An Introduction to Women's Studies: Gender in a Transnational World / Edition 2

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Overview

This anthology introduces students to the modern period's history of key ideas related to sexual difference, gender, race, class, and sexuality. While most introductory Women's Studies textbooks focus on the United States, even if they add multiculturalism to the discussion, this book looks at women in diverse locations around the world and encourages students to think about gender in a transnational rather than a purely U.S. context. The selections provide students in the U.S. with a way to understand points of view from other locations and cultures, especially crucial in the post-9-11 geopolitical situation.

The transnational approach to understanding gender brings Women's Studies into an era of globalization by connecting women’s issues in the United States to women’s issues elsewhere. The book shows how colonialism and imperialism, as they spread across the world, shaped ideas about gender as much as other modern phenomena. It addresses issues of power and inequality by focusing on historical connections rather than solely on commonalties.

The readings are truly interdisciplinary, drawing upon scholarly work in many disciplines and interdisciplinary fields as well as non-scholarly sources. Short essays introduce each of the book’s four sections, explaining the concepts and ideas behind the selection of readings.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072887181
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 6/7/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 576
  • Sales rank: 64,445
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

is currently Director and Professor of Women Studies at University of California-Irvine. She received her Ph.D. in English from the University of California at Berkeley. A founder of Narika, an agency that addresses the needs of South Asian women in the U.S., she works with activist groups that focus on Asian women and immigration issues. She has authored a monograph and co-edited several books and journal issues, often with her long time collaborator Caren Kaplan. Her special interests include the history of British imperialism, non-western women travelers, consumer culture and globalization, South Asian women in diaspora, and the new transnational feminist activism

Caren Kaplan is currently Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Women's Studies at the University of California at Davis. After receiving her Ph.D. in the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California at Santa Cruz, she served on the faculty in the Department of English at Georgetown University from 1986 to 1992. The author of a monograph as well as the co-editor of several books, she has collaborated with Inderpal Grewal for many years on essays and edited collections. Her special interests are the history of Western and international feminism, feminist theory, and aspects of imperialism and globalization such as travel, tourism, and information technologies.

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Table of Contents

* Indicates new reading

Acknowledgements

Preface



Introducing Women’s Studies: Gender in a Transnational World




Part One: Social and Historical Constructions of Gender

Introducing the Chapter



Section 1: Sex Differences and Changing Ideas of Gender

Nelly Oudshoorn, “Sex and the Body”

Emily Martin, “The Egg and the Sperm”

*Kathryn M. Ringrose, “Gender and Byzantine Culture”

*BOX: Joan Wallach Scott, “Gender the Politics of History”

Charlotte Furth, “Androgynous Males and Deficient Females: Biology and Gender Boundaries in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century China”

Carole S. Vance, “Social Construction Theory: Problems in the History of Sexuality”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 2: The Rise of Western Science

Linda Gordon, “Magic”

Sheila Rowbotham, “Feminist Approaches to Technology”

Anne Fausto-Sterling, “The Biological Connection”

Stephan Jay Gould, “Women’s Brains”

Udo Schuklenk, Edward Stein, Jacinta Kerin, and William Byne, “The Ethics of Genetic Research on Sexual Orientation”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 3: The Making of Race, Sex and Empire

Ian F. Haney López, “The Social Construction of Race”

Linda Gordon, “Malthusianism”

Anna Davin, “Imperialism and Motherhood”

Frank Dikkoter, “Race Culture: Recent Perspectives on the History of Eugenics”

Evelynn M. Hammonds, “New Technologies of Race”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 4: Medicine in a Historical Perspective

Nongenile Masithathu Zenani, “And So I Grew Up”

Barbara Ehrenreich and Dierdre English, “Exorcising the Midwives”

David Arnold, “Women and Medicine”

Ben Barker-Benfield, “Sexual Surgery in Late-Nineteenth-Century America”

Rogaia Abusharaf, “Unmasking Tradition”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 5: Population Control and Reproductive Rights: Technology and Power

Susan Davis, “Contested Terrain: The Historical Struggle for Fertility Control”

GRAPHIC: “The Price of Abortion”

Angela Davis, “Reproductive Rights”

Betsy Hartmann, “Family Matters”

Committee on Women, Population and the Environment, “Call for a New Approach”

Debra Harry, “The Human Genome Diversity Project: Implications for Indigenous Peoples”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 6: Strategizing Health Education and Advocacy

Maureen Larkin, “Global Aspects of Health and Health Policy in Third World Countries”

GRAPHIC: “Default Isn’t Ours”

*Sandra Morgen, “Conceiving History”

Nadia Farah, “The Egyptian Women’s Health Book Collective”

*Andrea Densham, “CDC, NIH, ACS, FDA – Alphabet City: The Institutional and Organizational Terrain of Breast Cancer and AIDS Activism”

Kathryn Carovano, “More Than Mothers and Whores: Redefining the AIDS Prevention Needs of Women”

*Sabine Russell, “The Role of Prostitution in South Asia’s Epidemic: Push for safe sex in red-light districts.”

National Latina Health Organization, “Norplant Information Sheet”

Refelcting on the Section




Part Two: Gendered Identities in Nations and States

Introducing the Chapter



Section 7: Citizenship and Equality: The Private/Public Divide

*BOX: Geoffrey Ponton and Peter Gill, “Paradigms, models and Ideologies”

*Carole Pateman, “Feminist Critiques of the Public/Private Dichotomy”

*Amy Kaplan, “Manifest Domesticity”

Mary Wollstonecraft, Excerpt from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

Jan Jindy Pettman, “Women and Citizenship”

*Athalia Molokomme, Lelobe Molema, Opha Dube, Motsei Madisa, Ruth Motsete, and Onalenna Selowane, “Citizenship: An Open Letter to the Attorney-General”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 8: Gender and the Rise of the Modern State

Jan Jindy Pettman, “Women, Gender, and the State”

Jeffrey Weeks, “Power and the State”

Margot Badran, “Competing Agenda: Feminists, Islam, and the State in Nineteenth-and ‘Twentieth-Century Egypt”

*Gail Bederman, “Remaking Manhood through Race and ‘Civilization’”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 9: New Social Movements and Identity Politics

Kathryn Woodward, “Concepts of Identity and Difference”

Alexandra Kollontai, “Feminism and the Question of Class”

Kimberlé Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color”

*Alma García, “The Development of Chicana Feminist Discourse”

Lisa Duggan, “Making it Perfectly Queer”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 10: Communities and Nations

*BOX: Benedict Anderson, Excerpt from Imagined Communities

*Nira Yuval-Davis, “Gender and Nation”

Cynthia Enloe, “Nationalism and Masculinity”

*Amitra Basu, “Feminism Inverted: The Gendered Imagery and Real Women of Hindu Nationalism”

Kathleen M. Blee, “The First Ku Klux Klan”

Reflecting on the Section

Section 11: Feminist Organizing across Borders

Leila J. Rupp, “The International First Wave”

Farida Shaheed, “Controlled or Autonomous Identity and the Experience of the Network, Women Living Under Muslim Laws”

Lepa Mladjenovic and Vera Litricin, “Belgrade Feminists 1992: Separation, Guilt, and Identity Crisis”

*Winnie Woodhull, “Global Feminists, Transnational Political Economies, Third World Cultural Production”

*Laura Hershey, “Disabled Women Organize Worldwide”

Reflecting on the Section




Part Three: Representations, Cultures, Media, and Markets

Introducing the Chapter



*Section 12: Ways of Seeing: Representation and Art Practices

John Berger, Excerpts from Ways of Seeing

Catherine King, “Making Things Mean: Cultural Representation in Objects”

BOX: Griselda Pollock, “Women and Art History”

GRAPHIC: Guerilla Girls, “Top Ten Ways to Tell if You’re an Art World Token”

*Suzanne Lustig, “How and Why Did the Guerilla Girls Alter the Art World Establishment in New York City, 1985-1995?”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 13: Artistic Production and Reception

Judith Fryer Davidov, “Prologue”

*Judith Halberstam, “Mackdaddy, Superfly, Rapper: Gender, Race, and Masculinity in the Drag King Scene”

Andrea Weiss, “Female Pleasures and Perversions in the Silent and Early Sound Cinema”

Lila Abu-Lughod, “The Interpretation of Culture(s) after Television”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 14: Gender and Literacy: The Rise of Print and Media Cultures

Stuart Ewen and Elizabeth Ewen, “The Bribe of Frankenstein”

Rassundari Devi, “The Sixth Compostion”

Pat Dean, “Literacy: Liberation of Lip Service?”

M.S. Mlahleki, “Literacy: No Panacea for Women’s Problems”

William Wresch, “World Media”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 15: Representing Women in Colonial Contexts

Judith Williamson, “Woman Is an Island” Femininity and Colonization”

Catherine A. Lutz and Jane L. Collins, Excerpt from Reading National Geographic

Marnia Lazreg, “Feminism and Difference”

Sara Graham-Brown, Excerpt from Images of Women: The Portrayal of Women in Photography of the Middle East

Reflecting on the Section



Section 16: Consumer Culture and the Business of Advertising

Robert Bocock, “Gender and Consumption”

Elaine S. Abelson, “Urban Women and the Emergence of Shopping”

Jennifer Scanlon, Excerpt from Inarticulate Longings

Amy Gluckman and Betsey Reed, “The Gay Marketing Moment"

Reflecting on the Section



Section 17: Consumer Beauty Culture: Commodifying the Body

Rosalind Coward, “The Body Beautiful”

Nancy Worcester, “Nourishing Ourselves”

Roland Marchand, “Grotesque Moderne”

Celestine Bohlen, “Italians Contemplate Beauty in a Caribbean Brow”

Barry Bearak, “Ugliness in India over Miss World”

Rone Tempest, “Barbie in the World Economy”

Figure 17.5: “Toys Are Serious Business for U.S.”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 18: Cyberculture

*Somini Sengupta, “When Do-Gooders Don’t Know What They’re Doing”

*Juana Maria Rodriguez, ““Welcome to the Global Stage”: Confessions of a Latina Cyber-Slut”

*Vernadette V. Gonzalez and Robyn Magalit Rodriguez, “Filipina.com: Wives, Workers and Whores on the Cyberfrontier.”

Reflecting on the Section




Part Four: Gendering Globalization and Displacement

Introductory Essay



Section 19: Travel and Tourism

Cynthia Enloe, “On the Beach: Sexism and Tourism”

Mary Seacole, “Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands”

Sylvia M. Jacobs, “Give a Thought to Africa: Black Women Missionaries in Southern Africa”

Sylvia Chant, “Female Employment in Puerto Vallarta: A Case Study”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 20: Forced Relocations and Removals

Lydia Potts, Excerpt from The World Labor Market: A History of Migration

Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis, Excerpt from Mankiller: A Chief and Her People

Phil Marfleet, “The Refugee”

*Ayesha Khan, “Afghan Refugee Women’s Experience of Conflict and Disintegration”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 21: Diasporas

Stuart Hall, “From ‘Routes’ to Roots”

Claudette Williams, “Gal…You Come from Foreign”

*Mimi Nguyen, “Viet Nam Journal/ Journey”

Ella Shohat, “Dislocated Identities: Reflections of an Arab Jew”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 22: Women, Work, and Immigration

Evelyn Nakano Glenn, “Women and Labor Migration”

Leslie Salzinger, “A Maid by Any Other Name: The Transformation of ‘Dirty Work’ by Central American Immigrants”

Fig. 22.1: Ads for Domestic Workers

Rigoberta Menchú, “A Maid in the Capital”

Photo: “What They Were Thinking”

Satoko Watenabe, “From Thailand to Japan: Migrant Sex Workers as Autonomous Subjects”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 23: The Gender Politics of Economic Globalization

Augusta Dwyer, “Welcome to the Border”

Human Rights Watch, “Sex Discrimination in the Maquiladoras”

BOX: Richard P. Appelbaum, “Nike’s Business”

Amber Ault and Eve Sandberg, “Our Policies, Their Consequences: Zambian Women’s Lives under Structural Adjustment”

BOX: “Questions and Answers About the IMF”

Faye V. Harrison, “The Gendered Politics and Violence of Structural Adjustment: A View from Jamaica”

Reflecting on the Section



Section 24: Global Food Production and Consumption

Ecumenical Coalition for Economic Justice, “Tomasito’s Guide to Economic Integration: A Whirlwind Tour with Your Guide Tomasito, the Tomato

*Martha McMahon, “Resisting Globalization: Women Organic Farmers and Local Food Systems”

*Helen Zweifel, “The Gendered Nature of Biodiversity Conservation”

Nancy Worcester, “The Obesity of the Food Industry”

Reflecting on the Section



Conclusion: Feminist Futures: Transnational Perspectives

Concluding Comment

Cynthia Enloe, “Beyond the Global Victim.”

Reflecting on the Conclusion



Bibliography: Works Excerpted

List of Illustrations

Index
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