Introductory Chemistry Essentials / Edition 4

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Note: If you are purchasing the standalone text or electronic version, MasteringChemistry does not come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MasteringChemistry please visit: or you can purchase a package of the physical text + MasteringChemistry by searching for 9780321918734 / 0321918738. MasteringChemistry is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.

See how chemistry is relevant to your life

Now in its Fifth Edition, Introductory Chemistry Essentials continues to foster deep engagement in the course by showing how chemistry manifests in your daily life. Author Nivaldo Tro draws upon his classroom experience as an award-winning instructor to extend chemistry from the laboratory to your world, with relevant applications and a captivating writing style. Closely integrated with the fifth edition of Introductory Chemistry Essentials, MasteringChemistry® gives you the tools you need to succeed in this course.

This program provides you a better learning experience. It will help you to:

Personalize learning with MasteringChemistry®: This data-validated online homework, tutorial, and assessment program helps you quickly master concepts, and enables instructors to provide timely intervention when necessary.
Achieve deep conceptual understanding: Several new Conceptual Checkpoints and Self- Assessment Quizzes help you better grasp key concepts.
Develop problem-solving skills: A step-by-step framework encourages you to think logically rather than simply memorize formulas. Additional worked examples, enhanced with audio and video, reinforce challenging problems.
Maintain interest in chemistry: The inclusion of concrete examples of key ideas throughout the program keeps you engaged in the material.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321725998
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 1/19/2011
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 736
  • Product dimensions: 8.70 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Nivaldo Tro is currently chair of the department of chemistry at Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California, where he has been a faculty member since 1990. He received his B.A degree in chemistry from Westmont College and earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford University, for work on developing and using optical techniques to study the adsorption and desorption of molecules to and from surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum. He then went on to the University of California at Berkeley, where he did post-doctoral research on ultra-fast reaction dynamics in solution. Since coming to Westmont, Professor Tro has been awarded grants from the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, from Research Corporation, and from the National Science Foundation to study the dynamics of various processes occurring in thin adlayer films adsorbed on dielectric surfaces. Honored as Westmont’s outstanding teacher of the year in 1994, 2001, and 2008, he was also named the college’s outstanding researcher of the year in 1996. Professor Tro lives in Santa Barbara with his wife, Ann, and their four children, Michael, Alicia, Kyle, and Kaden. For leisure, he enjoys reading, writing, snowboarding, biking, and other outdoor activities with his family.
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Table of Contents


1. The Chemical World
2. Measurement and Problem Solving
3. Matter and Energy
4. Atoms and Elements
5. Molecules and Compounds
6. Chemical Composition
7. Chemical Reactions
8. Quantities in Chemical Reactions
9. Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table
10. Chemical Bonding
11. Gases
12. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
13. Solutions
14. Acids and Bases
15. Chemical Equilibrium
16. Oxidation and Reduction
17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry


1. The Chemical World
1.1 Soda Pop Fizz
1.2 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things
1.3 All Things Are Made of Atoms and Molecules
1.4 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think
1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed

2. Measurement and Problem Solving
2.1 Measuring Global Temperatures
2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers
2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision
2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations
2.5 The Basic Units of Measurement
2.6 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion
2.7 Solving Multistep Conversion Problems
2.8 Units Raised to a Power
2.9 Density
2.10 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map

3. Matter and Energy
3.1 In Your Room
3.2 What Is Matter?
3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes
3.7 Conservation of Mass: There is No New Matter
3.8 Energy
3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change
3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms
3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity
3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations

4. Atoms and Elements
4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon
4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory
4.3 The Nuclear Atom
4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons
4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons
4.8 Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies
4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms

5. Molecules and Compounds
5.1 Sugar and Salt
5.2 Compounds Display Constant Composition
5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds
5.4 A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds
5.5 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
5.6 Nomenclature: Naming Compounds
5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds
5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds
5.9 Naming Acids
5.10 Nomenclature Summary
5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit

6. Chemical Composition
6.1 How Much Sodium?
6.2 Counting Nails by the Pound
6.3 Counting Atoms by the Gram
6.4 Counting Molecules by the Gram
6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds
6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula
6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds
6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds

7. Chemical Reactions
7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents
7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction
7.3 The Chemical Equation
7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations
7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water
7.6 Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid
7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations
7.8 Acid–Base and Gas Evolution Reactions
7.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions

8. Quantities in Chemical Reactions
8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide
8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients
8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions
8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions
8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield
8.6 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants
8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction

9. Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table
9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom
9.2 Light: Electromagnetic Radiation
9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits
9.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals
9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and Electron Configurations
9.7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
9.8 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model
9.9 Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Metallic Character

10. Chemical Bonding
10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs
10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots
10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred
10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared
10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds
10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule
10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules
10.8 Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don’t Mix

11. Gases
11.1 Extra-Long Straws
11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases
11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions
11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume
11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature
11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
11.7 Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles
11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles
11.9 Mixtures of Gases: Why Deep-Sea Divers Breathe a Mixture of Helium and Oxygen
11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions

12. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
12.1 Interactions between Molecules
12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids
12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity
12.4 Evaporation and Condensation
12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation
12.6 Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole–Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, and Ion-Dipole
12.7 Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic
12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule

13. Solutions
13.1 Tragedy in Cameroon
13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures
13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy
13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz
13.5 Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent
13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity
13.7 Solution Dilution
13.8 Solution Stoichiometry
13.9 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter
13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Salt Water Causes Dehydration

14. Acids and Bases
14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies
14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples
14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples
14.4 Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases
14.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases
14.6 Acid–Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution
14.7 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One
14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to Express Acidity and Basicity
14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change

15. Chemical Equilibrium
15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium
15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium
15.4 The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes
15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid
15.6 Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants
15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Châtelier’s Principle
15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium
15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium
15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium
15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant
15.12 The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst

16. Oxidation and Reduction
16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?
16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions
16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping
16.4 Balancing Redox Equations
16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions
16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity
16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry
16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions

17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis
17.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity
17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay
17.4 Detecting Radioactivity
17.5 Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life
17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts
17.7 The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb
17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity
17.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun
17.10 The Effects of Radiation on Life
17.11 Radioactivity in Medicine

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