Introductory Chemistry / Edition 2

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Overview

Steve Russo and Mike Silver turn chemistry into a memorable story that engages readers and provides the context they need to understand and remember core concepts. The book builds interesting applications and well-designed illustrations into the narrative to get and hold attention, then builds confidence with integrated active learning activities. Readers make the connections between concepts and the problem-solving techniques they need to master as they read.

The new edition strengthens this conceptual approach and presents additional quantitative techniques in key areas. Readers will find enhanced support for quantitative problem-solving and more challenging questions at the end of each chapter, in addition to the wealth of technology-based support on The Chemistry Place(tm), Special Edition and on The Chemistry of Life CD-ROM. For college instructors and students.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321046345
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 12/28/2001
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 704
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 11.20 (h) x 1.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Steve Russo is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Chemistry at Cornell University and the Director of Organic Laboratories. Prior to that, he was an Assistant Professor at Indiana University. While there, he designed and implemented a state-of-the-art computer resource center for the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. He received his B.S. in chemistry from St. Francis College and his Ph.D. in physical organic chemistry from Cornell University. He is a member of the American Chemical Society and has been a recipient of the Dupont Teaching Award, Clark Teaching Award, and the Amoco Distinguished Teaching Award.


Mike Silver is a Professor of Chemistry at Hope College. He received his B.S. in chemistry from Fairleigh Dickinson University and his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Cornell University. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, past president of the West Michigan Section, and a member of the Council of Undergraduate Research. He has received the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award for excellence in teaching and research and the Provost's Award for Teaching Excellence. Currently he is involved in collaborative research with the Dow Corning Chemical Company.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors v
Preface xi
Chapter 1 What Is Chemistry? 1
1.1 Science and Technology 1
1.2 Matter 3
1.3 Matter and Its Physical Transformations 9
1.4 Matter and Its Chemical Transformations 12
1.5 How Science Is Done-The Scientific Method 15
1.6 Learning Chemistry with This Book 18
Chapter 2 The Numerical Side of Chemistry 27
2.1 Numbers in Chemistry-Precision and Accuracy 27
2.2 Numbers in Chemistry-Uncertainty and Significant Figures 30
2.3 Zeros and Significant Figures 33
2.4 Scientific Notation 36
2.5 How to Handle Significant Figures and Scientific Notation When Doing Math 40
2.6 Numbers with a Name-Units of Measure 44
2.7 Density: A Useful Physical Property of Matter 50
2.8 Doing Calculations in Chemistry-Unit Analysis 52
2.9 Rearranging Equations-Algebraic Manipulations with Density 57
2.10 Quantifying Energy 60
Chapter 3 The Evolution of Atomic Theory 77
3.1 Dalton's Atomic Theory 77
3.2 Development of a Model for Atomic Structure 82
3.3 The Nucleus 83
3.4 The Structure of the Atom 87
3.5 The Law of Mendeleev-Chemical Periodicity 93
3.6 The Modern Periodic Table 98
3.7 Other Regular Variations in the Properties of Elements 104
Chapter 4 The Modern Model of the Atom 121
4.1 Seeing the Light-A New Model of the Atom 121
4.2 A New Kind of Physics-Energy Is Quantized 125
4.3 The Bohr Theory of Atomic Structure 126
4.4 Periodicity and Line Spectra Explained 129
4.5 Subshells and Electron Configuration 136
4.6 Compound Formation and the Octet Rule 144
4.7 Atomic Size Revisited 149
4.8 The Modern Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom 150
Chapter 5 Chemical Bonding and Nomenclature 165
5.1 Molecules-What Are They? Why Are They? 165
5.2 Holding Molecules Together-The Covalent Bond 166
5.3 Molecules, Dot Structures, and the Octet Rule 172
5.4 Multiple Bonds 178
5.5 Ionic Bonding-Bring on the Metals 183
5.6 Equal Versus Unequal Sharing of Electrons-Electronegativity and the Polar Covalent Bond 185
5.7 Nomenclature-Naming Chemical Compounds 189
Chapter 6 The Shape of Molecules 211
6.1 Why Is the Shape of a Molecule Important? 211
6.2 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory 213
6.3 Polarity of Molecules, or When Does 2 + 2 Not Equal 4? 222
6.4 Intermolecular Forces-Dipolar Interactions 230
Chapter 7 Chemical Reactions 243
7.1 What Is a Chemical Reaction? 243
7.2 How Are Reactants Transformed into Products? 244
7.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 247
7.4 Types of Reactions 251
7.5 Solubility and Precipitation Reactions 253
7.6 Introduction to Acid-Base Reactions 260
Chapter 8 Stoichiometry and the Mole 273
8.1 Stoichiometry-What Is It? 273
8.2 The Mole 276
8.3 Reaction Stoichiometry 285
8.4 Dealing with a Limiting Reactant 291
8.5 Combustion Analysis 297
8.6 Going Back and Forth Between Formulas and Percent Composition 305
Chapter 9 The Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another in a Chemical Reaction 323
9.1 What Is Electricity? 323
9.2 Electron Bookkeeping-Oxidation States 324
9.3 Recognizing Electron-Transfer Reactions 336
9.4 Electricity from Redox Reactions 341
9.5 Which Way Do Electrons Flow?-The EMF Series 348
9.6 Another Look at Oxidation: The Corrosion of Metals 353
Chapter 10 Intermolecular Forces and the Phases of Matter 369
10.1 Why Does Matter Exist in Different Phases? 369
10.2 Intermolecular Forces 375
10.3 A Closer Look at Dipole Forces-Hydrogen-Bonding 379
10.4 Vancomycin-The Antibiotic of Last Resort and Its Life-Saving Hydrogen Bonds! 383
10.5 Nonmolecular Substances 387
Chapter 11 What If There Were No Intermolecular Forces? The Ideal Gas 399
11.1 Describing the Gas Phase-P, V, n, and T 399
11.2 Describing a Gas Mathematically-The Ideal Gas Law 406
11.3 Getting the Most from the Ideal Gas Law 413
Chapter 12 Solutions 433
12.1 What Is a Solution? 433
12.2 Energy and the Formation of Solutions 436
12.3 Entropy and the Formation of Solutions 444
12.4 Solubility, Temperature, and Pressure 447
12.5 Getting Unlikes to Dissolve-Soaps and Detergents 450
12.6 Molarity 452
12.7 Percent Composition 462
12.8 Reactions in Solution 465
12.9 Colligative Properties of Solutions 473
Chapter 13 When Reactants Turn into Products 499
13.1 Chemical Kinetics 499
13.2 Energy Changes and Chemical Reactions 502
13.3 Reaction Rates and Activation Energy-Getting over the Hill 511
13.4 How Concentration Affects Reaction Rate 520
13.5 Reaction Order 525
13.6 Why Reaction Orders Have the Values They Do-Mechanisms 529
Chapter 14 Chemical Equilibrium 547
14.1 Dynamic Equilibrium-My Reaction Seems To Have Stopped! 547
14.2 Why Do Chemical Reactions Reach Equilibrium? 553
14.3 The Position of Equilibrium-The Equilibrium Constant, K[subscript eq] 557
14.4 Disturbing a Reaction Already at Equilibrium-Le Chatelier's Principle 563
14.5 How Equilibrium Responds to Temperature Changes 567
14.6 Equilibria for Heterogeneous Reactions, Solubility, and Equilibrium Calculations 570
Chapter 15 Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases 591
15.1 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 591
15.2 Electrolytes Weak and Strong 598
15.3 Acids Weak and Strong 600
15.4 Bases-The Opposites of Acids 604
15.5 Help! I Need Another Definition of Acid and Base 608
15.6 Weak Bases 611
15.7 Is This Solution Acidic or Basic? Understanding Water, Autodissociation, and K[subscript w] 614
15.8 The pH Scale 620
15.9 Resisting pH Changes-Buffers 625
Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry 647
16.1 The Case of the Missing Mass-Mass Defect and the Stability of the Nucleus 647
16.2 Half-Life and the Band of Stability 652
16.3 Spontaneous Nuclear Changes-Radioactivity 655
16.4 Using Radioactive Isotopes to Date Objects 666
16.5 Nuclear Energy-Fission and Fusion 668
16.6 Biological Effects and Medical Applications of Radioactivity 673
Chapter 17 The Chemistry of Carbon 683
17.1 Carbon-A Unique Element 683
17.2 Naturally Occurring Compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen-Hydrocarbons 687
17.3 Naming Hydrocarbons 694
17.4 Properties of Hydrocarbons 706
17.5 Functionalized Hydrocarbons-Bring On the Heteroatoms 707
Chapter 18 Synthetic and Biological Polymers 727
18.1 Building Polymers 727
18.2 Polyethylene and Its Relatives 728
18.3 Nylon-A Polymer You Can Wear 731
18.4 Polysaccharides and Carbohydrates 733
18.5 Proteins 737
18.6 DNA-The Master Biopolymer 741
Glossary G-1
Selected Answers A-1
Index I-1
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