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Overview

A Coherent Systems View of Wireless and Cellular Network Design and Implementation

Written for senior-level undergraduates, first-year graduate students, and junior technical professionals, Introduction to Wireless Systems offers a coherent systems view of the crucial lower layers of today’s cellular systems. The authors introduce today’s most important propagation issues, modulation techniques, and access schemes, illuminating theory with real-world examples from modern cellular systems. They demonstrate how elements within today’s wireless systems interrelate, clarify the trade-offs associated with delivering high-quality service at acceptable cost, and demonstrate how systems are designed and implemented by teams of complementary specialists.

Coverage includes

  • Understanding the challenge of moving information wirelessly between two points
  • Explaining how system and subsystem designers work together to analyze, plan, and implement optimized wireless systems
  • Designing for quality reception: using the free-space range equation, and accounting for thermal noise
  • Understanding terrestrial channels and their impairments, including shadowing and multipath reception
  • Reusing frequencies to provide service over wide areas to large subscriber bases
  • Using modulation: frequency efficiency, power efficiency, BER, bandwidth, adjacent-channel interference, and spread-spectrum modulation
  • Implementing multiple access methods, including FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA
  • Designing systems for today’s most common forms of traffic—both “bursty” and “streaming”
  • Maximizing capacity via linear predictive coding and other speech compression techniques
  • Setting up connections that support reliable communication among users

Introduction to Wireless Systems
brings together the theoretical and practical knowledge readers need to participate effectively in the planning, design, or implementation of virtually any wireless system.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132782241
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 6/21/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 528
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Bruce A. Black completed his B.S. at Columbia University, his S.M. at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and his Ph.D. at the University of California at Berkeley, all in electrical engineering. Since 1983 he has been on the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana, where he has been advisor to Tau Beta Pi and is advisor to the Amateur Radio club (W9NAA). His interests are in communications, wireless systems, and signal processing. He has developed a variety of courses and laboratories in the signal processing and communications areas, including a junior-level laboratory in communication systems and a senior elective in wireless systems. In 2004 he was named Wireless Educator of the Year by the Global Wireless Education Consortium. He is a member of Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Sigma Xi.

Philip S. DiPiazza received a B.E.E from Manhattan College in 1964, an M.E. in electrical engineering from New York University in 1965, and a Ph.D. (electrical engineering) from the Polytechnic Institute of New York in 1976. His career spans more than 40 years of professional experience in industry, academe, and private practice. During the first ten years of his career, he was a systems engineer engaged in the development of advanced airborne radar systems at the Norden Division of United Technologies. He joined Bell Laboratories (AT&T) in 1977, where, as a systems engineer and technical manager, he was engaged in the development of cellular mobile telephone (AMPS) and later wireless PBX systems. Dr. DiPiazza was responsible for the system integration and test of the first North American deployment of AMPS. SInce retiring from AT&T Labs in 1998, he has served as an industry management consultant, Executive Director at Rutgers WINLAB, and Vice President and General Manager of the Melbourne Division of SAFCO Technologies, Inc. As a Visiting Professor at the Florida Institute of Technology, he was founding director for its Wireless Center of Excellence and developed graduate programs in wireless. He is currently an Adjunct Professor at the Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and a Senior Consultant with Award Solutions, Inc. Dr. DiPiazza is an advisor and member of the Global Wireless Educational Consortium and a member of the IEEE.

Bruce A. Ferguson received the B.S., M.S., and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana in 1987, 1988, and 1992 respectively. He is currently a Communication System Engineer with Northrop Grumman Space Technology. He has worked with space and ground communication systems and photonics at TRW Space and Electronics (now NGST), and taught at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and The University of Portland in Oregon. Dr. Ferguson is a member Eta Kappa Nu and IEEE.

David R. Voltmer received degrees from Iowa State University (B.S.), University of Southern California (M.S.), and The Ohio State University (Ph.D.), all in electrical engineering. During nearly four decades of teaching, Dr. Voltmer has maintained a technical focus in electromagnetics, microwaves, and antennas. His more recent efforts are directed toward the design process and project courses. He has served in many offices of the ERM division of ASEE and in FIE. Dr. Voltmer is an ASEE Fellow and a Life Senior member of IEEE.

Frederick C. Berry received the B.S., M.S., and D.E. degrees from Louisiana Tech University in 1981, 1983, and 1988 respectively. He taught in the Electrical Engineering Department at Louisiana Tech University from 1982 to 1995. Currently Dr. Berry is Professor and Head of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. In 2007 he became Executive Director of the Global Wireless Education Consortium. He is a member of Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Sigma Xi.

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Read an Excerpt

This text is intended to provide a senior undergraduate student in electrical or computer engineering with a systems-engineering perspective on the design and analysis of a wireless communication system. The focus of the text is on cellular telephone systems, as these systems are familiar to students; rich enough to encompass a variety of propagation issues, modulation techniques, and access schemes; and narrow enough to be treated meaningfully in a text that supports a single course. The presentation is limited to what cellular systems engineers call the "air interface" and what network engineers call the "physical layer."

The presentation is unique in a number of ways. First, it is aimed at undergraduate students, whereas most other textbooks written about wireless systems are intended for students either at the graduate level or at the community college level. In particular, the presentation combines a clear narrative with examples showing how theoretical principles are applied in system design. The text is based on ten years' experience in teaching wireless systems to electrical and computer engineering seniors. The lessons learned from their questions and responses have guided its development. The text not only presents the basic theory but also develops a coherent, integrated view of cellular systems that will motivate the undergraduate student to stay engaged and learn more.

Second, the text is written from a systems-engineering perspective. In this context a "system" comprises many parts, whose properties can be traded off against one another to provide the best possible service at an acceptable cost. A system with the complexity of a cellular network can be designed and implemented only by a team of component specialists whose skills complement one another. Top-level design is the responsibility of systems engineers who can translate market requirements into technical specifications, who can identify and resolve performance trade-off issues, and who can set subsystem requirements that "flow down" to the subsystem designers. The text introduces students to the concept that specialists from a wide range of engineering disciplines come together to develop a complex system. Theory and contemporary practice are developed in the context of a problem-solving discipline in which a divide-andconquer approach is used to allocate top-level functional system requirements to lower-level subsystems. Standard analysis results are developed and presented to students in a way that shows how a systems engineer can use these results as a starting point in designing an optimized system. Thus an overlying systems-engineering theme ties together a wide variety of technical principles and analytical techniques.

This text comprises eight chapters. An introductory chapter sets out the systems-engineering story. Chapters 2 and 3 introduce the air interface by considering how to provide enough power over a wide enough area to support reliable communication. Chapter 2 introduces the free-space range equation and thermal noise. On completing this chapter, students should be aware of the dependence of received power on range and of the role of noise in determining how much power is enough for quality reception. Chapter 3 introduces the terrestrial channel and its impairments, including the effects of shadowing and multipath reception. Next, Chapter 4 introduces the principle of frequency reuse and the resulting cellular system structure. The goal of this chapter is to show how a communication system can be extended to provide service over a virtually unlimited area to a virtually unlimited number of subscribers.

Once a power link is established, information must be encoded to propagate effectively over that link. Chapter 5 introduces modulation. The emphasis is on digital techniques common to cellular systems. Of particular interest are frequency efficiency, power efficiency and bit error rate, bandwidth, and adjacent-channel interference. Chapter 5 also introduces spread-spectrum modulation, emphasizing the ability of spread-spectrum systems to provide robust communication in the presence of narrowband interference and frequency-selective fading. On completion of Chapter 5, students will have an appreciation of the factors involved in designing a point-to-point data link between a single transmitter and a single receiver. Chapter 6 introduces methods for multiple access, including FDMA, TDMA, and an introduction to CDMA. The ability of spread-spectrum systems to support multiple users over a single channel is emphasized.

Wireless systems carry information from a wide variety of sources, from speech to music to video to short text messages to Internet pages. When digitized, information from various sources produces data streams with differing properties. Further, subscribers apply different criteria to assessing the quality of different kinds of received information. Chapter 7 distinguishes streaming from bursty information streams. As second- and subsequent-generation cellular systems are highly dependent on effective use of speech compression, examples are given showing traditional digitization of speech and a brief introduction to linear predictive coding. Chapter 7 concludes with presentations of convolutional coding for error control and the Viterbi decoding algorithm. The systems-engineering story is pulled together in Chapter 8.

This text has been written to support a one-term senior elective course. It is assumed that students taking the course will have completed conventional courses in signals and systems and an introduction to communication systems. The signals and systems background should include a thorough introduction to the Fourier transform. It is also assumed that readers of the text will have completed an introductory course in probability, including coverage of probability density functions, expectations, and exposure to several conventional probability distributions. The material included in this text should be more than sufficient to support a one-semester course. At Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology the book is used to support a one-quarter course that includes four instructional meetings per week for ten weeks. The course covers all of Chapter 2, selections from Chapter 3, all of Chapter 4, and most of Chapter 5. The CDMA material from Chapter 6 is included as time permits.

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Table of Contents


Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xv
About the Authors xvii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1
Overview 1
System Description 4
Historical Perspective 10
Systems Engineering and the Role of the Systems Engineer 12

Chapter 2: The Radio Link 17
Introduction 17
Transmitting and Receiving Electromagnetic Waves 18
Isotropic Radiation 20
Antenna Radiation Patterns 22
The Range Equation 28
Thermal Noise and Receiver Analysis 34
Optimizing the Energy Transmission System 61
Conclusions 70
Problems 70

Chapter 3: Channel Characteristics 77
Introduction 77
Macroscopic Models 1: Reflection from the Earth’s Surface 79
Macroscopic Models 2: Empirical Models 86
Macroscopic Models 3: Log-Normal Shadowing 95
Microscopic Models 1: Multipath Propagation and Fading 100
Microscopic Models 2: Statistical Models for Multipath Propagation 106
Microscopic Models 3: A Two-Ray Model with a Moving Receiver 121
Microscopic Models 4: A Statistical Model with a Moving Receiver 129
Area Coverage 132
The Link Budget 137
Conclusions 139
Problems 141

Chapter 4: Radio Frequency Coverage: Systems Engineering and Design 149
Motivation 149
Requirements Assessment and System Architecture 150
Cellular Concepts 153
Estimation of Interference Levels 167
Cellular System Planning and Engineering 173
Operational Considerations 183
Traffic Engineering, Trunking, and Grade of Service 187
Conclusions 194
Problems 196

Chapter 5: Digital Signaling Principles 203
Introduction 203
Carrier-Based Signaling 226
Spread-Spectrum Signaling 267
Conclusions 278
Problems 280

Chapter 6: Access Methods 287
Introduction 287
Channel Access in Cellular Systems 290
Frequency-Division Multiple Access 295
Time-Division Multiple Access 300
Code-Division Multiple Access 306
Contention-Based Multiple Access 325
Conclusions 335
Problems 337

Chapter 7: Information Sources 343
Introduction 343
Information Sources and Their Characterization 346
Digitization of Speech Signals 355
Coding for Error Correction 376
Conclusions 389
Problems 392

Chapter 8: Putting It All Together 397
Introduction 397
Looking Backward 399
Contemporary Systems and 3G Evolution 411
OFDM: An Architecture for the Fourth Generation 432
Conclusions 442

Appendix A: Statistical Functions and Tables 443
The Normal Distribution 443
Function Tables 446

Appendix B: Traffic Engineering 453
Grade of Service and the State of the Switch 453
A Model for Call Arrivals 454
A Model for Holding Time 456
The Switch State Probabilities 457
Blocking Probability, Offered Load, and Erlang B 460
Computational Techniques for the Erlang B Formula 462
Erlang B Table 465

Acronyms 477
Index 483

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Preface

This text is intended to provide a senior undergraduate student in electrical or computer engineering with a systems-engineering perspective on the design and analysis of a wireless communication system. The focus of the text is on cellular telephone systems, as these systems are familiar to students; rich enough to encompass a variety of propagation issues, modulation techniques, and access schemes; and narrow enough to be treated meaningfully in a text that supports a single course. The presentation is limited to what cellular systems engineers call the "air interface" and what network engineers call the "physical layer."

The presentation is unique in a number of ways. First, it is aimed at undergraduate students, whereas most other textbooks written about wireless systems are intended for students either at the graduate level or at the community college level. In particular, the presentation combines a clear narrative with examples showing how theoretical principles are applied in system design. The text is based on ten years' experience in teaching wireless systems to electrical and computer engineering seniors. The lessons learned from their questions and responses have guided its development. The text not only presents the basic theory but also develops a coherent, integrated view of cellular systems that will motivate the undergraduate student to stay engaged and learn more.

Second, the text is written from a systems-engineering perspective. In this context a "system" comprises many parts, whose properties can be traded off against one another to provide the best possible service at an acceptable cost. A system with the complexity of a cellular network canbe designed and implemented only by a team of component specialists whose skills complement one another. Top-level design is the responsibility of systems engineers who can translate market requirements into technical specifications, who can identify and resolve performance trade-off issues, and who can set subsystem requirements that "flow down" to the subsystem designers. The text introduces students to the concept that specialists from a wide range of engineering disciplines come together to develop a complex system. Theory and contemporary practice are developed in the context of a problem-solving discipline in which a divide-andconquer approach is used to allocate top-level functional system requirements to lower-level subsystems. Standard analysis results are developed and presented to students in a way that shows how a systems engineer can use these results as a starting point in designing an optimized system. Thus an overlying systems-engineering theme ties together a wide variety of technical principles and analytical techniques.

This text comprises eight chapters. An introductory chapter sets out the systems-engineering story. Chapters 2 and 3 introduce the air interface by considering how to provide enough power over a wide enough area to support reliable communication. Chapter 2 introduces the free-space range equation and thermal noise. On completing this chapter, students should be aware of the dependence of received power on range and of the role of noise in determining how much power is enough for quality reception. Chapter 3 introduces the terrestrial channel and its impairments, including the effects of shadowing and multipath reception. Next, Chapter 4 introduces the principle of frequency reuse and the resulting cellular system structure. The goal of this chapter is to show how a communication system can be extended to provide service over a virtually unlimited area to a virtually unlimited number of subscribers.

Once a power link is established, information must be encoded to propagate effectively over that link. Chapter 5 introduces modulation. The emphasis is on digital techniques common to cellular systems. Of particular interest are frequency efficiency, power efficiency and bit error rate, bandwidth, and adjacent-channel interference. Chapter 5 also introduces spread-spectrum modulation, emphasizing the ability of spread-spectrum systems to provide robust communication in the presence of narrowband interference and frequency-selective fading. On completion of Chapter 5, students will have an appreciation of the factors involved in designing a point-to-point data link between a single transmitter and a single receiver. Chapter 6 introduces methods for multiple access, including FDMA, TDMA, and an introduction to CDMA. The ability of spread-spectrum systems to support multiple users over a single channel is emphasized.

Wireless systems carry information from a wide variety of sources, from speech to music to video to short text messages to Internet pages. When digitized, information from various sources produces data streams with differing properties. Further, subscribers apply different criteria to assessing the quality of different kinds of received information. Chapter 7 distinguishes streaming from bursty information streams. As second- and subsequent-generation cellular systems are highly dependent on effective use of speech compression, examples are given showing traditional digitization of speech and a brief introduction to linear predictive coding. Chapter 7 concludes with presentations of convolutional coding for error control and the Viterbi decoding algorithm. The systems-engineering story is pulled together in Chapter 8.

This text has been written to support a one-term senior elective course. It is assumed that students taking the course will have completed conventional courses in signals and systems and an introduction to communication systems. The signals and systems background should include a thorough introduction to the Fourier transform. It is also assumed that readers of the text will have completed an introductory course in probability, including coverage of probability density functions, expectations, and exposure to several conventional probability distributions. The material included in this text should be more than sufficient to support a one-semester course. At Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology the book is used to support a one-quarter course that includes four instructional meetings per week for ten weeks. The course covers all of Chapter 2, selections from Chapter 3, all of Chapter 4, and most of Chapter 5. The CDMA material from Chapter 6 is included as time permits.

Read More Show Less

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  • Posted August 30, 2011

    YOU MUST CHECK IT OUT NOW!!

    Are you a senior undergraduate student in electrical or computer engineering with a systems-engineering perspective on the design and analysis of a wireless communication system? If you are, then this book is for you! Authors Bruce A. Black, Philip S. DiPiazza, Bruce A. Ferguson , David R. Voltmer and Frederick C. Berry, have done an outstanding job of writing a book that focuses on cellular telephone systems. Authors Black, DiPiazza, Ferguson, Voltmer and Berry, begin by discussing systems-engineering. Then, the authors cover the free-space range equation and thermal noise. The authors also introduce you to the terrestrial channel and its impairments, including the effects of shadowing and multipath reception. They continue by covering the principle of frequency reuse and the resulting cellular system structure. Then, the authors delve more deeply into spread-spectrum modulation, emphasizing the ability of spread-spectrum systems to provide robust communication in the presence of narrowband interference and frequency-selective fading. They then introduce methods for multiple access, including FDMA, TDMA, and an introduction to CDMA. Finally, the authors also distinguish streamlining from bursty information streams. This most excellent book has been written to support a one-term senior elective course. Nevertheless, this book is limited to what cellular systems engineers call the air interface and what network engineers call the physical layer.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
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