An Introduction to Standards-Based Reflective Practice for Middle and High School Teaching

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More About This Textbook

Overview

This easy-to-use introductory guide to teaching in contemporary middle and high schools provides teachers with the tools to become reflective practitioners. It shows pre- and inservice teachers how to use standards to choose instructional materials and methods that are appropriate with particular students at a particular time in a particular setting for a particular purpose. While the authors are specialists in English and social studies, this resource is appropriate for aspiring middle and high school teachers of any subject. With a personal voice that will appeal to readers, this book:

Links directly to the most recent version of standards for beginning teachers published by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO).

Illustrates how teachers can be reflective about, rather than reactive to, standards.

Features an autobiographical approach to help readers understand how prior educational experiences may shape their future teaching.

Contains numerous reflective vignettes by practicing teachers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780807750551
  • Publisher: Teachers College Press
  • Publication date: 3/7/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 224
  • Sales rank: 1,119,371
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Dedication xi

Acknowledgments xii

Introduction 1

Conceptual Framework 2

Organization of the Text 3

Features of the Text 4

Part I Personal Contexts of Teaching

1 Becoming a Reflective Practitioner 7

How Reflection Can Improve Teaching 7

Constructing a Teaching Identity 8

Reflecting on Life Experience 9

How Reflective Thinking Supports Reflective Practice 13

Reflection and Pedagogical Content Knowledge 16

Reflection in an Era of Standards and Accountability 18

Summary 20

2 Knowing Middle and High School Students 22

Reflecting on Practice: Liz Spalding-"From Being Smart to Being Cool" 23

Societal Changes Affecting Adolescents 24

Good News about Adolescents 25

Sociocultural Characteristics of Adolescents 25

Exceptional Students 31

Learning Styles 32

Multiple Intelligences 32

Creating Equitable Learning Environments 33

Summary 35

Part II Classroom Contexts of Teaching

3 Rethinking Classroom Management 39

Reflecting on Practice: Joseph Braun-"Managing More Than Misconduct" 40

Toward Greater Awareness of Classroom Management 40

Easing Concerns About Classroom Management 41

Toward Successful Classroom Management 41

Summary 51

4 Considering Curriculum for Middle and High School Students 53

Reflecting on Practice: Joseph Braun-"Clueless About Curriculum" 54

Case Study: A Tale of Teaching Biology in Two Cities 55

Toward a Definition of Curriculum 56

Who Decides? Curriculum at the National, State, District, School, and Classroom Levels 57

Models of Curriculum Development 61

Deciding who Really Makes the Curriculum 61

Summary 65

5 Planning for Middle and High School Instruction 67

Reflecting on Practice: Jesus Garcia-"Teaching a Personal Interpretation of History" 67

What Do Teachers Bring to the Planning Table? 68

Approaches to Standards-Based Planning 70

Planning for Instruction 72

An Outcomes-Based Approach to Unit Planning 74

Lesson Planning 75

Sample Lesson Plan: Introduction to Abstract Art 76

A Subject-Based Approach to Unit Planning 78

Sample Lesson Plan: The Roaring Twenties 82

Summary 83

6 Selecting Instructional Materials 85

Reflecting on Practice: Jesus Garcia-"Textbooks as Tools for Building Instruction" 86

Using Multiple Tools for Multiple Purposes 87

Teacher Knowledge as an Instructional Tool 87

Textbooks as Instructional Tools 88

Other Commercially Prepared Materials as Instructional Tools 91

Community Resources as Instructional Tools 92

Trade Books as Instructional Tools 93

Media as Instructional Tools 94

Realia as Instructional Tools 95

Evaluating Instructional Materials 95

National and Local, Standards as Instructional Tools 97

Summary 97

7 Using Technology to Support Learning 99

Reflecting on Practice: Joseph Braun-"Teaching on the Cutting Edge" 99

ISTE Standard 1 Facilitate and Inspire Student learning and Creativity 100

ISTE Standard 2 Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments 102

ISTE Standard 3 Model Digital-Age Work and Learning 104

ISTE Standard 4 Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility 105

ISTE Standard 5 Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership 107

Summary 108

8 Implementing Instruction: Teacher-Directed Strategies 109

Reflecting on Practice: Liz Spalding-"My Learning Style Odyssey, Part I" 110

Standards for Authentic Intellectual Achievement 111

Authentic and Effective Pedagogy 111

Creating a Classroom Community 112

Direct Instruction 113

Mastery Learning 113

Lecture 114

Helping Students Develop, Process, and Organize Knowledge 115

Helping Students Develop Thinking Skills 116

Encouraging Higher-Order Thinking Through Questions 119

Teacher-Directed Discussion 122

Summary 123

9 Implementing Instruction: Student-Centered Strategies 125

Reflecting on Practice: Liz Spalding-"My Learning Style Odyssey, Part II" 126

Differentiating Instruction 127

Learning in Small Groups 128

Student-Directed Discussion 129

Students Teaching Students 130

Thinking Skills Revisited 132

Teaching for Understanding 134

Literacy in the Content Areas 136

Making Connections to the World Beyond the Classroom 137

Summary 139

10 Assessing Student Learning 141

Reflecting on Practice: Liz Spalding-"From Point Collector to Thoughtful Assessor" 141

Understanding the Language of Assessment 143

Minimizing Bias and Increasing Equity 144

Assessment and Evaluation in the Classroom 144

Traditional Forms of Classroom Assessment 148

Alternative Forms of Classroom Assessment 150

Recording and Reporting Results 153

External Assessment and Evaluation 154

Summary 155

Part III Professional Contexts of Teaching

11 Understanding the Role of Community 159

Reflecting on Practice: Liz Spalding-"A Stormy Start to the First Year of Teaching" 159

What Is Community? 161

Social Capital and Schools as Democratic Learning Communities 162

Teachers and Communities of Practice 163

Connecting with Communities within a School 163

Connecting with Communities Beyond the School 165

Summary 171

12 Reflecting for Professional Renewal 173

Reflecting on Practice: Liz Spalding-"Moving Beyond the Apprenticeship of Observation" 174

Developing a Disposition for Reflection 175

Becoming an Action Researcher 176

Mentoring and Induction Programs 178

Professional Associations and Higher Education 180

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards 184

Compiling a Teaching Portfolio 185

Summary 185

Conclusion 186

Appendix: How to Use This Book with the CCSSO Model Standards for Beginning Teaching 187

References 189

Index 201

About the Authors 212

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