Introductory Chemistry : Concepts & Connections

Introductory Chemistry : Concepts & Connections

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by Charles Corwin
     
 

This comprehensive book gives readers easy access to the basic concepts and their relevant connections of the chemical principles operating in everyday life. Numerous examples and real-world applications provide chemistry enthusiasts with long-term, meaningful understandings.

Chapter topics include scientific measurements, matter and energy, models of the atom,

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Overview

This comprehensive book gives readers easy access to the basic concepts and their relevant connections of the chemical principles operating in everyday life. Numerous examples and real-world applications provide chemistry enthusiasts with long-term, meaningful understandings.

Chapter topics include scientific measurements, matter and energy, models of the atom, chemical reactions, the mole concept, liquids and solids, acids and bases, oxidation and reduction, chemical equilibrium, nuclear and organic chemistry, and biochemistry.

For those who understand that knowledge of chemistry constitutes an empowering life skill.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
2900132321487
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
07/28/2007
Edition description:
New Edition

Table of Contents

1    Introduction to Chemistry   

  1.1    Evolution of Chemistry

   CRITICAL THINKING  Rise and Fall of a Theory

  1.2 Modern Chemistry

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Alchemy

   1.3    Learning Chemistry

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

2  Scientific Measurements   

  2.1 Uncertainty in Measurements

      2.2    Significant Digits

      2.3 Rounding Off Nonsignificant Digits

      2.4 Adding and Subtracting Measurements

      2.5 Multiplying and Dividing Measurements

      2.6 Exponential Numbers

      2.7 Scientific Notation

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  A Student Success Story

      2.8 Unit Equations and Unit Factors

      2.9 Unit Analysis Problem Solving

   CRITICAL THINKING  World Trade Center

      2.10   The Percent Concept

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Coinage Metals

   Summary

   Problem Solving Organizer   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

3  The Metric System   

  3.1    Basic Units and Symbols

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  InternationalSystem (SI)

      3.2    Metric Conversion Factors

   3.3    Metric—Metric Conversions   

   3.4    Metric—English Conversions   

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Olympics

   3.5    Volume by Calculation

      3.6    Volume by Displacement

   3.7    The Density Concept

   CRITICAL THINKING  Lower Gasoline Bills

      3.8    Temperature

      3.9 Heat and Specific Heat

   Summary

   Problem Solving Organizer   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

4  Matter and Energy   

      4.1    Physical States of Matter

   4.2    Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

   4.3    Names and Symbols of the Elements

   CRITICAL THINKING  Aluminum or Aluminium?

   4.4    Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals   

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Elements 104 and Beyond

   4.5    Compounds and Chemical Formulas

      4.6 Physical and Chemical Properties

      4.7    Physical and Chemical Changes  

   4.8    Conservation of Mass

      4.9 Potential and Kinetic Energy

      4.10   Conservation of Energy   

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Recycling Aluminum

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

5  Models of the Atom

      5.1    Dalton Model of the Atom

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  John Dalton

      5.2    Thomson Model of the Atom

      5.3 Rutherford Model of the Atom

      5.4    Atomic Notation

      5.5    Atomic Mass     

   CRITICAL THINKING  Heavy Water

      5.6 The Wave Nature of Light

   5.7 The Quantum Concept

   5.8    Bohr Model of the Atom

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Neon Lights

      5.9 Energy Levels and Sublevels

  5.10 Electron Configuration

   5.11   Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

6  The Periodic Table  

  6.1    Classification of Elements

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Dmitri Mendeleev

      6.2    The Periodic Law Concept

      6.3 Groups and Periods of Elements

   CRITICAL THINKING  IUPAC Group Numbers

   6.4    Periodic Trends

   6.5     Properties of Elements  

   6.6    Blocks of Elements

      6.7    Valence Electrons

   6.8    Electron Dot Formulas

      6.9 Ionization Energy

   6.10   Ionic Charges

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

7  Language of Chemistry  

      7.1    Classification of Compounds  

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Antoine and Marie Lavoisier

   7.2    Monoatomic Ions

   7.3    Polyatomic Ions

      7.4    Writing Chemical Formulas

   CRITICAL THINKING  Nutritional Potassium

      7.5    Binary Ionic Compounds

   7.6    Ternary Ionic Compounds  

      7.7    Binary Molecular Compounds   

      7.8 Binary Acids

      7.9    Ternary Oxyacids

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  IUPAC Nomenclature

   Summary

   Nomenclature Organizer   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

8  Chemical Reactions   

      8.1    Evidence for Chemical Reactions

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Fireworks

      8.2    Writing Chemical Equations

      8.3    Balancing Chemical Equations

   8.4    Classifying Chemical Reactions

      8.5    Combination Reactions

      8.6    Decomposition Reactions

      8.7 The Activity Series Concept

      8.8 Single-Replacement Reactions

      8.9 Solubility Rules

   8.10   Double-Replacement Reactions

      8.11   Neutralization Reactions

   CRITICAL THINKING  Household Chemicals

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

9  The Mole Concept   

      9.1    Avogadro’s Number  

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Analogies for Avogadro’s Number

   9.2    Mole Calculations I

   9.3    Molar Mass

      9.4    Mole Calculations II

   9.5    Molar Volume

      9.6 Mole Calculations III

      9.7    Percent Composition

      9.8    Empirical Formula

   9.9 Molecular Formula

   CRITICAL THINKING  Avogadro’s Number

   Summary

   Problem Solving Organizer   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

10  Chemical Equation Calculations  

      10.1   Interpreting a Chemical Equation

      10.2 Mole—Mole Relationships

   CRITICAL THINKING  Understanding Steelmaking

      10.3   Types of Stoichiometry Problems

   10.4   Mass—Mass Problems

      10.5 Mass—Volume Problems  

      10.6 Volume—Volume Problems

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Manufacturing Ammonia

   10.7   The Limiting Reactant Concept

      10.8   Limiting Reactant Problems

      10.9 Percent Yield

   Summary

   Problem Solving Organizer   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

11  The Gaseous State   

      11.1 Properties of Gases

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Greenhouse Effect

      11.2 Atmospheric Pressure

      11.3 Variables Affecting Gas Pressure

      11.4 Boyle’s Law:  Pressure—Volume Relationships

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Robert Boyle

   11.5 Charles’s Law:  Volume—Temperature Relationships

      11.6   Gay—Lussac’s Law:  Pressure—Temperature Relationships

      11.7   Combined Gas Law   

   11.8   The Vapor Pressure Concept

   11.9 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

   11.10   Ideal Gas Behavior

   11.11   Ideal Gas Law

   CRITICAL THINKING  Conceptualizing Gases

   Summary

   Problem Solving Organizer   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

12    Chemical Bonding  

      12.1 The Chemical Bond Concept

  12.2 Ionic Bonds

      12.3 Covalent Bonds   

   12.4 Electron Dot Formulas of Molecules

   12.5 Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions

   12.6 Polar Covalent Bonds

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Linus Pauling

   12.7 Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

  12.8 Coordinate Covalent Bonds

   12.9 Hydrogen Bonds

      12.10   Shapes of Molecules

   CRITICAL THINKING  Diamond vs. Graphite

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

13    Liquids and Solids  

      13.1 Properties of Liquids

   13.2 The Intermolecular Bond Concept  

      13.3 Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Viscosity,

   Surface Tension

   13.4 Properties of Solids

      13.5 Crystalline Solids

      13.6   Changes of Physical State

      13.7 Structure of Water

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Water Purification

   13.8   Physical Properties of Water

   13.9 Chemical Properties of Water

   13.10   Hydrates

   CRITICAL THINKING  Bottled Water

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

14  Solutions  

   14.1 Gases in Solution

   14.2 Liquids in Solution

  14.3   Solids in Solution

   14.4 The Dissolving Process

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Colloids

   14.5 Rate of Dissolving

  14.6 Solubility and Temperature

      14.7   Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions

      14.8 Mass/Mass Percent Concentration

      14.9   Molar Concentration

   CRITICAL THINKING  Water Fluoridation

   14.10   Dilution of a Solution

   14.11   Solution Stoichiometry

   Summary

   Problem Solving Organizer   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

15  Acids and Bases   

   15.1 Properties of Acids and Bases  

   15.2   Arrhenius Acids and Bases

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Svante Arrhenius

      15.3   Brønsted—Lowry Acids and Bases

      15.4   Acid—Base Indicators

      15.5   Acid—Base Titrations

      15.6   Acid—Base Standardization

      15.7   Ionization of Water

      15.8   The pH Concept

   15.9   Advanced pH Calculations

   CRITICAL THINKING  Acid Rain

   15.10   Strong and Weak Electrolytes 

   15.11   Net Ionic Equations

   Summary

   Problem Solving Organizer   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

16  Chemical Equilibrium

  16.1   Collision Theory

   16.2   Energy Profiles of Chemical Reactions

   16.3   The Chemical Equilibrium Concept  

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Ozone Hole

   16.4   General Equilibrium Constant, Keq

   16.5   Equilibria Shifts for Gases

   16.6   Ionization Equilibrium Constant, Ki

   16.7   Equilibria Shifts for Weak Acids and Bases

   16.8   Solubility Product Equilibrium Constant, Ksp

   16.9   Equilibria Shifts for Slightly Soluble Compounds

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

17  Oxidation and Reduction   

  17.1   Oxidation Numbers

   17.2   Oxidation—Reduction Reactions

      17.3   Balancing Redox Equations: 

   Oxidation Number Method

   17.4   Balancing Redox Equations: 

   Half—Reaction Method

      17.5   Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions

  17.6   Voltaic Cells

   17.7   Electrolytic Cells

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Hybrid Vehicles

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

18  Nuclear Chemistry   

   18.1 Natural Radioactivity

   18.2 Nuclear Equations

   18.3 Radioactive Decay Series

   18.4   Radioactive Half—Life

   18.5 Applications of Radionuclides   

   CRITICAL THINKING  Nuclear Medicine

   18.6 Induced Radioactivity  

   18.7 Nuclear Fission

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Nuclear Power Plant

   18.8 Nuclear Fusion

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

19  Organic Chemistry   

   19.1   Hydrocarbons

   19.2   Alkanes

   19.3   Alkenes and Alkynes

   19.4   Arenes

   19.5   Hydrocarbon Derivatives

   19.6   Organic Halides

   19.7   Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

   19.8   Amines

   19.9   Aldehydes and Ketones

   19.10   Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides

   CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Giant Molecules

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

20  Biochemistry

   20.1   Biological Compounds

   20.2   Proteins

   20.3   Enzymes

   20.4   Carbohydrates

   20.5   Lipids

   CRITICAL THINKING Vitamins

   20.6   Nucleic Acids

   Summary   •   Key Concepts

   Key Terms   •   Exercises   •   Self-Test

 

Appendices

   A    Weights and Measures

   B    Physical Constants

   C    Activity Series of Metals

   D    Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds

   E    Vapor Pressure of Water

   F Properties of Water

   G    Answers to Key Concept Exercises

   H    Answers to Key Term Exercises

   I   Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

  J Answers to Chapter Self-Tests

 

   Glossary

   Photo Credits

    Index

 

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