Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Systems, Applications / Edition 1

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Overview

This book offers comprehensive, yet concise coverage of robotics. It covers analysis of robot kinematics, differential motions, robot dynamics, and trajectory planning. It then proceeds to discuss in detail such important robot subsystems as actuators, sensors, vision systems, and fuzzy logic (at an introductory level). Robotic applications are drawn from a wide variety of fields.

Features:

  • Provides comprehensive coverage of kinematics and dynamics of robotics, plus coverage of important subsystems.
  • Includes microprocessor and mechatronic robotics applications, as well as an entire chapter on vision systems (image processing and image analysis).
  • Applications oriented with design projects, examples, and homework problems.
  • Introduces a running design project at the end of Chapter 2. At the end of each subsequent chapter, the reader is asked to apply the, concepts learned to the running design example. The intended result is that by the end of the book the reader has designed a complete robot.

The book is intended for senior or first-year graduate courses in robotics. It is also an excellent resource for practicing engineers to aid their development and design work in robotics.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130613097
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 7/28/2001
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 349
  • Product dimensions: 7.16 (w) x 9.34 (h) x 0.72 (d)

Read an Excerpt

As one of my students once said years ago, "in the life of every product, there comes a time when you have to shoot the designer and go into production." It seems that the same is true for a book. An author of a textbook such as this one may go on forever trying to cover any and every conceivable subject related to the book in order to generate an all-encompassing book that satisfies every teacher and student. But the intention behind writing this book was not that at all. The intention was to write a book that has most subjects that an undergraduate engineering student or a practicing engineer may need to know to be familiar with the subject, to be able to understand robots and robotics, to be able to design a robot, and to be able to integrate a robot in appropriate applications. As such, it covers all necessary fundamentals of robotics, its components and subsystems, and its applications.

This book was originally written for Cal Poly Mechanical Engineering Department's Robotics course. With encouragement from different people, it was somewhat modified to the present form. The book is intended for senior or introductory graduate courses in robotics, as well as for practicing engineers who would like to learn about robotics. Although the book covers a fair amount of mechanics and kinematics, it also covers microprocessor applications, vision systems, sensors, and electric motors. Thus, it can easily be used by mechanical engineers, electronic and electrical engineers, computer engineers, and engineering technologists.

The book comprises nine chapters. Chapter 1 covers introductory subjects that familiarize the reader with the necessary background information that is used in the rest of the book. This includes some historical information, robot components, robot characteristics, robot languages, and robotic applications. Chapter 2 covers the forward and inverse kinematics of robots, including frame representations, transformations, position and orientation analysis, and the Denavit-Hartenberg representation of robot kinematics. Chapter 3 continues with differential motions and velocity analysis of robots and frames. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of robot dynamics and forces. Lagrangian mechanics is used as the primary method of analysis and development for this chapter. Chapter 5 discusses methods of path and trajectory planning, both in joint-space and in Cartesian-space. Chapter 6 covers actuators, including hydraulic devices, electric motors such as DC servomotors and stepper motors, Pneumatic devices, as well as many other novel actuators. It also covers microprocessor control of these actuators. Although this book is not a complete mechatronics book, it does cover a fair amount of mechatronics. Except for the design of a microprocessor, many aspects of mechatronic applications are covered in this chapter. Chapter 7 is a discussion of sensors that are used in robotics and robotic applications. Chapter 8 covers vision systems, including many different techniques for image processing and image analysis. Chapter 9 cover some basic principles of fuzzy logic and its applications in microprocessor control and robotics. This coverage is not intended to be a complete and thorough analysis of fuzzy logic, but instead an introduction to it. It is believed that students and engineers who find it interesting will continue on their own. Appendix A is a quick review of matrix algebra and some other mathematical facts that are needed throughout this book.

Since the book is written for senior-level engineering students or for practicing engineers, the assumption is that the users are familiar with matrix algebra, as well as with basic feedback control theory and analysis. For this reason, except for some basic review, this material is not separately covered in this book. Obviously, to know enough control theory to be proficient in it, one has to have access to a complete controls book, something that is beyond the scope of a robotics book.

Most of the material in this book is generally covered in a four-unit, 10-weeklong course at Cal Poly, with three one-hour lectures and one three-hour lab. However, it is easily possible to cover the entire course in a semester-long course as well. The following breakdown can be used as a model for setting up a course in robotics in a quarter system (in this case, certain subjects must be eliminated or shortened as shown):

  • Introductory material and review: 3 lectures
  • Kinematics of position: 7 lectures
  • Differential motions: 4 lectures
  • Robot dynamics and force control: 2 lectures
  • Path and trajectory planning: 1 lecture
  • Actuators: 3 lectures
  • Sensors: 3 lectures
  • Vision systems: 4 lectures
  • Fuzzy logic: 1 lectures
  • Exam and review: 2 lectures

Alternatively, for a 14-week long semester course with three lectures per week, the course may be set up as follows:

  • Introductory material and review: 3 lectures
  • Kinematics of position: 9 lectures
  • Differential motions: 5 lectures
  • Robot dynamics and force control: 5 lectures
  • Path and trajectory planning: 4 lectures
  • Actuators: 4 lectures
  • Sensors: 3 lectures
  • Vision systems: 5 lectures
  • Fuzzy logic: 2 lectures
  • Exams and review: 2 lectures

The book also features a design project that starts in Chapter 2 and continues throughout the book. At the end of each chapter, the student is directed to continue with the design project as it relates to the present chapter. Thus, by the end of the book, a complete robot is designed. In addition, a rolling-cylinder robot rover design project is also introduced in Chapter 6 and continues in Chapter 7.

I would like to thank all the people who, in one way or another, have contributed to this book. This includes my colleagues in the mechanical engineering department and the university who provided me with a sabbatical to write the first draft, all the countless individuals who did the research, development, and the hard work that came before my time and that enabled me to learn the subject myself, all the students and anonymous reviewers who made countless suggestions to improve the first draft, my editors Eric Frank and Lakshmi Balasubramanian, all the staff at Prentice Hall, who worked diligently to get a professional book out on time, and, of course, my family, who let me work on this manuscript for long hours instead of spending the time with them. To all of you, my sincere thanks.

I hope that you will enjoy reading the book, and more importantly, that you will learn the subject. The joy of robotics comes from learning it.

Saeed Benjamin Niku, Ph.D., P.E.
San Luis Obispo, California

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Most chapter begins with an Introduction and conclude with a Summary, References and Problems.

1. Fundamentals.

What is a Robot? Classification of Robots. What is Robotics? History of Robotics. Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots. Robot Components. Robot Degrees of Freedom. Robot Joints. Robot Coordinates. Robot Reference Frames. Programming Modes. Robot Characteristics. Robot Workspace. Robot Languages. Robot Applications. Other Robots and Applications. Social Issues.


2. Robot Kinematics: Position Analysis.

Robots as Mechanisms. Matrix Representation. Homogeneous Transformation Matrices. Representation of Transformations. Inverse of Transformation Matrices. Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots. Denavit-Hartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic Equations of Robots. The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots. Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots. Degeneracy and Dexterity. The Fundamental Problem with the Denavit-Hartenberg Representation. Design Project 1: A Three-Degree-of-Freedom Robot.


3. Differential Motions and Velocities.

Differential Relationships. Jacobian. Differential Motions of a Frame. Interpretation of the Differential Change. Differential Changes Between Frames. Differential Motions of a Robot and Its Hand Frame. Calculation of the Jacobian. How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator. Inverse Jacobian. Design Project.


4. Dynamic Analysis and Forces.

Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview. Effective Moments of Inertia. Dynamic Equations for Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom Robots. Static Force Analysis of Robots. Transformation of Forces and Moments Between Coordinate Frames. Design Project.


5. Trajectory Planning.

Path vs. Trajectory. Joint-Space vs. Cartesian-Space Descriptions. Basics of Trajectory Planning. Joint-Space Trajectory Planning. Cartesian-Space Trajectories. Continuous Trajectory Recording. Design Project.


6. Actuators.

Characteristics of Actuating Systems. Comparison of Actuating Systems. Hydraulic Devices. Pneumatic Devices. Electric Motors. Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors. Magnetostrictive Actuators. Shape-Memory Type Metals. Speed Reduction. Design Project 1. Design Project 2.


7. Sensors.

Sensor Characteristics. Position Sensors. Velocity Sensors. Acceleration Sensors. Force and Pressure Sensors. Torque Sensors. Microswitches. Light and Infrared Sensors. Touch and Tactile Sensors. Proximity Sensors. Range-finders. Sniff Sensors. Vision Systems. Voice Recognition Devices. Voice Synthesizers. Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device. Design Project.


8. Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems.

Image Processing versus Image Analysis. Two- and Three-Dimensional Image Types. What is an Image. Acquisition of Images. Digital Images. Frequency Domain vs. Spatial Domain. Fourier Transform of a Signal and its Frequency Content. Frequency Content of an Image; Noise, Edges. Spatial Domain Operations: Convolution Mask. Sampling and Quantization. Sampling Theorem. Image-Processing Techniques. Histogram of Images. Thresholding. Connectivity. Noise Reduction. Edge Detection. Hough Transform. Segmentation. Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting. Binary Morphology Operations. Gray Morphology Operations. Image Analysis. Object Recognition by Features. Depth Measurement with Vision Systems. Specialized Lighting. Image Data Compression. Real-Time Image Processing. Heuristics. Applications of Vision Systems. Design project.


9. Fuzzy Logic Control.

Fuzzy Control: What is Needed. Crisp Values vs. Fuzzy Values. Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Membership and Truth. Fuzzification. Fuzzy Inference Rule Base. Defuzzification. Simulation of Fuzzy Logic Controller. Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics. Design Project.


Appendix.

Matrix Algebra and Notation: A Review. Calculation of an Angle From its Sine, Cosine, or Tangent. Problems.


Index.

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Preface

As one of my students once said years ago, "in the life of every product, there comes a time when you have to shoot the designer and go into production." It seems that the same is true for a book. An author of a textbook such as this one may go on forever trying to cover any and every conceivable subject related to the book in order to generate an all-encompassing book that satisfies every teacher and student. But the intention behind writing this book was not that at all. The intention was to write a book that has most subjects that an undergraduate engineering student or a practicing engineer may need to know to be familiar with the subject, to be able to understand robots and robotics, to be able to design a robot, and to be able to integrate a robot in appropriate applications. As such, it covers all necessary fundamentals of robotics, its components and subsystems, and its applications.

This book was originally written for Cal Poly Mechanical Engineering Department's Robotics course. With encouragement from different people, it was somewhat modified to the present form. The book is intended for senior or introductory graduate courses in robotics, as well as for practicing engineers who would like to learn about robotics. Although the book covers a fair amount of mechanics and kinematics, it also covers microprocessor applications, vision systems, sensors, and electric motors. Thus, it can easily be used by mechanical engineers, electronic and electrical engineers, computer engineers, and engineering technologists.

The book comprises nine chapters. Chapter 1 covers introductory subjects that familiarize the reader with the necessary background informationthat is used in the rest of the book. This includes some historical information, robot components, robot characteristics, robot languages, and robotic applications. Chapter 2 covers the forward and inverse kinematics of robots, including frame representations, transformations, position and orientation analysis, and the Denavit-Hartenberg representation of robot kinematics. Chapter 3 continues with differential motions and velocity analysis of robots and frames. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of robot dynamics and forces. Lagrangian mechanics is used as the primary method of analysis and development for this chapter. Chapter 5 discusses methods of path and trajectory planning, both in joint-space and in Cartesian-space. Chapter 6 covers actuators, including hydraulic devices, electric motors such as DC servomotors and stepper motors, Pneumatic devices, as well as many other novel actuators. It also covers microprocessor control of these actuators. Although this book is not a complete mechatronics book, it does cover a fair amount of mechatronics. Except for the design of a microprocessor, many aspects of mechatronic applications are covered in this chapter. Chapter 7 is a discussion of sensors that are used in robotics and robotic applications. Chapter 8 covers vision systems, including many different techniques for image processing and image analysis. Chapter 9 cover some basic principles of fuzzy logic and its applications in microprocessor control and robotics. This coverage is not intended to be a complete and thorough analysis of fuzzy logic, but instead an introduction to it. It is believed that students and engineers who find it interesting will continue on their own. Appendix A is a quick review of matrix algebra and some other mathematical facts that are needed throughout this book.

Since the book is written for senior-level engineering students or for practicing engineers, the assumption is that the users are familiar with matrix algebra, as well as with basic feedback control theory and analysis. For this reason, except for some basic review, this material is not separately covered in this book. Obviously, to know enough control theory to be proficient in it, one has to have access to a complete controls book, something that is beyond the scope of a robotics book.

Most of the material in this book is generally covered in a four-unit, 10-weeklong course at Cal Poly, with three one-hour lectures and one three-hour lab. However, it is easily possible to cover the entire course in a semester-long course as well. The following breakdown can be used as a model for setting up a course in robotics in a quarter system (in this case, certain subjects must be eliminated or shortened as shown):

  • Introductory material and review: 3 lectures
  • Kinematics of position: 7 lectures
  • Differential motions: 4 lectures
  • Robot dynamics and force control: 2 lectures
  • Path and trajectory planning: 1 lecture
  • Actuators: 3 lectures
  • Sensors: 3 lectures
  • Vision systems: 4 lectures
  • Fuzzy logic: 1 lectures
  • Exam and review: 2 lectures

Alternatively, for a 14-week long semester course with three lectures per week, the course may be set up as follows:

  • Introductory material and review: 3 lectures
  • Kinematics of position: 9 lectures
  • Differential motions: 5 lectures
  • Robot dynamics and force control: 5 lectures
  • Path and trajectory planning: 4 lectures
  • Actuators: 4 lectures
  • Sensors: 3 lectures
  • Vision systems: 5 lectures
  • Fuzzy logic: 2 lectures
  • Exams and review: 2 lectures

The book also features a design project that starts in Chapter 2 and continues throughout the book. At the end of each chapter, the student is directed to continue with the design project as it relates to the present chapter. Thus, by the end of the book, a complete robot is designed. In addition, a rolling-cylinder robot rover design project is also introduced in Chapter 6 and continues in Chapter 7.

I would like to thank all the people who, in one way or another, have contributed to this book. This includes my colleagues in the mechanical engineering department and the university who provided me with a sabbatical to write the first draft, all the countless individuals who did the research, development, and the hard work that came before my time and that enabled me to learn the subject myself, all the students and anonymous reviewers who made countless suggestions to improve the first draft, my editors Eric Frank and Lakshmi Balasubramanian, all the staff at Prentice Hall, who worked diligently to get a professional book out on time, and, of course, my family, who let me work on this manuscript for long hours instead of spending the time with them. To all of you, my sincere thanks.

I hope that you will enjoy reading the book, and more importantly, that you will learn the subject. The joy of robotics comes from learning it.

Saeed Benjamin Niku, Ph.D., P.E.
San Luis Obispo, California

Read More Show Less

Introduction

As one of my students once said years ago, "in the life of every product, there comes a time when you have to shoot the designer and go into production." It seems that the same is true for a book. An author of a textbook such as this one may go on forever trying to cover any and every conceivable subject related to the book in order to generate an all-encompassing book that satisfies every teacher and student. But the intention behind writing this book was not that at all. The intention was to write a book that has most subjects that an undergraduate engineering student or a practicing engineer may need to know to be familiar with the subject, to be able to understand robots and robotics, to be able to design a robot, and to be able to integrate a robot in appropriate applications. As such, it covers all necessary fundamentals of robotics, its components and subsystems, and its applications.

This book was originally written for Cal Poly Mechanical Engineering Department's Robotics course. With encouragement from different people, it was somewhat modified to the present form. The book is intended for senior or introductory graduate courses in robotics, as well as for practicing engineers who would like to learn about robotics. Although the book covers a fair amount of mechanics and kinematics, it also covers microprocessor applications, vision systems, sensors, and electric motors. Thus, it can easily be used by mechanical engineers, electronic and electrical engineers, computer engineers, and engineering technologists.

The book comprises nine chapters. Chapter 1 covers introductory subjects that familiarize the reader with the necessary background informationthat is used in the rest of the book. This includes some historical information, robot components, robot characteristics, robot languages, and robotic applications. Chapter 2 covers the forward and inverse kinematics of robots, including frame representations, transformations, position and orientation analysis, and the Denavit-Hartenberg representation of robot kinematics. Chapter 3 continues with differential motions and velocity analysis of robots and frames. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of robot dynamics and forces. Lagrangian mechanics is used as the primary method of analysis and development for this chapter. Chapter 5 discusses methods of path and trajectory planning, both in joint-space and in Cartesian-space. Chapter 6 covers actuators, including hydraulic devices, electric motors such as DC servomotors and stepper motors, Pneumatic devices, as well as many other novel actuators. It also covers microprocessor control of these actuators. Although this book is not a complete mechatronics book, it does cover a fair amount of mechatronics. Except for the design of a microprocessor, many aspects of mechatronic applications are covered in this chapter. Chapter 7 is a discussion of sensors that are used in robotics and robotic applications. Chapter 8 covers vision systems, including many different techniques for image processing and image analysis. Chapter 9 cover some basic principles of fuzzy logic and its applications in microprocessor control and robotics. This coverage is not intended to be a complete and thorough analysis of fuzzy logic, but instead an introduction to it. It is believed that students and engineers who find it interesting will continue on their own. Appendix A is a quick review of matrix algebra and some other mathematical facts that are needed throughout this book.

Since the book is written for senior-level engineering students or for practicing engineers, the assumption is that the users are familiar with matrix algebra, as well as with basic feedback control theory and analysis. For this reason, except for some basic review, this material is not separately covered in this book. Obviously, to know enough control theory to be proficient in it, one has to have access to a complete controls book, something that is beyond the scope of a robotics book.

Most of the material in this book is generally covered in a four-unit, 10-weeklong course at Cal Poly, with three one-hour lectures and one three-hour lab. However, it is easily possible to cover the entire course in a semester-long course as well. The following breakdown can be used as a model for setting up a course in robotics in a quarter system (in this case, certain subjects must be eliminated or shortened as shown):

  • Introductory material and review: 3 lectures
  • Kinematics of position: 7 lectures
  • Differential motions: 4 lectures
  • Robot dynamics and force control: 2 lectures
  • Path and trajectory planning: 1 lecture
  • Actuators: 3 lectures
  • Sensors: 3 lectures
  • Vision systems: 4 lectures
  • Fuzzy logic: 1 lectures
  • Exam and review: 2 lectures

Alternatively, for a 14-week long semester course with three lectures per week, the course may be set up as follows:

  • Introductory material and review: 3 lectures
  • Kinematics of position: 9 lectures
  • Differential motions: 5 lectures
  • Robot dynamics and force control: 5 lectures
  • Path and trajectory planning: 4 lectures
  • Actuators: 4 lectures
  • Sensors: 3 lectures
  • Vision systems: 5 lectures
  • Fuzzy logic: 2 lectures
  • Exams and review: 2 lectures

The book also features a design project that starts in Chapter 2 and continues throughout the book. At the end of each chapter, the student is directed to continue with the design project as it relates to the present chapter. Thus, by the end of the book, a complete robot is designed. In addition, a rolling-cylinder robot rover design project is also introduced in Chapter 6 and continues in Chapter 7.

I would like to thank all the people who, in one way or another, have contributed to this book. This includes my colleagues in the mechanical engineering department and the university who provided me with a sabbatical to write the first draft, all the countless individuals who did the research, development, and the hard work that came before my time and that enabled me to learn the subject myself, all the students and anonymous reviewers who made countless suggestions to improve the first draft, my editors Eric Frank and Lakshmi Balasubramanian, all the staff at Prentice Hall, who worked diligently to get a professional book out on time, and, of course, my family, who let me work on this manuscript for long hours instead of spending the time with them. To all of you, my sincere thanks.

I hope that you will enjoy reading the book, and more importantly, that you will learn the subject. The joy of robotics comes from learning it.

Saeed Benjamin Niku, Ph.D., P.E.
San Luis Obispo, California

Read More Show Less

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