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This book thoroughly describes the complicated IC chip manufacturing processes in a semiconductor fab, using minimum mathematics, chemistry, and physics. It covers the advanced technologies while keeping the contents simple and easy to understand for readers without science and engineering degrees. It focuses on the newest IC fabrication technologies and describes the older technologies to provide better understanding of the historical development. The processes chosen for the book are very close to those in real fabs, especially on process troubleshooting and process and hardware relations.
This book is intended for technical and college students who need an in-depth understanding of the technology as they prepare to find a job in the field. It is also intended as a reference book for engineering students and to provide a more realistic picture of the semiconductor industry. Industry operators, technicians, engineers, and personnel in sales, marketing, administration, and management can also benefit. This book can help them to learn more about their jobs, improve their troubleshooting and problem-solving skills, and raise their career development potential.
Chapter 1 briefly reviews the history of the semiconductor industry and describes semiconductor manufacturing processes. Chapter 2 introduces basic semiconductor fabrication including yield, cleanroom, semiconductor fab, and IC chip test and packaging. Chapter 3 gives a brief review of fabrication semiconductor devices, IC chips, and early technologies in semiconductor processing. Crystal structure, singles, crystal silicon wafer manufacturing, and epitaxial silicon growth are described in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 lists and discusses thermal processes, including oxidation, diffusion, annealing, alloying, and reflow processes. Rapid thermal processes (RTP) and conventional furnace thermal processes are discussed. Chapter 6 details the photolithography process. Fundamentals of plasmas used in semiconductor processing are covered in Chapter 7; it introduces plasma applications, DC bias, and plasma-process relations. Chapter 8 discusses the ion implantation process. Chapter 9 gives a detailed description of etch processes including wet and dry etches; chemical, reactive ion etch (RIE), and physical etches; and patterned and blanket etch processes. Basic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and dielectric thin-film deposition processes, including dielectric CVD processes, process trends, troubleshooting, and future trends are discussed in detail in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 covers metallization, metal CVD, and physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. It also describes the copper metallization process. Planarization processes including chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) are discussed in Chapter 12. Chapter 13 discusses process integration. Chapter 14 diagrams CMOS process flows including an advanced CMOS process flow with copper and low-k interconnection. Chapter 15 predicts the future development of the semiconductor industry.
Many people helped me to write this book. I especially appreciate the useful information provided by my current and former colleagues: Lou Frenzel, Thomas E. Thompson, Ole Krogh, Tony Shi, Alberto Quinonez, Lance Kinney, Scott Bolton, and Steve Reedy. Many of my students helped me by proofreading end improving the book. I especially express my thanks to Wayne Parent, Jeffrey Carroll, Boyd Woods, and Ronald Tabery.
I would also like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable suggestions: Professor Dave Hata, Portland Community College; Professor Fred Lavender, Albuquerque Technical Institute; Professor Gene Stouder, Southwest Texas State University; Professor Bassam Matar, Glendale Community College; Professor Carlo Sapijaszko, DeVry Institute of Technology; Professor George Shaiffer, Pikes Peak Community College; Professor Val Shires, Gwinnett Technical Institute; and Professor Devinder Sud, DeVry Institute.