Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation / Edition 6

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Overview

The Sixth Edition of Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation offers unparalleled teaching and learning resources, with a robust technology package, in addition to the superior problem-solving pedagogy, engaging writing style, and strong emphasis on everyday applications that comprise the hallmarks of this best-selling text. Chemical reactions are covered early, to capture student interest, leaving more abstract material for later chapters.The authors explain chemical concepts by starting with the basics, using symbols or diagrams, and concluding by encouraging students to test their own comprehension of the solution. This step-by-step approach helps students develop critical problem-solving skills. Also, the accessible explanations and visualizations throughout the text motivate students and engage them in the material by helping them to connect abstract chemical principles to real-life experiences. The pedagogy includes chapter-opening discussions that introduce students to relevant applications and Chemistry in Focus boxes that describe everyday applications of chemistry such as artificial sweeteners, foaming chewing gum, and fake fats. Current applications appear throughout the text with easy-to-understand explanations and analogies.

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Product Details

Meet the Author


Steve Zumdahl is the author of market-leading textbooks in introductory chemistry, general chemistry, honors-level chemistry, and high school chemistry. Recently retired from his long-time position as Director of Undergraduate Programs at the University of Illinois, he has received numerous awards for his contributions to chemical education. These include the National Catalyst Award in recognition of his contribution to chemical education, the University of Illinois Teaching Award, the UIUC Liberal Arts and Sciences Advising Award, and the School of Chemical Sciences Teaching Award (five times). He earned his B.S. in Chemistry from Wheaton College (IL), and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois.

Donald J. DeCoste is Associate Director of General Chemistry at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and has been teaching chemistry at the high school and college levels for 26 years. He earned his BS in Chemistry and PhD from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. At UIUC he has developed chemistry courses for nonscience majors, preservice secondary teachers, and preservice elementary teachers. He teaches courses in introductory chemistry and the teaching of chemistry and has received the School of Chemical Sciences Teaching Award four times. Don has led workshops for secondary teachers and graduate student teaching assistants, discussing the methods and benefits of getting students more actively involved in class. When not involved in teaching and advising, Don enjoys spending time with his wife and three children.

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Table of Contents

Note: Each chapter concludes with a Chapter Review. 1. Chemistry: An Introduction 1.1 Chemistry: An Introduction Chemistry in Focus: Dr. Ruth—Cotton Hero 1.2 What Is Chemistry? 1.3 Solving Problems Using a Scientific Approach Chemistry in Focus: A Mystifying Problem 1.4 The Scientific Method 1.5 Learning Chemistry Chemistry in Focus: Chemistry: An Important Component of Your Education 2. Measurements and Calculations 2.1 Scientific Notation 2.2 Units Chemistry in Focus: Critical Units! 2.3 Measurements of Length, Volume, and Mass Chemistry in Focus: Measurement: Past, Present, and Future 2.4 Uncertainty in Measurement 2.5 Significant Figures 2.6 Problem Solving and Dimensional Analysis Temperature Conversions: An Approach to Problem Solving Chemistry in Focus: Tiny Thermometers 2.8 Density 3. Matter 3.1 Matter 3.2 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes 3.3 Elements and Compounds 3.4 Mixtures and Pure Substances Chemistry in Focus: Concrete—An Ancient Material Made New 3.5 Separation of Mixtures Cumulative Review for Chapters 1-3 4. Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions 4.1 The Elements Chemistry in Focus: Trace Elements: Small but Crucial 4.2 Symbols for the Elements 4.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory Chemistry in Focus: No Laughing Matter 4.4 Formulas of Compounds 4.5 The Structure of the Atom Chemistry in Focus: Glowing Tubes for Signs, Television Sets, and Computers 4.6 Introduction to the Modern Concept of Atomic Structure 4.7 Isotopes Chemistry in Focus: Isotope Tales 4.8 Introduction to the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: Putting the Brakes on Arsenic 4.9 Natural States of the Elements 4.10 Ions 4.11 Compounds That Contain Ions 5. Nomenclature 5.1 Naming Compounds Chemistry in Focus: Sugar of Lead 5.2 Naming Binary Compounds That Contain a Metal and a Nonmetal (Types I and II) 5.3 Naming Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Type III) 5.4 Naming Binary Compounds: A Review 5.5 Naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions 5.6 Naming Acids 5.7 Writing Formulas from Names Cumulative Review for Chapters 4-5 6. Chemical Reactions: An Introduction 6.1 Evidence for a Chemical Reaction 6.2 Chemical Equations 6.3 Balancing Chemical Equations Chemistry in Focus: The Beetle That Shoots Straight 7. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 7.1 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur 7.2 Reactions in Which a Solid Forms 7.3 Describing Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 7.4 Reactions That Form Water: Acids and Bases 7.5 Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals (Oxidation-Reduction) 7.6 Ways to Classify Reactions Chemistry in Focus: Do We Age by Oxidation? Chemistry in Focus: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Launch the Space Shuttle 7.7 Other Ways to Classify Reactions Cumulative Review for Chapters 6-7 8. Chemical Composition 8.1 Counting by Weighing Chemistry in Focus: Plastic That Talks and Listens! 8.2 Atomic Masses: Counting Atoms by Weighing 8.3 The Mole 8.4 Molar Mass 8.5 Percent Composition of Compounds 8.6 Formulas of Compounds 8.7 Calculation of Empirical Formulas 8.8 Calculation of Molecular Formulas 9. Chemical Quantities 9.1 Information Given by Chemical Equations 9.2 Mole—Mole Relationships 9.3 Mass Calculations Chemistry in Focus: Methyl Alcohol: Fuel with a Future? 9.4 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant 9.5 Percent Yield Cumulative Review for Chapters 8-9 10. Energy 10.1 The Nature of Energy 10.2 Temperature and Heat 10.3 Exothermic and Endothermic Processes 10.4 Thermodynamics 10.5 Measuring Energy Changes Chemistry in Focus: Coffee: Hot and Quick(lime) Chemistry in Focus: Nature Has Hot Plants Chemistry in Focus: Firewalking: Magic or Science? 10.6 Thermochemistry (Enthalpy) Chemistry in Focus: Methane: An Important Energy Source 10.7 Hess's Law 10.8 Quality Versus Quantity of Energy 10.9 Energy and Our World Chemistry in Focus: Veggie Gasoline? 10.10 Energy as a Driving Force 11. Modern Atomic Theory 11.1 Rutherford's Atom 11.2 Electromagnetic Radiation Chemistry in Focus: Light as a Sex Attractant Chemistry in Focus: Atmospheric Effects 307 11.3 Emission of Energy by Atoms 11.4 The Energy Levels of Hydrogen 11.5 The Bohr Model of the Atom 11.6 The Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom 11.7 The Hydrogen Orbitals 11.8 The Wave Mechanical Model: Further Development 11.9 Electron Arrangements in the First Eighteen Atoms on the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: A Magnetic Moment 11.10 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: The Chemistry of Bohrium 11.11 Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: Fireworks 12. Chemical Bonding 12.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 12.2 Electronegativity 12.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 12.4 Stable Electron Configurations and Charges on Ions Chemistry in Focus: Composite Cars 12.5 Ionic Bonding and Structures of Ionic Compounds 12.6 Lewis Structures 12.7 Lewis Structures of Molecules with Multiple Bonds Chemistry in Focus: Hiding Carbon Dioxide Chemistry in Focus: Broccoli—Miracle Food? 12.8 Molecular Structure 12.9 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model Chemistry in Focus: Taste—It's the Structure That Counts 12.10 Molecular Structure: Molecules with Double Bonds Chemistry in Focus: Minimotor Molecule Cumulative Review for Chapters 10-12 13. Gases 13.1 Pressure 13.2 Pressure and Volume: Boyle's Law 13.3 Volume and Temperature: Charles's Law 13.4 Volume and Moles: Avogadro's Law 13.5 The Ideal Gas Law Chemistry in Focus: Snacks Need Chemistry, Too! 13.6 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 13.7 Laws and Models: A Review 13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory 13.10 Gas Stoichiometry 14. Liquids and Solids 14.1 Water and Its Phase Changes 14.2 Energy Requirements for the Changes of State Chemistry in Focus: Whales Need Changes of State 14.3 Intermolecular Forces 14.4 Evaporation and Vapor Pressure 14.5 The Solid State: Types of Solids 14.6 Bonding in Solids Chemistry in Focus: Metal with a Memory 15. Solutions 15.1 Solubility Chemistry in Focus: Green Chemistry 15.2 Solution Composition: An Introduction 15.3 Solution Composition: Mass Percent 15.4 Solution Composition: Molarity 15.5 Dilution 15.6 Stoichiometry of Solution Reactions 15.7 Neutralization Reactions 15.8 Solution Composition: Normality Cumulative Review for Chapters 13-15 16. Acids and Bases 16.1 Acids and Bases Chemistry in Focus: Gum That Foams 16.2 Acid Strength Chemistry in Focus: Carbonation—A Cool Trick Chemistry in Focus: Plants Fight Back 16.3 Water as an Acid and a Base 16.4 The pH Scale Chemistry in Focus: Airplane Rash Chemistry in Focus: Garden-Variety Acid-Base Indicators 16.5 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 16.6 Buffered Solutions 17. Equilibrium 17.1 How Chemical Reactions Occur 17.2 Conditions That Affect Reaction Rates Chemistry in Focus: Protecting the Ozone 17.3 The Equilibrium Condition 17.4 Chemical Equilibrium: A Dynamic Condition 17.5 The Equilibrium Constant: An Introduction 17.6 Heterogeneous Equilibria 17.7 Le Châtelier's Principle 17.8 Applications Involving the Equilibrium Constant 17.9 Solubility Equilibria Cumulative Review for Chapters 16-17 18. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Electrochemistry 18.1 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 18.2 Oxidation States 18.3 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Between Nonmetals 18.4 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions by the Half-Reaction Method 18.5 Electrochemistry: An Introduction 18.6 Batteries 18.7 Corrosion Chemistry in Focus: Stainless Steel: It's the Pits 18.8 Electrolysis Chemistry in Focus: Water-Powered Fireplace 19. Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy 19.1 Radioactive Decay 19.2 Nuclear Transformations 19.3 Detection of Radioactivity and the Concept of Half-life 19.4 Dating by Radioactivity Chemistry in Focus: Dating Diamonds 19.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity 19.6 Nuclear Energy 19.7 Nuclear Fission 19.8 Nuclear Reactors Chemistry in Focus: Future Nuclear Power 19.9 Nuclear Fusion 19.10 Effects of Radiation Chemistry in Focus: Nuclear Waste Disposal 20. Organic Chemistry 20.1 Carbon Bonding 20.2 Alkanes 20.3 Structural Formulas and Isomerism 20.4 Naming Alkanes 20.5 Petroleum 20.6 Reactions of Alkanes 20.7 Alkenes and Alkynes 20.8 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 20.9 Naming Aromatic Compounds Chemistry in Focus: Termite Mothballing 20.10 Functional Groups 20.11 Alcohols 20.12 Properties and Uses of Alcohols 20.13 Aldehydes and Ketones 20.14 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones 20.15 Carboxylic Acids and Esters 20.16 Polymers Chemistry in Focus: The Chemistry of Music Chemistry in Focus: Polymers Are Tacky 21. Biochemistry 21.1 Proteins 21.2 Primary Structure of Proteins 21.3 Secondary Structure of Proteins 21.4 Tertiary Structure of Proteins 21.5 Functions of Proteins 21.6 Enzymes Chemistry in Focus: Urine Farming 21.7 Carbohydrates Chemistry in Focus: Great Expectations? The Chemistry of Placebos 21.8 Nucleic Acids 21.9 Lipids Appendix Using Your Calculator Basic Algebra Scientific (Exponential) Notation Graphing Functions SI Units and Conversion Factors Solutions to Self-Check Exercises Answers to Even-Numbered End-of-Chapter Questions and Exercises Answers to Even-Numbered Cumulative Review Exercises Index/Glossary Photo Credits

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