Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking / Edition 7

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Overview

With an expanded focus on critical thinking and problem solving, the new edition of Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking prepares readers for success in introductory chemistry. Unlike other introductory chemistry texts, all materials –the textbook, student solutions manual, laboratory manual, instructor’s manual and test item file – are written by the author and tightly integrated to work together most effectively. Math and problem solving are covered early in the text; Corwin builds reader confidence and ability through innovative pedagogy and technology formulated to meet the needs of today’s learners.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321804907
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 1/17/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 704
  • Sales rank: 279,502
  • Product dimensions: 8.80 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Charles H. Corwin has spent over 30 years teaching chemistry to over 12,000 students. He has taught general chemistry, organic chemistry, and quantitative analysis, but has focused primarily on introductory chemistry for the personal rewards it offers.

Corwin was awarded his degrees from San Jose State University, where he was a member of Tau Delta Phi honor society. Early in his career, he was awarded a National Science Foundation grant to study instructional innovations at Grand Valley State University. Currently, he is a professor of chemistry at American River College, where he was recognized as Teacher of the Year in 1994. He is also the recipient of an Alumni Teaching award from Purdue University.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Chemistry

1.1 Evolution of Chemistry

1.2 Modern Chemistry

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION “Worth Your Salt?”

1.3 Learning Chemistry

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION A Student Success Story

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

Prerequisite Science Skills

PSS.1 Measurements

PSS.2 Significant Digits

PSS.3 Rounding Off Nonsignificant Digits

PSS.4 Adding and Subtracting Measurements

PSS.5 Multiplying and Dividing Measurements

PSS.6 Exponential Numbers

PSS.7 Scientific Notation

2 The Metric System

2.1 Basic Units and Symbols

CRITICAL THINKING The International System of Measurement (SI)

2.2 Metric Conversion Factors

2.3 Metric—Metric Conversions

2.4 Metric—English Conversions

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Olympics

CRITICAL THINKING World Trade Center

2.5 The Percent Concept

2.6 Volume by Calculation

2.7 Volume by Displacement

2.8 The Density Concept

2.9 Temperature

2.10 The Heat Concept

Summary • Problem-Solving Organizer

Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

3 Matter and Energy

3.1 Physical States of Matter

3.2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

3.3 Names and Symbols of the Elements

CRITICAL THINKING Aluminum or Aluminium?

3.4 Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Elements 104 and Beyond

3.5 Compounds and Chemical Formulas

3.6 Physical and Chemical Properties

3.7 Physical and Chemical Changes

3.8 Conservation of Mass

3.9 Potential and Kinetic Energy

3.10 Conservation of Energy

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Recycling Aluminum

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

4 Models of the Atom

4.1 Dalton Model of the Atom

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION John Dalton

4.2 Thomson Model of the Atom

4.3 Rutherford Model of the Atom

4.4 Atomic Notation

4.5 Atomic Mass

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Heavy Water

4.6 The Wave Nature of Light

4.7 The Quantum Concept

4.8 Bohr Model of the Atom

CRITICAL THINKING Neon Lights

4.9 Energy Levels and Sublevels

4.10 Electron Configuration

4.11 Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

Summmary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

5 The Periodic Table

5.1 Classification of Elements

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Dmitri Mendeleev

5.2 The Periodic Law Concept

5.3 Groups and Periods of Elements

CRITICAL THINKING IUPAC Group Numbers

5.4 Periodic Trends

5.5 Properties of Elements

5.6 Blocks of Elements

5.7 Valence Electrons

5.8 Electron Dot Formulas

5.9 Ionization Energy

5.10 Ionic Charges

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Evolution of Chemical Elements

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

6 Language of Chemistry

6.1 Classification of Compounds

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Antoine and Marie Lavoisier

6.2 Monoatomic Ions

6.3 Polyatomic Ions

6.4 Writing Chemical Formulas

CRITICAL THINKING Nutritional Potassium

6.5 Binary Ionic Compounds

6.6 Ternary Ionic Compounds

6.7 Binary Molecular Compounds

6.8 Binary Acids

6.9 Ternary Oxyacids

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION IUPAC Nomenclature

Summary • Nomenclature Organizer

Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

7 Chemical Reactions

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Fireworks

7.1 Evidence for Chemical Reactions

7.2 Writing Chemical Equations

7.3 Balancing Chemical Equations

7.4 Classifying Chemical Reactions

7.5 Combination Reactions

7.6 Decomposition Reactions

7.7 The Activity Series Concept

7.8 Single-Replacement Reactions

7.9 Solubility Rules

7.10 Double-Replacement Reactions

7.11 Neutralization Reactions

CRITICAL THINKING Household Chemicals

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

8 The Mole Concept

8.1 Avogadro’s Number

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Analogies for Avogadro’s Number

8.2 Mole Calculations I

8.3 Molar Mass

8.4 Mole Calculations II

8.5 Molar Volume

8.6 Mole Calculations III

8.7 Percent Composition

8.8 Empirical Formula

8.9 Molecular Formula

CRITICAL THINKING Avogadro’s Number

Summary • Problem—Solving Organizer

Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

9 Chemical Equation Calculations

9.1 Interpreting a Chemical Equation

9.2 Mole—Mole Relationships

CRITICAL THINKING Iron versus Steel

9.3 Types of Stoichiometry Problems

9.4 Mass—Mass Problems

9.5 Mass—Volume Problems

9.6 Volume—Volume Problems

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Manufacturing Ammonia

9.7 Limiting Reactant Concept

9.8 Limiting Reactant Problems

9.9 Percent Yield

Summary • Problem-Solving Organizer

Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

10 Gases

10.1 Properties of Gases

10.2 Atmospheric Pressure

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Greenhouse Effect

10.3 Variables Affecting Gas Pressure

10.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure—Volume Relationships

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Robert Boyle

10.5 Charles’s Law: Volume—Temperature Relationships

10.6 Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure—Temperature Relationships

10.7 Combined Gas Law

10.8 The Vapor Pressure Concept

10.9 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

10.10 Ideal Gas Behavior

10.11 Ideal Gas Law

CRITICAL THINKING Conceptualizing Gases

Summary • Problem—Solving Organizer

Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

11 Liquids and Solids

11.1 Properties of Liquids

11.2 The Intermolecular Bond Concept

11.3 Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Viscosity, and Surface Tension

11.4 Properties of Solids

11.5 Crystalline Solids

11.6 Changes of Physical State

11.7 Structure of Water

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Water Purification

11.8 Physical Properties of Water

11.9 Chemical Properties of Water

11.10 Hydrates

CRITICAL THINKING Bottled Water

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

12 Chemical Bonding

12.1 The Chemical Bond Concept

12.2 Ionic Bonds

12.3 Covalent Bonds

12.4 Electron Dot Formulas of Molecules

12.5 Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions

12.6 Polar Covalent Bonds

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Linus Pauling

12.7 Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

12.8 Coordinate Covalent Bonds

12.9 Hydrogen Bonds

12.10 Shapes of Molecules

CRITICAL THINKING Diamond versus Graphite

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

13 Solutions

13.1 Gases in Solution

13.2 Liquids in Solution

13.3 Solids in Solution

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Colloids

13.4 The Dissolving Process

13.5 Rate of Dissolving

13.6 Solubility and Temperature

13.7 Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions

13.8 Mass/Mass Percent Concentration

13.9 Molar Concentration

CRITICAL THINKING Water Fluoridation

13.10 Dilution of a Solution

13.11 Solution Stoichiometry

Summary • Problem—Solving Organizer

Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

14 Acids and Bases

14.1 Properties of Acids and Bases

14.2 Arrhenius Acids and Bases

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Svante Arrhenius

14.3 Brønsted—Lowry Acids and Bases

14.4 Acid—Base Indicators

14.5 Acid—Base Titrations

14.6 Acid—Base Standardization

14.7 Ionization of Water

14.8 The pH Concept

14.9 Advanced pH Calculations

CRITICAL THINKING Acid Rain

14.10 Strong and Weak Electrolytes

14.11 Net Ionic Equations

Summary • Problem—Solving Organizer

Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

15 Advanced Problem Solving

15.1 Advanced Problem-Solving Strategies

15.2 Concept Maps — Mole Relationships

15.3 Concept Maps — Stoichiometry

15.4 Multiple-Reaction Stoichiometry

CRITICAL THINKING Nanotechnology

15.5 Advanced Problem-Solving Examples

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Online Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

16 Chemical Equilibrium

16.1 Collision Theory

16.2 Energy Profiles of Chemical Reactions

16.3 The Chemical Equilibrium Concept

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Ozone Hole

16.4 General Equilibrium Constant, K eq

16.5 Equilibria Shifts for Gases

16.6 Ionization Equilibrium Constant, K i

16.7 Equilibria Shifts for Weak Acids and Bases

16.8 Solubility Product Equilibrium Constant, K sp

16.9 Equilibria Shifts for Slightly Soluble Compounds

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

17 Oxidation and Reduction

17.1 Oxidation Numbers

17.2 Oxidation—Reduction Reactions

17.3 Balancing Redox Equations: Oxidation Number Method

17.4 Balancing Redox Equations: Half-Reaction Method

17.5 Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions

17.6 Voltaic Cells

17.7 Electrolytic Cells

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Hybrid Vehicles

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

18 Nuclear Chemistry

18.1 Natural Radioactivity

18.2 Nuclear Equations

18.3 Radioactive Decay Series

18.4 Radioactive Half-Life

18.5 Applications of Radionuclides

CRITICAL THINKING Nuclear Medicine

18.6 Induced Radioactivity

18.7 Nuclear Fission

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Nuclear Power Plant

18.8 Nuclear Fusion

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

19 Organic Chemistry

19.1 Hydrocarbons

19.2 Alkanes

19.3 Alkenes and Alkynes

19.4 Arenes

19.5 Hydrocarbon Derivatives

19.6 Organic Halides

19.7 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

19.8 Amines

19.9 Aldehydes and Ketones

19.10 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Forensic Chemistry

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

20 Biochemistry

20.1 Biological Compounds

20.2 Proteins

20.3 Enzymes

20.4 Carbohydrates

20.5 Lipids

CRITICAL THINKING Vitamins

20.6 Nucleic Acids

CRITICAL THINKING Left- and Right-Handed Molecules

Summary • Key Terms • Exercises

Chapter Self-Test

Appendices

A Weights and Measures

B Physical Constants

C Activity Series for Metals

D Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds

E Vapor Pressure of Water

F Properties of Water

G Answers to Concept Exercises

H Answers to Key Term Exercises

I Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

J Answers to Chapter Self-Tests

Glossary

Photo Credits

Index

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