Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing / Edition 2

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The science and engineering of remote sensing—theory and applications

The Second Edition of this authoritative book offers readers the essential science and engineering foundation needed to understand remote sensing and apply it in real-world situations. Thoroughly updated to reflect the tremendous technological leaps made since the publication of the first edition, this book covers the gamut of knowledge and skills needed to work in this dynamic field, including:
* Physics involved in wave-matter interaction, the building blocks for interpreting data
* Techniques used to collect data
* Remote sensing applications

The authors have carefully structured and organized the book to introduce readers to the basics, and then move on to more advanced applications. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 sets forth the basic properties of electromagnetic waves and their interactions with matter. Chapters 3 through 7 cover the use of remote sensing in solid surface studies, including oceans. Each chapter covers one major part of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., visible/near infrared, thermal infrared, passive microwave, and active microwave).

Chapters 8 through 12 then cover remote sensing in the study of atmospheres and ionospheres. Each chapter first presents the basic interaction mechanism, followed by techniques to acquire, measure, and study the information, or waves, emanating from the medium under investigation. In most cases, a specific advanced sensor is used for illustration.

The book is generously illustrated with fifty percent new figures. Numerous illustrations are reproduced in a separate section of color plates. Examples of data acquired from spaceborne sensors are included throughout. Finally, a set of exercises, along with a solutions manual, is provided.

This book is based on an upper-level undergraduate and first-year graduate course taught by the authors at the California Institute of Technology. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of the field and its applications, it is appropriate for students in electrical engineering, applied physics, geology, planetary science, astronomy, and aeronautics. It is also recommended for any engineer or scientist interested in working in this exciting field.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"…upper level classes in applied physics, geology, planetary sciences, natural resource management, and environmental studies should consider this textbook for their collection." (E-STREAMS, September 2007)

"...highly favorable...a handy reference for students and professionals alike." (Computers & Geosciences, August 2007)

"For professionals in the field and for students, where a thorough understanding of the physics and mathematics underlying the acquisition and analysis of remote sensing data is required, this book satisfies the need well." (Oceanography, December 2006)

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Product Details

Meet the Author

CHARLES ELACHI, PhD, is Director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Vice President at the California Institute of Technology, where he is also Professor of Electrical Engineering andPlanetary Science. Dr. Elachi is internationally recognized for his role in the development of a series of spaceborne imaging radars for Earth and planetary observations.

JAKOB van ZYL, PhD, is Director for Astronomy and Physics at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and a Lecturer in Electrical Engineering and Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology. Dr. van Zyl is internationally recognized for his role in the development of imaging polarimetric radars and the associated data analysis and interpretation.

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Table of Contents


1. Introduction.

1-1 Types and Classes of Remote Sensing Data.

1-2 Brief History of Remote Sensing.

1-3 Remote Sensing Space Platforms.

1-4 Transmission Through the Earth and Planetary Atmospheres.

References and Further Reading.

2. Nature and Properties of Electromagnetic Waves.

2-1 Fundamental Properties of Electromagnetic Waves.

2-2 Nomenclature and Definition of Radiation Quantities.

2-3 Generation of Electromagnetic Radiation.

2-4 Detection of Electromagnetic Radiation.

2-5 Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Matter: Quick Overview.

2-6 Interaction Mechanisms Throughout the Electromagnetic Spectrum.


References and Further Reading.

3. Solid Surfaces Sensing in the Visible and Near Infrared.

3-1 Source Spectral Characteristics.

3-2 Wave-Surface Interaction Mechanisms.

3-3 Signature of Solid Surface Materials.

3-4 Passive Imaging Sensors.

3-5 Types of Imaging Systems.

3-6 Description of Some Visible/Infrared Imaging Sensors.

3-7 Active Sensors.

3-8 Surface Sensing at Very Short Wavelengths.

3-9 Image Data Analysis.


References and Further Reading.

4. Solid-Surface Sensing: Thermal Infrared.

4-1 Thermal Radiation Laws.

4-2 Heat Conduction Theory.

4-3 Effect of Periodic Heating.

4-4 Use of Thermal Emission in Surface Remote Sensing.

4-5 Use of Thermal Infrared Spectral Signatures in Sensing.

4-6 Thermal Infrared Sensors.


References and Further Reading.

5. Solid-Surface Sensing: Microwave Emission.

5-1 Power-Temperature Correspondence.

5-2 Simple Microwave Radiometry Models.

5-3 Applications and Use in Surface Sensing.

5-4 Description of Microwave Radiometers.

5-5 Examples of Developed Radiometers.


References and Further Reading.

6. Solid-Surface Sensing: Microwave and Radio Frequencies.

6-1 Surface Interaction Mechanism.

6-2 Basic Principles of Radar Sensors.

6-3 Imaging Sensors: Real-Aperture Radars.

6-4 Imaging Sensors: Synthetic-Aperture Radars.

6-5 Nonimaging Radar Sensors: Scatterometers.

6-6 Nonimaging Radar Sensors: Altimeters.

6-7 Nonconventional Radar Sensors.

6-8 Subsurface Sounding.


References and Further Readings.

7 Ocean Surface Sensing.

7-1 Physical Properties of the Ocean Surface.

7-2 Mapping of the Ocean Topography.

7-3 Surface Wind Mapping.

7-4 Ocean Surface Imaging .


References and Further Reading.

8. Basic Principles of Atmospheric Sensing and Radiative Transfer.

8-1 Physical Properties of the Atmosphere.

8-2 Atmospheric Composition.

8-3 Particulates and Clouds.

8-4 Wave Interaction Mechanisms in Planetary Atmospheres.

8-5 Optical Thickness.

8-6 Radiative Transfer Equation.

8-7 Case of a Nonscattering Plane Parallel Atmosphere.

8-8 Basic Concepts of Atmospheric Remote Sounding.


References and Further Reading.

9. Atmospheric Remote Sensing in the Microwave Region.

9-1 Microwave Interactions with Atmospheric Gases.

9-2 Basic Concept of Downlooking Sensors.

9-3 Basic Concept for Uplooking Sensors.

9-4 Basic Concept for Limblooking Sensors.

9-5 Inversion Concepts.

9-6 Basic Elements of Passive Microwave Sensors.

9-7 Surface Pressure Sensing.

9-8 Atmospheric Sounding by Occultation.

9-9 Microwave Scattering by Atmospheric Particles.

9-10 Radar Sounding of Rain.

9-11 Radar Equation for Precipitation Measurement.

9-12 The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).


References and Further Reading.

10. Millimeter and Submillimeter Sensing of Atmospheres.

10-1 Interaction with Atmospheric Constituents.

10-2 Downlooking Sounding.

10-3 Limb Sounding.

10-4 Elements of a Millimeter Sounder.


References and Further Reading.

11. Atmospheric Remote Sensing in the Visible and Infrared.

11-1 Interaction of Visible and Infrared Radiation with the Atmosphere.

11-2 Downlooking Sounding.

11-3 Limb Sounding.

11-4 Sounding of Atmospheric Motion.

11-5 Atmospheric Sensing at Very Short Wavelengths.


References and Further Reading.

12. Ionospheric Sensing.

12-1 Properties of Planetary Ionospheres.

12-2 Wave Propagation in Ionized Media.

12-3 Ionospheric Profile Sensing by Topside Sounding.

12-4 Ionospheric Profile by Radio Occultation.


References and Further Reading.

Appendix A. Use of Multiple Sensors For Surface Observations.

Appendix B. Summary of Orbital Mechanics Relevant to Remote Sensing.

B-1 Circular Orbits.

B-1-1 General Characteristics.

B-1-2 Geosynchronous Orbits.

B-1-3 Sun-Synchronous Orbits.

B-1-4 Coverage.

B-2 Elliptical Orbits.

B-3 Orbit Selection.


Appendix C. Simplified Weighting Functions.

C-1 Case of Downlooking Sensors (Exponential Atmosphere).

C-2 Case of Downlooking Sensors (Linear Atmosphere).

C-3 Case of Upward Looking Sensors.

Appendix D. Compression of a Linear FM Chirp Signal.


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