Introduction to Thermal and Fluid Engineering / Edition 1

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Introduction to Thermal and Fluid Engineering combines coverage of basic thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer for a one- or two-term course for a variety of engineering majors. The book covers fundamental concepts, definitions, and models in the context of engineering examples and case studies. It carefully explains the methods used to evaluate changes in equilibrium, mass, energy, and other measurable properties, most notably temperature. It then also discusses techniques used to assess the effects of those changes on large, multi-component systems in areas ranging from mechanical, civil, and environmental engineering to electrical and computer technologies.

Includes a motivational student study guide on CD to promote successful evaluation of energy systems

This material helps readers optimize problem solving using practices to determine equilibrium limits and entropy, as well as track energy forms and rates of progress for processes in both closed and open thermodynamic systems. Presenting a variety of system examples, tables, and charts to reinforce understanding, the book includes coverage of:

  • How automobile and aircraft engines work

  • Construction of steam power plants and refrigeration systems

  • Gas and vapor power processes and systems

  • Application of fluid statics, buoyancy, and stability, and the flow of fluids in pipes and machinery

  • Heat transfer and thermal control of electronic components

Keeping sight of the difference between system synthesis and analysis, this book contains numerous design problems. It would be useful for an intensive course geared toward readers who know basic physics and mathematics through ordinary differential equations but might not concentrate on thermal/fluids science much further. Written by experts in diverse fields ranging from mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering to applied mathematics, this book is based on the assertion that engineers from all walks absolutely must understand energy processes and be able to quantify them.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781420088083
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 9/27/2011
  • Series: Heat Transfer Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 972
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Allan Kraus is Professor Emeritus at the University of Akron in Ohio.

J.R. Welty is Professor at Oregon State University.

A. Aziz is Professor at Gonzaga University in Washington.

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Table of Contents

The Thermal/Fluid Sciences: Introductory Concepts


Fluid Mechanics

Heat Transfer

Engineered Systems and Products

Historical Development

The Thermal/Fluid Sciences and the Environment

Thermodynamics: Preliminary Concepts and Definitions

The Study of Thermodynamics

Some Definitions

Dimensions and Units

Density and Related Properties


Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Problem-Solving Methodology

Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Kinetic, Potential, and Internal Energy



The First Law of Thermodynamics

The Energy Balance for Closed Systems

The Ideal Gas Model

Ideal Gas Enthalpy and Specific Heats

Processes of an Ideal Gas

Properties of Pure, Simple Compressible Substances

The State Postulate

P-v-T Relationships

Thermodynamic Property Data

The T-s and h-s Diagrams

Real Gas Behavior

Equations of State

The Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas

Control Volume Mass and Energy Analysis

The Control Volume

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume

Specific Heats of Incompressible Substances

Applications of Control Volume Energy Analysis

Synthesis or Analysis?

The First Law Heat Balance

Design Example

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Kelvin-Planck Statement and Heat Engines

The Clausius Statement: Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

The Equivalence of the Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statements

Reversible and Irreversible Processe

The Carnot Cycle

The Carnot Cycle with External Irreversibilities

The Absolute Temperature Scales


The Classical Definition of Entropy

The Clausius Inequality

The Temperature-Entropy Diagram

The Gibbs Property Relations

Entropy Change for Solids, Liquids, and Ideal Gases

The Isentropic Process for an Ideal Gas

Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady Flow Devices

The Entropy Balance Equation

Gas Power Systems

The Internal Combustion Engine

The Air Standard Otto Cycle

Design Example

The Air Standard Diesel Cycle

The Gas Turbine

The Jet Engine

Vapor Power and Refrigeration Cycles

The Steam Power Plant

The Ideal Rankine Cycle

The Ideal Rankine Cycle with Superheat

The Effect of Irreversibilities

The Rankine Cycle with Superheat and Reheat

Design Example

The Ideal Rankine Cycle with Regeneration

The Ideal Refrigeration Cycle

The Ideal Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle

Departures from the Ideal Refrigeration Cycle

Mixtures of Gases, Vapors, and Combustion Products

Mixtures of Ideal Gases


The Psychrometric Chart

The Products of Combustion

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

The Definition of a Fluid

Fluid Properties and Flow Properties

The Variation of Properties in a Fluid

The Continuum Concept

Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Fluid Stress Conventions and Concepts

Viscosity, a Fluid Property

Design Example

Other Fluid Properties

Fluid Statics

Pressure Variation in a Static Field

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces

Design Example

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces



Uniform Rectilinear Acceleration

Control Volume Analysis—Mass and Energy Conservation

Fundamental Laws

Conservation of Mass

Mass Conservation Applications

The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume

Applications of the Control Volume Expression for the First Law

The Bernoulli Equation

Design Example

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Linear Momentum

Applications of the Control Volume Expression

Design Example

The Control Volume Relation for the Moment of Momentum

Applications of the Moment of Momentum Relationship

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Fundamental Dimensions

The Buckingham Pi Theorem

Reduction of Differential Equations to a Dimensionless Form

Dimensional Analysis of Rotating Machines


Viscous Flow

Reynolds’ Experiment

Fluid Drag

Design Example

Boundary Layer Flow over a Flat Plate

Flow in Pipes and Pipe Networks

Frictional Loss in Pipes

Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow

Fully Developed Flow

Friction Factors for Fully Developed Flow

Friction Factor and Head Loss Determination for Pipe Flow

Design Example

Design Example

Design Example

Multiple-Path Pipe Systems

Fluid Machinery

The Centrifugal Pump

The Net Positive Suction Head

Combining Pump and System Performance

Scaling Laws for Pumps and Fans

Axial and Mixed Flow Pumps


Introduction to Heat Transfer


Thermal Conductivity



Thermal Resistance

Combined Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Steady-State Conduction

The General Equation of Heat Conduction

Conduction in Plane Walls

Radial Heat Flow

Simple Shapes with Heat Generation

Extended Surfaces

Two-Dimensional Conduction

Unsteady-State Conduction

The Lumped Capacitance Model

The Semi-Infinite Solid

Design Example

Finite-Sized Solids

Forced Convection—Internal Flow

Temperature Distributions with Internal Forced Convection

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients

Applications of Internal Flow Forced Convection Correlations

Design Example

Design Example

Forced Convection—External Flow

Flow Parallel to a Plane Wall

External Flow over Bluff Bodies

Design Example

Free or Natural Convection

Governing Parameters

Working Correlations for Natural Convection

Natural Convection in Parallel Plate Channels

Design Example

Natural Convection in Enclosures

Heat Exchangers

Governing Relationships

Heat Exchanger Analysis Methods

Design Example

Finned Heat Exchangers

Radiation Heat Transfer

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Monochromatic Emissive Power

Radiation Properties and Kirchhoff’s Law

Radiation Intensity and Lambert’s Cosine Law

Heat Flow between Blackbodies

Heat Flow by Radiation between Two Bodies

Radiosity and Irradiation

Radiation within Enclosures by a Network Method

Appendix A: Tables and Charts

Appendix B: Summary of Differential Vector Operations in Three Coordinate Systems

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