that have not been previously defined or that are not common knowledge for the students. A special effort was made in this text to not use any terms or technical language that were not introduced or defined earlier in the text. The text can be used in semester and quarter length courses.

I hope this text helps you build a comprehensive understanding of the concepts that embody industrial robotics and automation systems. I have a friend and former student who once said, "There are things that I know and things that I know I know." This is an interesting observation on learning, and I asked him what he meant by "know I know." He said that certain lessons were presented in such a way that he could remember some of the concepts only as they were being presented. The lesson material was never internalized, though; he only knew it as it was presented. However, after working example problems and spending time thinking about a concept, he understood that idea in a new way. He had internalized the concept, theorem, or algorithm so that he could use it to solve problems that were different from the one in which it was originally presented. His depth of understanding meant that he would never forget the material. The concept just made sense; it was like remembering his name. To reach this level of understanding of a subject takes effort and time, and it often takes revisiting the concept numerous times. I hope you will reach that level of knowing you know some of the concepts presented in this text. If the presentations of some material help you get by previous learning barriers, I would like to know. Please e-mail me at jamesa@rehg.org and share the learning experience. On the other hand, if you think that some area could be presented more clearly, I would like to know about that as well. I hope you enjoy the text and find it useful; it was written for you.

CHAPTER CONTENT

Industrial robots and the concept of a work-cell system are introduced in Chapter 1. A brief history of robots is included along with a rationale for the renewed interest in robot applications in the 1990s and in the new century. The definition of an industrial robot, a description of a basic robot system, and the new terms used to describe its operation are included, along with an introduction to the manufacturing systems that are most appropriate for robot automation. A safety section was added to emphasize the importance of robotics and manufacturing safety. In Chapter 2, the different types of robot systems are classified by arm geometry, power sources, control techniques, and path control. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of system are discussed. In addition, a section on drive systems is included, along with a section on design guidelines for automated cells. Numerous quantitative problems are included throughout and at the end of the chapter. Additional automated cell design problems are included at the end of the chapter.

Chapter 3, Automated Work Cells and CIM Systems, is a chapter focusing on the basic process used in the implementation of a single work cell or an entire CIM system. In addition, a detailed discussion of system troubleshooting has been added. Flexible and fixed automation cells and systems are described and the use of robotics in each is discussed. Two industry case studies are presented as examples of automated system design, and a number of numerical problems are provided at the end of the chapter. End-of-arm tooling is covered in Chapter 4. The many different types of grippers are classified into several categories. The wrist interface section is integrated into the tooling section, and coverage of robot tool changers has been expanded. In addition, the section on active and passive compliance includes force/torque sensing in the tool interface. Sections cover gripping force calculations, as well as collision systems. The use of numerical problem examples and problems at the end of the chapter has been expanded.

Chapter 5, Automation Sensors, covers limit switches and proximity and photoelectric sensors. Sections cover the design of trip dogs for limit switch applications, the operation of proximity and capacitive sensors, and sensors that support the field-bus standard. All sections have been revised and updated with new figures and descriptions. Numerous example problems have been added, along with problems at the end of the chapter. In Chapter 6, Work-Cell Support Systems, the devices and systems traditionally used in automation cells to support the robot are explained. Topics include vision, material handling, automatic storage and retrieval systems, part feeding, inspection, and automatic tracking. The vision section encompasses back lighting and front and structured lighting concepts. Additional case studies are available at the end of the chapter.

Chapter 7, Robot and System Integration, focuses on the control architecture required in the automated enterprise. The major topics are the enterprise network, numerical control, servo and nonservo robot controllers, and simple and complex sensor interfaces. Case study problems are available at the end of the chapter. Chapter 8 covers the programming issues associated with an automated system. Topics include cell control software, programming the programmable logic controller, robot reference frames, and servo and nonservo robot programming using on- and off-line programming software. The chapter was significantly expanded by the addition of a section on programming using the Yaskawa command language.

Chapter 9 covers work-cell justification and applications. Justification is explained in terms of payback, return on investment, and cash flow methods with an introduction to future value of money and discounting techniques. A spreadsheet demonstrating a discounted cash flow process is included on the CD-ROM supplied with the Instructor's Manual. Robot applications are described by means of industrial application case studies.

Chapter 10 includes safety standards, a thorough description of proximity sensing devices, light curtains, calculation of safe distances, sensing mats, interlock devices, risk assessment and estimation, hazard reduction, personal protection equipment, design guidelines, and safety justification. Numerous examples and end-of-chapter problems and cases are also included. Chapter 11 deals with the problems created by automation with the human interface. In addition, the chapter describes self-directed work teams and how they function.

Chapter 12 contains the West-Electric (W-E) case study. Parts of the West Electric case study can be used as an activity at the end of each chapter (except Chapter 1), or the case can be used as a capstone project at the end of the course. In either implementation, students follow the progress of an industrial design team as they automate one part of the manual production system. Students are also invited to join in the design process and create an automated cell for an adjacent manual production process. In their solution, students have an opportunity to use skills learned in each chapter of the text, plus skills from computer-aided design and programmable logic controllers courses. This case study uses a videotape to show all the manual manufacturing processes as a starting point for the introduction of automation. The tape, Forging, is number 150 and is available from Genium Publishing Corporation in Schenectady, New York, 1-800-243-6486. Numerous cell design problems are included. The robot work-cell design component of the text is integrated into the W -E case study at two levels. The first level is a study of the design process used by the W-E automation team on the automation of the upset forging work cell. The second level is the design of an automated cell to support the extrusion process. Some of the detail is intentionally missing from the W-E team design so that class discussion of the case can take place. The production information for the entire turbine blade line is provided so that other work-cell projects are possible from the same case.

Appendixes A, B, and C include robot data sheets, vendor Internet sites, and justification spreadsheet documentation, respectively.

CD-ROM SUPPORT

The Instructor's Manual for the text comes with a CD-ROM containing items useful in developing lecture material and using the case studies. The CD-ROM includes PowerPoint transparencies for every chapter.

Read More Show Less

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