An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt / Edition 1

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Tutankhamen. Looted pyramids of ancient kings. The Valley of the Kings. Few civilizations excite the imagination like that of ancient Egypt. Yet, to date, there has been no comprehensive introduction to Egyptian archaeology.

This skillfully organized book guides the reader from Egypt's prehistoric past through the pharaonic dynasties and the Greco-Roman Period by providing an overview of ancient Egyptian culture, its monuments, and civilization. The text is enriched by more than 120 color and black-and-white illustrations, including artifacts, maps, and site and building plans. The book also includes special sections on such topics as building the pyramids at Giza, mummification, and deciphering hieroglyphs.

Covering Egyptian chronology, language, geography, specific archaeological sites, and the history of Egyptology, An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt is an invaluable resource to students and interested lay people alike.

About the Author:
Kathryn A. Bard is Associate Professor of Archaeology, Boston University

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This book is primarily and expressly meant for teaching purposes and can certainly be used as such, regarding the clarity and the summary-style of the text.... Contrary to many general survey books on ancient Egypt, the chronological chapters are not written by separate experts, but all by the author. This approach has its advantages, because now they are all written in a coherent, accessible style." (PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, February 2009)

"A detailed and impressive volume ... Very readable and well illustrated, this book contains much information that will not be found elsewhere." (Ancient Egypt Magazine)

"This book will be ideal for enthusiasts, especially for students and more so for anyone who teaches the subject at any level. As such it is likely to be well used and is highly recommended." (Ancient Egypt: The History, People and Culture of the Nile Valley)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781405111492
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 11/27/2007
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 424
  • Sales rank: 1,404,611
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Kathryn A. Bard is Professor of Archaeology at Boston University. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, she has directed excavations in Egypt and northern Ethiopia since 1989, and in 1998 was given the Chairman’s Award of the National Geographic Society’s Committee for Research and Exploration. She is the author of From Farmers to Pharaohs: Mortuary Evidence for the Rise of Complex Society in Egypt (1994), the editor of The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt: An Encyclopedia (1999), and is on the editorial board of The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology published by the Egypt Exploration Society. Professor Bard is co-director of excavations at the pharaonic harbor at Mersa-Wadi Gawasis on the Red Sea, which has uncovered evidence of ancient Egyptian ships used in seafaring expeditions to the land of Punt, probably located in what is now eastern Sudan and Eritrea.
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Table of Contents

List of Plates     ix
List of Figures     xi
List of Maps     xv
Abbreviations of References Listed in Suggested Readings     xvi
Preface     xvii
Acknowledgments     xix
Egyptian Archaeology: Definitions and History     1
Introduction: Ancient Egyptian Civilization and its Prehistoric Predecessors     1
Egyptian Archaeology     3
Egyptology     5
History of Egyptology and Egyptian Archaeology     5
Archaeological Methods     15
Archaeological Theory     18
Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Archaeologists in Fiction and Films     19
Hieroglyphs, Language, and Pharaonic Chronology     23
Language of the Ancient Egyptians     25
Origins and Development of Egyptian Writing     25
Scripts and Media of Writing     28
Signs, Structure, and Grammar     29
Literacy in Ancient Egypt     32
Textual Studies     32
Use of Texts in Egyptian Archaeology     34
Historical Outline of Pharaonic Egypt     36
The Egyptian Civil Calendar, King Lists, and Calculation of Pharaonic Chronology     38
The Environmental Background to Pharaonic Civilization:Geography, Environment, Agriculture, and Natural Resources     45
Geography: Terms and Place Names     47
Environmental Setting     51
Environmental and Other Problems for Archaeology in Egypt     54
The Seasons and the Agricultural System     56
The Ancient Egyptian Diet     58
Other Useful Animals and Plants     60
Building Materials     61
Other Resources: Clays, Stones, Minerals     62
Imported Materials     64
Egyptian Prehistory: The Paleolithic and Neolithic     67
Paleolithic     69
Paleolithic Cultures in Egypt     69
Lower Paleolithic     71
Middle Paleolithic     72
Upper Paleolithic     76
Late Paleolithic     77
Epipaleolithic     79
Neolithic     80
Saharan Neolithic     80
Neolithic in the Nile Valley: Faiyum A and Lower Egypt     84
Neolithic in the Nile Valley: Middle and Upper Egypt     86
The Rise of Complex Society and Early Civilization     89
Predynastic Egypt     91
The Predynastic Period: Egypt in the 4th Millennium BC     91
Lower Egypt: Buto-Ma'adi Culture      91
Upper Egypt: Naqada Culture     94
Lower Nubia: A-Group Culture     101
State Formation and Unification     104
The Early Dynastic State     109
Organization and Institutions of the Early Dynastic State     109
Early Writing and Formal Art     117
The Expanding State     119
Who Were the Ancient Egyptians? Physical Anthropology     120
The Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period     121
The Old Kingdom: Overview     123
The Early Old Kingdom     128
The 3rd Dynasty: Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara     128
The 4th Dynasty's First King, Sneferu, and his Three Pyramids     133
Khufu's Great Pyramid at Giza     137
The Great Sphinx and Khafra's Pyramid Complex     141
Menkaura's Giza Pyramid and its Remarkable Valley Temple Finds     143
Giza Pyramid Towns     144
Giza Mastabas, Queen Hetepheres's Hidden Tomb, and the Workmen's Cemetery     148
The Later Old Kingdom     152
Sun Temples of the 5th Dynasty     152
Later Old Kingdom Pyramids and the Pyramid Texts     153
An Expanding Bureaucracy: Private Tombs in the 5th and 6th Dynasties     157
Egypt Abroad      160
The First Intermediate Period     162
The End of the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period: Causes of State Collapse     162
The Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period     167
The Middle Kingdom     169
The Middle Kingdom: Overview     169
Pre-Unification 11th Dynasty: Saff Tombs at Thebes     175
Mentuhotep II's Complex at Deir el-Bahri     176
Model Workers and the Deir el-Bahri Tomb of Meketra     177
12th-Dynasty Temples     178
12th- and 13th-Dynasty Pyramids     182
Towns and Domestic Architecture: Kahun and South Abydos     186
Nomarchs in Middle Egypt: The Beni Hasan Tombs     189
Mining in the Sinai and a Galena Mine in the Eastern Desert     190
Egyptian Forts in Nubia and Indigenous Peoples There     191
The Second Intermediate Period     195
The Second Intermediate Period: The Hyksos Kingdom in the North     195
The Kerma Kingdom in Upper Nubia     199
The Theban State During the Second Intermediate Period     205
The New Kingdom     207
The New Kingdom: Overview     209
The Early New Kingdom     217
Early New Kingdom Architecture: Ahmose's Abydos Pyramid Complex, and the Theban Mortuary Temples of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III     217
Amenhotep III's Malkata Palace     220
Tell el-Amarna and the Amarna Period     221
The Amarna Aftermath and Tutankhamen's Tomb     229
New Kingdom Temples     235
Restoration of the Traditional Gods: Sety I's Abydos Temple     235
The Temples of Karnak and Luxor in the New Kingdom     236
Ramessid Mortuary Temples     240
Royal and Elite Tombs     244
Royal Tombs in the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens     244
Elite Tombs at Thebes and Saqqara     250
State Towns and Settlements     256
The Workmen's Village and Tombs at Deir el-Medina     256
Nubian Temple Towns     261
The Third Intermediate Period and Late Period     263
The Third Intermediate Period: Overview     265
The Late Period: Overview     269
Tanis: A New City with Royal Tombs     272
Napata/Gebel Barkal and Sanam     275
el-Kurru and Nuri: The Kushite Royal Tombs     278
Saqqara: The Serapeum and Animal Cults     281
Some High Status Tombs of the Third Intermediate Period and Late Period     284
Tell el-Maskhuta and Tell el-Herr     287
The Greco-Roman Period     289
Greco-Roman Egypt     291
The Ptolemaic Period: Overview     291
The Roman Period: Overview     295
Alexandria     299
Greco-Roman Settlements in the Faiyum     301
Two Greco-Roman Temple Complexes in Upper Egypt: Dendera and Philae     303
Sites Outside the Nile Valley     307
The Western Desert: Bahariya and Dakhla Oases     307
The Eastern Desert: Roman Ports, Forts, Roads, and Quarrying Sites     309
Nubia     314
Qasr Ibrim     314
Meroe: The Kushite Capital and Royal Cemeteries     316
The Study of Ancient Egypt     323
Glossary of Terms     327
Suggested Readings     330
Additional Readings in French, German, and Italian     357
Chapter Summaries and Discussion Questions     366
Index     382
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