Introduction to Statistics provides a first exposure to elementary statistics for liberal arts students nationwide. The textbook includes a focus on technological skills to increase statistical literacy, with detailed explanations presented in an easy conversational writing style. The text uses a step-by-step problem-solving approach that helps students understand complex statistical concepts, while incorporating educational trends that stress student understanding of basic statistical concepts with the help of technological devices.

Suitable for use in a one- or two-semester course, the text contains fourteen chapters of descriptive statistics, probability, probability distributions, various models of hypothesis testing, and linear regression. Interpretation of calculator and statistical software output is integrated throughout the text, and numerous problem sets offer questions that both test basic statistical concepts and challenge students’ critical thinking skills.

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked,
or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to
Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original
and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you
and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not
violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help
ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer.
However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or
to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the
information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

- HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone

- Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.

- Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.

- Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others

- Phone numbers, addresses, URLs

- Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information

- Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

- By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its
sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the
review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.

- Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly
those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com
also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.

- See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.

Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Create a Pen Name

Welcome, penname

You have successfully created your Pen Name. Start enjoying the benefits of the BN.com Community today.

If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble

## More About This Textbook

## Overview

Introduction to Statisticsprovides a first exposure to elementary statistics for liberal arts students nationwide. The textbook includes a focus on technological skills to increase statistical literacy, with detailed explanations presented in an easy conversational writing style. The text uses a step-by-step problem-solving approach that helps students understand complex statistical concepts, while incorporating educational trends that stress student understanding of basic statistical concepts with the help of technological devices.Suitable for use in a one- or two-semester course, the text contains fourteen chapters of descriptive statistics, probability, probability distributions, various models of hypothesis testing, and linear regression. Interpretation of calculator and statistical software output is integrated throughout the text, and numerous problem sets offer questions that both test basic statistical concepts and challenge students’ critical thinking skills.

## Product Details

## Table of Contents

I Introduction to Statistics 11.1Introduction 1What Is Statistics? 1

1.2Why Sample? 8Why Sample? 8

1.3Sampling Techniques 10Random or Probability Sampling Techniques 11

1.4Uses of Statistics 161.5Misuses of Statistics 18Misleading Graphs 18

Non-Representative Samples 20

Inappropriate Comparisons 21

The Omission of Variation About an Average 21

1.6Overview and Summary 212 Organizing and Presenting Data 312.1Introduction 312.2Classifications of Data 33Categorical and Numerical Variables 34

Continuous and Discrete Data 34

2.3Exploring Data Using the Stem-and-Leaf Display 36Back-to-Back Stem-and-Leaf Display 40

2.4Frequency Distribution Tables 41Frequency Distribution Table for Categorical Data 41

Frequency Distribution Table for Numerical Data 42

Relative Frequency Distributions 47

Cumulative Frequency Distributions 49

2.5Graphs: Bar Graph, Histogram, Frequency Polygon and Ogive 52Bar Graph 52

Histogram 54

Frequency Polygon and Ogive 61

2.6Specialty Graphs: Pie Chart and Pictograph 652.7Identifying Shapes and Interpreting Graphs 66Shapes of Distributions 66

Interpreting Graphs 69

2.8Using Technology 71Graphing Calculator Display of a Histogram, Frequency Polygon and Ogive 73

3 Numerical Techniques for Describing Data 853.1Measures of Central Tendency 86The Mean 86

Sample Mean 87

Population Mean 88

Other Calculations Using Σ 89

The Median 92

The Mode 95

The Relationship of the Mean, Median and Mode 98

The Mode and Its Location within the Distribution Shapes 99

The Median and Its Location within the Distribution Shapes 99

The Mean and Its Location within the Distribution Shapes 99

Symmetric Bell-Shaped Distribution 99

Skewed to the Left Distribution 100

Skewed to the Right Distribution 100

Comparing the Mean, the Median and the Mode 101

3.2Measures of Variability 103The Range 103

The Variance and Standard Deviation of a Sample 105

Interpretation of the Standard Deviation 108

The Variance and Standard Deviation of a Population 110

Using the Sample Standard Deviation to Estimate the Population Standard

Deviation 114

3.3Applications of the Standard Deviation 115Chebyshev’s Theorem 115

Empirical Rule 117

Using the Range to Obtain an Estimate of the Standard Deviation 118

3.4Measures of Relative Standing 122z Score 123

Detecting Outliers Using z Scores 126

Converting z Scores to Raw Scores 126

Percentile Rank and Percentiles 128

Deciles and Quartiles 130

3.5Box-and-Whisker Plot: An Exploratory Data Analysis Technique 1333.6Using Technology 1434 Linear Correlation and Regression Analysis 1694.1Introduction 1694.2The Scatter Diagram 1704.3The Coefficient of Linear Correlation 177Some Cautions Regarding the Interpretation of Correlation Results 181

4.4More on the Relationship Between the Correlation Coefficientand the Scatter Diagram 181

4.5The Coefficient of Determination 1824.6Linear Regression Analysis 183Interpolation versus Extrapolation 188

Regression Analysis Concept Revisited 190

4.7Using Technology 1935 Probability 2055.1Introduction 205The Birthday Problem 205

Chance! Chance! Chance! 206

5.2Some Terms Used in Probability 206Using a Tree Diagram to Construct a Sample Space 208

5.3Permutations and Combinations 213Permutation 213

Combination 219

Methods of Selection 223

Explaining the Difference Between the Idea of a Permutation

and a Combination 224

5.4Probability 225Alternate Approaches to Assigning a Probability 226

Another Approach to Defining Probability 231

Relative Frequency Concept of Probability or Posteriori Probability 231

Another Approach to Defining Probability 233

Subjective or Personal Probability 233

5.5Fundamental Rules and Relationships of Probability 235Probability Problems Using Permutations and Combinations 247

5.6Conditional Probability 2515.7Using Technology 2606 Random Variables and Discrete ProbabilityDistributions 2776.1Introduction 2776.2Random Variables 2786.3Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable 2826.4Mean and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable 288The Mean Value of a Discrete Random Variable 288

The Variance and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable 292

6.5Binomial Probability Distribution 299Binomial Probability Formula 302

An Application of the Binomial Distribution: Acceptance Sampling 314

6.6The Poisson Distribution 318Shape of the Poisson Distribution 323

6.7Using Technology 3247 Continuous Probability Distributionsand the Normal Distribution 3417.1Introduction 3417.2Continuous Probability Distributions 3417.3The Normal Distribution 3467.4Properties of a Normal Distribution 348The Standard Normal Curve 350

7.5Using the Normal Curve Area Table 353Finding a z-score Knowing the Proportion of Area to the Left 366

7.6Applications of the Normal Distribution 3717.7Percentiles and Applications of Percentiles 3767.8Probability Applications 3877.9The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 3927.10Using Technology 4048 Sampling and Sampling Distributions 4218.1The Sampling Distribution of the Mean 4218.2The Mean and Standard Deviation of the Sampling Distributionof the Mean 429

Mean of the Sampling Distribution of the Mean 429

Standard Deviation of the Sampling Distribution of the Mean 429

Interpretation of the Standard Error of the Mean 432

8.3The Finite Correction Factor 4338.4The Shape of the Sampling Distribution of the Mean 436Sampling from a Normal Population 436

Sampling from a Non-Normal Population 439

The Central Limit Theorem 439

8.5Calculating Probabilities Using the Sampling Distribution of the Mean 4448.6The Effect of Sample Size on the Standard Error of the Mean 4508.7The Sampling Distribution of the Proportion 452Sampling Error of the Proportion 461

Interpretation of the Standard Error of the Proportion 462

Shape of the Sampling Distribution of the Proportion 462

Calculating Probabilities Using the Sampling Distribution

of the Proportion 464

8.8Using Technology 4689 Estimation 4819.1Introduction 4819.2Point Estimate of the Population Mean and the Population Proportion 4829.3Interval Estimation 4849.4Interval Estimation: Confidence Intervals for the Population Mean 485Constructing a Confidence Interval for a Population Mean: When the Population

Standard Deviation Is Unknown 493

The t Distribution 494

9.5Interval Estimation: Confidence Intervals for the Population Proportion 5009.6Determining Sample Size and the Margin of Error 504Sample Size for Estimating a Population Mean, μ 504

Sample Size for Estimating a Population Proportion, p 508

Summary of Confidence Intervals 513

9.7Using Technology 51310 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 52310.1Introduction 52310.2Hypothesis Testing 523Null and Alternative Hypotheses 524

10.3The Development of a Decision Rule 53210.4p-Values for Hypothesis Testing 547Procedure to Calculate the p-Value of a Hypothesis Test 550

10.5Using Technology 55211 Hypothesis Testing Involving One Population 56311.1Introduction 56311.2Hypothesis Testing Involving a Population Proportion 563Hypothesis Testing Procedure Involving a Population Proportion 565

11.3Hypothesis Testing Involving a Population Mean: Population Standard DeviationKnown 574

11.4The t Distribution 579Using Table III: Critical Value for the t Distribution 580

11.5Hypothesis Testing Involving a Population Mean: Population Standard DeviationUnknown 582

11.6p-Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing Using the TI-84 Plus Calculator 59111.7Using Technology 59812 Hypothesis Testing Involving Two Population ProportionsUsing Independent Samples 60912.1Introduction to Hypothesis Tests Involving a Difference Between Two PopulationProportions Using Independent Samples 609

12.2The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Two Proportions 61012.3Hypothesis Testing Involving Two Population Proportions Using Large Samples 619Hypothesis Testing Procedure Involving the Difference Between the Proportions

of Two Populations for Large Samples 619

12.4Hypothesis Testing Involving Two Population Proportions ComparingTreatment and Control Groups 630

12.5p-Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing Involving Two Population ProportionsUsing the TI-84 Calculator 636

12.6Two Population Hypothesis Testing Summaries Using Independent Samples 64012.7Using Technology 64213 Hypothesis Test Involving Two Population MeansUsing Independent Samples 65713.1Introduction 65713.2The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Two Means 65713.3Hypothesis Testing Involving Two Population Means and Unknown PopulationStandard Deviations 660

Two Sample t Test 660

13.4Hypothesis Tests Comparing Treatment and Control Groups 66613.5p-Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing Involving Two Population MeansUsing the TI-84 Plus Calculator 672

13.6Using Technology 67714 Chi-Square 68714.1Introduction 68714.2Properties of the Chi-Square Distribution 68914.3Chi-Square Hypothesis Test of Independence 69014.4Assumptions Underlying the Chi-Square Test 70014.5Test of Goodness-of-Fit 70014.6p-Value Approach to Chi-Square Hypothesis Test of IndependenceUsing the TI-84 Plus Calculator 707

14.7Using Technology 71215 Inferences for Correlation and Regression 72315.1Introduction 72315.2Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 725Procedure to Test the Significance of the Population Correlation

Coefficient, 725

15.3Assumptions for Linear Regression Analysis 73315.4p-Value Approach to Testing the Significance of the Correlation CoefficientUsing the TI-84 Calculator 733

15.5Introduction to Multiple Regression 73815.6Using Technology 745Answer Section757Appendices791A: Databases 792

B: Chapter Formulas 797

C: Summary of Hypothesis Tests 803

D: Statistical Tables 805

Index81116 The F-Distribution and An Introductionto Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)17 NonParametric Statistics