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Introduction to Solar Radio Astronomy and Radio Physics / Edition 1
     

Introduction to Solar Radio Astronomy and Radio Physics / Edition 1

by A. Kruger, A. Kra1/4ger, A. Kr Ger
 

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ISBN-10: 9027709971

ISBN-13: 9789027709974

Pub. Date: 10/31/1979

Publisher: Springer Netherlands

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9789027709974
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Publication date:
10/31/1979
Series:
Geophysics and Astrophysics Monographs (Closed) Series , #16
Edition description:
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979
Pages:
332
Product dimensions:
8.27(w) x 11.69(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

I Introduction.- 1.1. Short History of Solar Radio Astronomy.- 1.2. General Views of the Sun.- 1.2.1. The Sun as a Source of Radio Waves.- 1.2.2. The Solar Atmosphere.- a. Photosphere.- b. Chromosphere.- c. Corona.- 1.2.3. Solar Activity.- a. General Phenomena.- b. Sunspots.- c. Plages.- d. Flares.- e. Prominences.- f. Active Longitudes, Sector Structure and Coronal Holes.- 1.3. Some Astronomical Fundamentals.- 1.3.1. Sun—Earth Distance.- 1.3.2. Coordinate Systems.- a. Horizontal System.- b. Equatorial System.- c. Solar Coordinates.- II Instrumental Background.- 2.1. Fundamentals of Radio Observations.- 2.1.1. The Electromagnetic Spectrum and the Atmospheric Radio Window.- 2.1.2. Radiation Quantities.- 2.2. Radio Telescope Aerials.- 2.2.1. Fundamental Aerial Parameters.- a. Aerial Patterns.- b. Effective Area and Gain.- c. Effective Aerial Temperature.- 2.2.2. Basic Types of Aerials.- a. Primary Antennas.- b. Reflectors.- c. Special Constructions.- 2.3. Radio Astronomy Receivers.- 2.3.1. Fundamental Receiver Parameters.- 2.3.2 Basic Types of Receivers.- a. General Principles.- b. Low-Noise Amplifiers.- 2.4. Polarization Measurements.- 2.4.1. Fundamentals of Polarized Radiation.- 2.4.2. Polarimeters.- 2.5. Absolute Calibration Experiments.- 2.5.1. General Aspects.- 2.5.2. Standard-Radiometer and Standard-Field Methods.- 2.6. Spectrography.- 2.6.1. Swept-Frequency Spectrographs.- 2.6.2. Multi-Channel Spectrographs.- 2.7 Interferometry and Heliography.- 2.7.1. Two-Element (Adding) Interferometers.- 2.7.2. Phase-Switched (Multiplying) Interferometers.- 2.7.3. Swept-Lobe Interferometers.- 2.7.4. Special Arrangements.- a. Receipt of Polarization.- b. Swept-Frequency Interferometer.- c. Wide-Band Interferometry.- d. Long-Baseline and Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry.- 2.7.5. The Grating (Multielement) Interferometer.- 2.7.6. Cross-Type Interferometers.- 2.7.7. Heliographs.- 2.8. Aperture-Synthesis Methods.- 2.8.1. General Principle.- III Phenomenology of Solar Radio Emission.- 3.1. The ‘Quiet’ Sun.- 3.1.1. Spectrum.- 3.1.2. Brightness Distribution.- 3.1.3. Model Calculations.- 3.1.4. The Basic Component of Solar Radio Emission.- 3.1.5. Exploration of the Outer Corona.- 3.1.6. About Solar Line Emissions.- 3.2. The Slowly Varying Component.- 3.2.1. General.- 3.2.2. Total Flux Characteristics.- 3.2.3. The Source Regions.- a. Observations.- b. Interpretation.- 3.2.4. Connection with X-Rays and Other Phenomena.- 3.2.5. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations.- 3.2.6. Large-Scale Patterns.- 3.3. Solar Continuum Bursts (a): Microwave Bursts.- 3.3.1. General Remarks.- 3.3.2. Morphology.- 3.3.3. Spectral Characteristics.- 3.3.4. Polarization and Source Structures.- 3.3.5. Association with Other Phenomena and Models.- 3.4. Fast-Drift Bursts.- 3.4.1. General Properties.- 3.4.2. Forms of Appearance (Gross Structure).- a. The ‘Standard’ Type III Burst.- b. U-Type Bursts.- c. J-Type Bursts.- d. Type V Bursts.- 3.4.3. Fine-Structure Emissions.- a. Stria Bursts (Split-Pair and Triple Bursts), Type IIIb Bursts.- b. Drift-Pair Bursts.- c. Thread-Like Patterns and Shadow-Type III Bursts.- d. Herring-Bone Structures.- e. Type III Storm Bursts.- 3.4.4. Ground-Based Observational Characteristics of Standard Type III Bursts.- a. Spectral Characteristics and Harmonic Structure.- b. Localization.- c. Morphology.- d. Polarization.- e. Associated Phenomena.- 3.4.5. Space Observations.- a. Short History.- b. Hectometer Fast-Drift Bursts.- c. Directivity.- d. Exciter Paths and Ray Trajectories.- 3.4.6. Interpretation.- a. The Exciter Source.- b. The Plasma-Wave Source.- c. The Radio-Wave Source.- d. Radio-Wave Propagation.- 3.5. Slow-Drift Bursts.- 3.5.1. General Observational Features.- a. Main Characteristics, Frequency Drift.- b. Morphology and Other Properties.- c. Heliographic Observations.- d. Associated Phenomena.- 3.5.2. Spectral Structure.- a. Harmonic Radiation.- b. Frequency Splitting.- c. Herring-Bone Structure.- 3.5.3. Interpretation.- a. History.- b. Type II Burst Models.- c. Shock-Wave Propagation.- d. Electromagnetic Radiation.- 3.6. Continuum Bursts (b): The Type IV Burst Complex.- 3.6.1. Introductory Remarks.- a. General Features.- b. Brief History.- c. Classifications.- d. Outline of a Complete Picture.- 3.6.2. The cm- and dm-Region.- a. Type IV? Bursts.- b. Type IVdm Bursts.- 3.6.3. The m-and Dm-Region.- a. Flare Continua (Quasi-Stationary Type IVm Bursts).- b. Moving Type IV Bursts (‘IVmA’).- c. Stationary Type IV Bursts (‘IVmB’).- 3.6.4. Type IV Burst Models.- a. Source Geometry.- b. Emission Processes.- 3.7. Noise Storms.- 3.7.1. Outline of the Phenomenon.- a. General Properties.- b. Related Phenomena.- 3.7.2. Storm Continua.- a. Phenomenological Characteristics.- b. Relation to Small-Band Features.- 3.7.3. Type I Bursts.- a. Basic Characteristics.- b. Chains of Type I Bursts.- c. Attempts at Interpretation.- 3.7.4. Type III Storms.- a. The Phenomenon.- b. Implications.- 3.8. Solar Radio Pulsations.- 3.8.1. General Features.- 3.8.2. Periodicities in the cm- and dm-Burst Radiation.- 3.8.3. Fine Structure and Short-Period Fluctuations in Type IV Bursts.- a. Pulsating Structures in the m-Region.- b. Parallel Drifting Bands (Zebra Patterns) and Groups of Tadpole Bursts.- 3.8.4. Medium-Period Fluctuations in Type IVmB Bursts and Noise Storms.- 3.8.5. Interpretations.- a. Modulation of Plasma Parameters.- b. Particle Ejections152 3.9. Summary.- IV Theory of Solar Radio Emission.- 4.1. Basic Properties of the Solar Atmosphere as a Plasma Medium.- 4.1.1. Compilation of Important Plasma Parameters.- 4.1.2. Density and Temperature.- a. Electron Density.- b. Thermal Equilibrium.- c. Nonthermal Energy Distributions.- 4.1.3. Magnetic Field.- a. Empirical Distributions.- b. Models.- c. Alfvén-Wave Velocity.- 4.1.4. Characteristic Time Scales and Transport Quantities.- a. Redistribution and Diffusion Times.- b. Electric and Heat Conductivity.- 4.2. Fundamentals of the Emission and Propagation of Radio Waves.- 4.2.1. Elementary Processes of the Generation of Radio Waves.- a. General Remarks and Definitions.- b. Primary Emission and Absorption Processes.- c. Indirect Emission and Absorption Processes.- 4.2.2. Basic Theoretical Developments.- 4.2.3. Polarized Radiation in a Plasma.- a. Basic Definitions.- b. Polarization of Radio Waves.- c. Faraday Effect.- 4.2.4. Propagation of Radio Waves.- a. Ray Trajectories - Refraction and Scattering.- b. Dispersion Relations.- c. Radiative Transfer.- 4.3. Single-Particle Approximation: An Account of Direct Radio Emission Mechanisms.- 4.3.1. Coulomb Bremsstrahlung.- a. Thermal Free-Free Emission and Absorption.- b. Influence of External Magnetic Fields, Polarization Effects.- c. Nonthermal Bremsstrahlung Effects.- 4.3.2. Cyclotron (Gyro-Synchrotron) Emission.- a. The Emission Equation.- b. Basic Formulas.- c. Correction Terms.- 4.3.3. Time Dependencies of Radiation.- 4.4. Cold-Plasma Approximation: Some Aspects of Synchrotron Radiation and Cerenkov Radiation.- 4.4.1. Magneto-Ionic Theory.- 4.4.2. Synchrotron Radiation.- a. Ultra-Relativistic Approximation.- b. Polarization.- c. Influence of the Plasma Medium, Razin Effect.- d. Synchrotron Reabsorption.- e. Relations Between the Particle-Energy Spectrum and the Synchrotron-Radiation Spectrum.- 4.4.3. The Cerenkov Effect.- 4.5. Warm-Plasma Effects: Gyroresonance Absorption and Plasma Waves.- 4.5.1. Kinetic Theory.- a. Introductory Remarks.- b. The Boltzmann—Vlasov Equation.- 4.5.2. Electromagnetic Gyroresonance Absorption.- 4.5.3. General Aspects of Radiation in a Turbulent Plasma.- 4.5.4. Longitudinal Plasma Waves.- a. Plasma Waves in an Isotropic Medium (Langmuir Waves).- b. Cyclotron-Harmonic Waves (Bernstein Waves).- 4.5.5. Hydromagnetic Waves.- 4.5.6. Summary of Warm-Plasma Wave Modes.- 4.6. Wave-Mode Transformations: Wave-Particle and Wave-Wave Interactions.- 4.6.1. Scattering by Thermal and Superthermal Particles.- a. General Cases.- b. Differential Scattering Within Individual Wave Modes.- 4.6.2. Interactions of Different Wave Modes.- 4.6.3. Some Possible Solar Radio Applications.- 4.7. Instabilities and Coherent Emission.- 4.7.1. General Concepts.- 4.7.2. Classifications of Plasma Instabilities.- 4.7.3. Some Important Instabilities.- a. Two-Stream Instabilities.- b. Velocity-Anisotropy Instabilities.- c. Tearing-Mode Instabilities.- 4.7.4. Amplification of Electromagnetic Waves.- a. Negative Absorption of Radio Waves.- b. Induced Scattering of Coherently Generated Plasma Waves.- V Integration of Radio Astronomy into Solar and Solar-Terrestrial Physics.- 5.1. Estimation of Solar Plasma Parameters.- 5.1.1. Particle Density and Magnetic Field.- 5.1.2. Energy Content.- 5.2. The Flare Phenomenon.- 5.2.1. The Low-Temperature Flare.- 5.2.2. The High-Temperature Flare.- 5.2.3. The High-Energy Flare.- 5.3. Particle Acceleration and Energy Release.- 5.3.1. Acceleration Mechanisms.- a. General Concepts.- b. Acceleration by Electric Fields.- c. The Fermi-Parker Mechanism.- d. Other Electromagnetic Acceleration Mechanisms.- 5.3.2. Energy Release by Different Modes of Plasma Turbulence.- 5.3.3. Relation Between Electron Energy Spectrum and Emitted Photon Spectrum.- 5.4. Particle Radiation and Radio Waves.- 5.4.1. The Solar Wind.- 5.4.2. Electron Events.- a. Nonrelativistic Electrons.- b. Relativistic Electrons.- 5.4.3. Proton Events.- 5.5. Shock Waves and Magnetospheric Disturbances.- 5.5.1. Flare-Produced Interplanetary Shock Waves.- 5.2.2. Analogies Between Solar and Magnetospheric Processes.- 5.6. Burst Origin and Flare Theories.- 5.6.1. Basic Problems.- a. The Energy/Time Problem.- b. The Mass Problem.- c. The Spatial Communication Problem.- 5.6.2. Possible Sources of the Flare Energy.- a. Energy Storage by Particles and Nonelectromagnetic Force Fields.- b. Energy Transport by Hydromagnetic Waves.- c. Electromagnetic Flare Build-Up Processes.- 5.6.3. Energy Release in the Hydrodynamic Flare Stage.- a. Current Sheet Models (General).- b. Dynamic Magnetic Field Dissipation.- c. The Petschek Mechanism.- 5.6.4. Kinetic Stages of Flare-Energy Release.- a. Analogies to Laboratory Experiments.- b. Deficiencies of Previous Flare Theories.- 5.7. Summary and Prospects.- Literature.- List of Symbols.

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