Introduction to World Philosophy: A Multicultural Reader

Introduction to World Philosophy: A Multicultural Reader

by Daniel Bonevac, Stephen Phillips

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ISBN-10: 019515231X

ISBN-13: 9780195152319

Pub. Date: 01/07/2009

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Featuring selections from around the globe, Introduction to World Philosophy: A Multicultural Reader provides a diverse and engaging introduction to five key areas of philosophy: ethics, philosophy of mind and self, epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophical theology. The editors have arranged these topics according to their increasing


Featuring selections from around the globe, Introduction to World Philosophy: A Multicultural Reader provides a diverse and engaging introduction to five key areas of philosophy: ethics, philosophy of mind and self, epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophical theology. The editors have arranged these topics according to their increasing complexity—from the most concrete (ethics) to the most theoretical (philosophical theology)—making the material as accessible as possible for students. Organized both chronologically and geographically, the anthology's five parts include readings from Indian, Chinese, Greek, Christian, Jewish, Islamic, Spanish, Latin-American, and African traditions, as well as selections from early modern, Kantian, and post-Kantian philosophy.
Introduction to World Philosophy contains 136 selections (24 by women), organized into 25 chapters; these chapters are divided into 93 sections, each of which opens with a detailed introduction that prepares students for the readings that follow. The parts and chapters can be used in any order and in any combination. The text's unique modular structure gives instructors great flexibility in designing and teaching introduction to philosophy courses. The book is further enhanced by a glossary, a Companion Website at, and an Instructor's Manual (available both in print and on a CD) that offers suggested syllabi, discussion questions, test questions, suggested readings, and PowerPoint slides.

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Table of Contents

Part I: Ethics
1. Ethics in the Philosophical Traditions of India
1.1. Karma and Dharma in Hindu thought
1.1.1. From the Bhagavad Gita
1.2. The Bhakti Movement
1.2.1. Akka Mahadevi
1.2.2. Janabai
1.2.3. Lalla
1.2.4. Mirabai
1.3. Early Buddhism
1.3.1. The Buddha, from The First Sermon
1.3.2. From The Dhammapada
1.4. Songs of the Buddhist Nuns
1.4.1. From Psalms of the Sisters
1.5. Buddhist Virtues
1.5.1. From The Lankavatara Sutra
1.6. Jainism
1.6.1. From the Acaranga Sutra
1.7. The Skepticism and Materialism of Charvaka
1.7.1. From Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha
2. Chinese Ethics
2.1. The Virtue Ethics of Confucius
2.1.1. Confucius, from The Analects
2.2. The Intuitionism of Mencius
2.2.1. From Mencius
2.3. Xunzi's Pessimistic View of Human Nature
2.3.1. Xunzi, from "That the Nature is Evil"
2.4. Confucian and Neo-Confucian Women Writers
2.4.1. Ban Zhao, from Lessons for My Daughters
2.4.2. Ban Zhao, "Traveling Eastward"
2.4.3. Li Qingzhao, from Hou Hsu
2.4.4. Li Qingzhao, from Complete Poems
2.5. The Virtue Ethics of Daoism
2.5.1. Laozi, from Dao-de-Jing
2.6. Daoist Women Writers
2.6.1. Yu Xuanji, from Poems
2.6.2. Sun Bu-er, from Poems
3. Ancient Greek Ethics
3.1. Socrates on Virtue
3.1.1. Plato, from Laches
3.2. Plato's Conception of Virtue
3.2.1. Plato, from the Republic
3.3. Aristotle on Virtue
3.3.1. Aristotle, from Nicomachean Ethics
4. Medieval Christian, Jewish, and Islamic Ethics
4.1. The Ethics of the Fathers
4.1.1. From the Babylonian Talmud
4.2. Augustine on Weakness of Will
4.2.1. Augustine, from Confessions
4.2.2. Augustine, from On the Trinity
4.3. Al-Farabi on Happiness
4.3.1. Al-Farabi, from The Attainment of Happiness
4.4. Maimonides on Happiness and Virtue
4.4.1. Moses Maimonides, from Guide of the Perplexed
4.5. Aquinas on Law and Virtue
4.5.1. St. Thomas Aquinas, from Summa Theologica
4.6. St. Catherine of Siena on the Paradoxes of Wisdom
4.6.1. Letter to Monna Alessa Dei Saracini
4.6.2. Letter to the Venerable Religious Brother Antonio of Nizza, of the Order of the Hermit Brothers of St. Augustine at the Wood of the Lake
4.7. Christine de Pizan's Feminism
4.7.1. Christine de Pizan, from The Treasury of the City of Ladies
4.8. Virtue in St. Teresa of Ávila
4.8.1. St. Teresa of Ávila, from The Ways of Perfection
5. Ethics in Modern Philosophy
5.1. Princess Elizabeth's Critique of Reason in Ethics
5.1.1. Elizabeth to Descartes—The Hague, August 16, 1645
5.1.2. Elizabeth to Descartes—The Hague, September 13, 1645
5.1.3. Elizabeth to Descartes—Riswyck, September 30, 1645
5.1.4. Elizabeth to Descartes—The Hague, April 25, 1646
5.2. Hume's Empiricist Ethics: From Is to Ought
5.2.1. David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature
5.3. Kant's Deontology
5.3.1. Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
5.4. Madame de Staël on the Passions
5.4.1. Madame de Staël, from Influence of the Passions upon the Happiness of Individuals and of Nations
5.5. Utilitarianism
5.5.1. John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
6. African Ethics
6.1. The Ethiopian Enlightenment
6.1.1. Zera Yacob, from The Treatise of Zera Yacob
6.2. The Communitarian Utilitarianism of the Akan
6.2.1. Kwame Gyekye, from An Essay in African Philosophy: The Akan Conceptual Scheme
6.3. East African Islamic Ethics
6.3.1. Kai Kresse, from Philosophising in Mombasa
Part II: Philosophy of Mind and Self
7. The Self in Indian Philosophy
7.1. The Upanishads on a Higher Self
7.1.1. From the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad
7.1.2. From the Chandogya Upanishad
7.1.3. From the Mundaka Upanishad
7.1.4. From the Svetasvatara Upanishad
7.1.5. From the Maitri Upanishad
7.1.6. From the Taittiriya Upanishad
7.1.7. From the Katha Upanishad
7.2. Vedanta, Samkhya, and Yoga: Hindu Paths to Self-Awareness
7.2.1. Shankara, from the Brahmasutra Commentary
7.2.2. Ishvarakrishna, from Verses on the Analysis of Nature (Samkhyakarika)
7.2.3. From The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
7.3. Indian Buddhism: No-Self, Bundle Self, and Impermanence
7.3.1. From Questions to King Milinda
7.4. Exegesis, Logic, and Materialism: The Everyday Self
7.4.1. Kumarila, from Notes on the Verses
7.4.2. Madhava, from Compendium of Philosophy
7.4.3 From the Nyaya Sutra
7.4.4. Udayana, from Atmatattvaviveka
8. The Self in Chinese Buddhism
8.1. Chinese Buddhism: The Consciousness-Only School
8.1.1. Xuanzang, from The Treatise on the Establishment of the Doctrine of Consciousness-Only
8.2. Tibetan Buddhism: The Self as Transcendent
8.2.1. Yeshe Tsogyal, from Autobiography
8.3. Zen Buddhism: The Self as Empty
8.3.1. From the Heart Sutra
8.3.2. From The Recorded Conversations of Zen Master Yixuan
9. Ancient Greek Philosophy of Mind
9.1. Plato: The Eternal, Tripartite Soul
9.1.1. Plato, from Phaedo
9.1.2. Plato, from Phaedrus
9.2. Aristotle on the Self and Human Function
9.2.1. Aristotle, from De Anima
10. Mind and Body in Early Modern Philosophy
10.1. Descartes's Dualism of Mind and Body
10.1.1. René Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy
10.2. Princess Elizabeth's Critique of Descartes's Dualism
10.2.1. Princess Elizabeth, Letter to Descartes—The Hague, May 16, 1643
10.2.2. Princess Elizabeth, Letter to Descartes—The Hague, June 20, 1643
10.2.3. Princess Elizabeth, Letter to Descartes—The Hague, July 1, 1643
10.2.4. Princess Elizabeth, Letter to Descartes—The Hague, April 25, 1646
10.3. Locke on Criteria of Personal Identity
10.3.1. John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
10.4. Hume: The Constructed Self
10.4.1. David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature
11. African Philosophy of Mind
11.1. Amo's Critique of Descartes
11.1.1. Anton Wilhelm Amo, from The Apatheia of the Human Mind
11.2. The Akan Conception of Mind and Self
11.2.1. Kwasi Wiredu, from "The Concept of Mind"
11.2.2. N. K. Dzobo, from "The Image of Man in Africa"
11.3. African Perspectives on Personal Identity
11.3.1. Leke Adeofe, from "Personal Identity in African Metaphysics"
Part III: Epistemology
12. Indian Theories of Knowledge
12.1. Indian Realism: Nyaya and Vaisheshika
12.1.1. From the Nyaya Sutra, with Commentary by Vatsyayana
12.2. Nagarjuna's Skeptical Regress
12.2.1. Nagarjuna, from Averting the Arguments
12.3. New Logic Responses to Skepticism
12.3.1. Ganghesa, from The Jewel of Thought about Epistemology
13. Chinese Theories of Knowledge
13.1. Daoist Skepticism
13.1.1. From Zhuangzi
13.2. The Empiricism of Wang Chong
13.2.1. Wang Chong, from Balanced Enquiries
14. Ancient Greek Theories of Knowledge
14.1. Plato's Internalism
14.1.1. Plato, from Meno
14.1.2. Plato, from Theaetetus
14.2. Aristotle on Thought and Inference
14.2.1. Aristotle, from On the Soul
14.3. Sextus Empiricus's Skepticism
14.3.1. Sextus Empiricus, from Outlines of Pyrrhonism
15. Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Theories of Knowledge
15.1. The Skepticism of Philo of Alexandria
15.1.1. Philo, from On Drunkenness
15.2. Augustine's Foundationalism
15.2.1. Augustine, from Answer to Skeptics
15.2.2. Augustine, The City of God
15.3. Avicenna (ibn Sina) on Logic and Science
15.3.1. Avicenna, from A Treatise on Logic
15.3.2. Avicenna, from The Book of Healing
15.3.3. Avicenna, from On the Soul
16. Modern Theories of Knowledge
16.1. Descartes's Foundationalism
16.1.1. René Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy
16.2. John Locke's Empiricism
16.2.1. John Locke, from Essay Concerning Human Understanding
16.3. Leibniz's Rationalism
16.3.1. G. W. Leibniz, from New Essays Concerning Human Understanding
16.4. Hume's Empiricism
16.4.1. David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
17. Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin American Theories of Knowledge
17.1. The Skepticism of Francisco Sanches
17.1.1. Francisco Sanches, from That Nothing is Known
17.2. The Contextualism of Unamuno
17.2.1. Miguel de Unamuno, from The Tragic Sense of Life
Part IV: Metaphysics
18. Classical Indian Metaphysics
18.1. Classical Realist Ontology
18.1.1. From the Vaisheshika Sutras of Kanada
18.2. Hindu Idealism
18.2.1. Shankara, from the Brahmasutra Commentary
18.3. Buddhist Idealism
18.3.1. Dignaga, from the Investigation of the Object of Awareness
18.4. Jainist Perspectivism
18.4.1. Vadi Devasuri, from Ornament Illuminating the Means and Principles of Awareness
19. Ancient Greek Metaphysics
19.1. Plato's Forms (Universals)
19.1.1. Plato, from Republic
19.2. Aristotle: Categories and Causes
19.2.1. Aristotle, from Categories
19.2.2. Aristotle, from Metaphysics
19.2.3. Aristotle, from Physics
20. Metaphysics in Early Modern Philosophy
20.1. Primary and Secondary Qualities
20.1.1. René Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy
20.1.2. John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
20.2. The Idealism of Berkeley and Hume
20.2.1. George Berkeley, from Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous
20.2.2. George Berkeley, from Principles of Human Knowledge
20.2.3. David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature
21. Metaphysics in Kant and Post-Kantian Philosophy
21.1. Kant's Copernican Revolution
21.1.1. Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason
21.2. Hegel's Historicism
21.2.1. G. W. F. Hegel, from Phenomenology of Mind
21.3. Peirce's Pragmatism
21.3.1. Charles Sanders Peirce, from "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"
21.4. Nietzsche's Perspectivism
21.4.1. Friedrich Nietzsche, from Human, All Too Human
21.4.2. Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Cheerful Science
21.5. Russell's Rejection of Idealism
21.5.1. Bertrand Russell, from Problems of Philosophy
22. Spanish and Latin American Metaphysics
22.1. The Logic of Peter of Spain
22.1.1. Peter of Spain, Tractatus
22.2. The Perspectivism of Ortega y Gasset
22.2.1. José Ortega y Gasset, from The Modern Theme
22.3. The Metaphysical Labyrinths of Jorge Luis Borges
22.3.1. Jorge Luis Borges, from "Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius"
Part V: Philosophical Theology
23. Classical Christian Theology
23.1. Augustine
23.1.1. Augustine, from Confessions
23.1.2. Augustine, from Enchiridion
23.2. Anselm's Ontological Arguments
23.2.1. Anselm, from Proslogion
23.3. The Cosmological Arguments of St. Thomas Aquinas
23.3.1. Thomas Aquinas, from Summa Theologica
23.4. The Christian Mysticism of Julian of Norwich
23.4.1. Julian of Norwich, from Revelations of Divine Love
24. Medieval Islamic Theology
24.1. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) on the Existence of God
24.1.1. Avicenna, from On the Nature of God
24.2. Al-Ghazali's Critique of Theology, and Averroes' Defense
24.2.1. Averroes, from The Incoherence of the Incoherence; Al-Ghazali, from The Incoherence of the Philosophers
24.3. Sufi Mysticism
24.3.1. Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya, from Readings from the Mystics of Islam
24.3.2. Zeb-un-Nissa, from Poetry from the Hidden One
25. Modern Theology
25.1. Descartes's Arguments for God's Existence
25.1.1. René Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy
25.2. Pascal's Wager
25.2.1. Blaise Pascal, from Thoughts
25.3. Leibniz and the Problem of Evil
25.3.1. G. W. Leibniz, from Theodicy
25.4. Paley's Argument from Design
25.4.1. William Paley, from Natural Theology
25.5. Hume's Counterarguments and Refutations
25.5.1. David Hume, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

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