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More About This Textbook
Overview
Readers benefit because the book is based on these three themes: (1) it builds an understanding of concepts based on information the reader has previously learned; (2) it helps stress the relationship between conceptual understanding and problemsolving approaches; (3) the authors provide numerous examples and problems that use realistic values and situations to give users a strong foundation of engineering practice. The book also includes a PSpice Supplement which contains problems to teach readers how to construct PSpice source files; and this PSpice Version 9.2 can be used to solve many of the exercises and problems found in the book. Topical emphasis is on the basic techniques of circuit analysis—Illustrated via a DigitaltoAnalog Resistive Ladder (Chapter 2); the Flash Converter (Chapter 4); Dual Slope AnalogtoDigital Converter (Chapter 5); Effect of parasite inductance on the step response of a series RLC circuit (Chapter 6); a TwoStage RC Ladder Network (Chapter 8); and a Switching Surge Voltage (Chapter 9). For Electrical and Computer Engineers.
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Meet the Author
Professor James W. Nilsson taught at Iowa State University for 39 years. Since retiring from Iowa State, he has been a visiting professor at Notre Dame, California Polytechnic at San Luis Obispo, and the United States Air Force Academy. In 1962, he coauthored (with R.G. Brown) Introduction to Linear Systems Analysis (John Wiley & Sons). In 1968, he authored Introduction to Circuits, Instruments, and Electronics (Harcourt Brace and World). Professor Nilsson received a Standard Oil Outstanding Teacher Award in 1968, the IEEE Undergraduate Teaching Award in 1992, and the McGrawHill Jacob Millman Award in 1995. In 1990, he was elected to the rank of Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Professor Susan A. Riedel has been a member of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Marquette University since 1981. She also holds a clinical research appointment in the Department of Orthopaedics at the Medical College of Wisconsin and was a visiting professor in the Bioengineering Unit at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, as a Fulbright Scholar during the 19891999 academic year. She has received two awards for teaching excellence at Marquette, and was recognized for her research contributions with an award from the Chicago Unit of the Shriner's Hospitals.
Read an Excerpt
Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering is a onesemester version of the most widely used introductory circuits text of the past 15 years. Importantly, the underlying teaching approaches and philosophies remain unchanged. The goals are:
The condensation of Electric Circuits to a onesemester textbook on introductory circuits for electrical and computer engineers has been accomplished by showing how the basic techniques of circuit analysis are used to analyze circuits of particular interest in the world of digital computation. Hence, after introducing circuit variables and basic circuit elements in Chapter 1 some circuit simplification techniques are introduced in Chapter 2 that are then used to facilitate the analysis of a digitaltoanalog resistive ladder circuit.
The digitaltoanalog resistive ladder is the first of a series of Practical Perspectives that supports the orientation of the textbook toward digital systems. The others are:
Practical PerspectiveThe Flash Converter
Practical PerspectiveDual Slope AnalogtoDigital Converter
Practical PerspectiveParasitic Inductance
Practical PerspectiveTwoStage RC Ladder
Practical PerspectiveCreation of a Voltage Surge
Computer tools cannot replace the traditional methods for mastering the study of electric circuits. They can, however, assist students in the learning process by providing a visual representation of a circuit's behavior, validating a calculated solution, reducing the computational burden of more complex circuits, and iterating toward a desired solution using parameter variation. This computational support is often invaluable in the design process.
Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering continues the support for two popular computer tools, PSpice and MATLAB, into the main text with the addition of icons identifying chapter problems suited for exploration with one or both of these tools. The icon P identifies those problems to investigate with PSpice, while the icon M identifies problems to investigate with MATLAB. Instructors are provided with computer files containing the PSpice or MATLAB simulation of the problems so marked.
DESIGN EMPHASIS
We continue to support the emphasis on design of circuits in two ways. First, design oriented chapter problems have been explicitly labeled with the 4diamond icon, enabling students and instructors to identify those problems with a design focus. Second, the identification of problems specifically suited to exploration with PSpice or MATLAB suggests design opportunities using one or both of these computer tools.
Text Design and Pedagogical Features
Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering continues the successful design introduced in the sixth edition of Electric Circuits, including the following features:
Solved numerical examples are used extensively throughout the text to help students understand how theory is applied to circuit analysis. Because many students value worked examples more than any other aspect of the text, these examples represent an important opportunity to influence the development of student's problemsolving behavior. The nature and format of the examples in Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering are a reflection of the overall teaching approach of the text. When presenting a solution, we place great emphasis on the importance of problem solving as a thought process that applies underlying concepts, as we discussed earlier. By emphasizing this idea—even in the solution of simple problems—we hope to communicate that this approach to problem solving can help students handle the more complex problems they will encounter later on. Some characteristics of the examples include:
Drill exercises are included in the text to give students an opportunity to test their understanding of the material they have just read. The drill exercises are presented in a doublecolumn format as a way of signaling to students that they should stop and solve the exercises before proceeding to the next section.
Homework Problems
The homework problems are one of the book's most attractive features. The problems are designed around the following objectives (in parentheses are the corresponding problem categories identified in the Instructor's Manual and an illustrative problem number):
In writing the first seven chapters of the text, we have assumed that the reader has taken a course in elementary differential and integral calculus. We have also assumed that the reader has had an introductory physics course, at either the high school or university level, that introduces the concepts of energy, power, electric charge, electric current, electric potential, and electromagnetic fields. In writing the final two chapters, we have assumed the student has had, or is enrolled in, an introductory course in differential equations.
SUPPLEMENTS
Students and professors are constantly challenged in terms of time and energy by the confines of the classroom and the importance of integrating new information and technologies into an electric circuits course. Through the following supplements, we believe we have succeeded in making some of these challenges more manageable.
PSpice for Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering
This supplement is published as a separate booklet to facilitate its use at a computer. This supplement presents topics in PSpice in the same order as those presented in the text, and expressly supports the use of OrCad PSpice Release 9.2.
Student Workbook
This new supplement is provided for those students who might benefit from some additional "coaching" in their problem solving skills. Each solution technique is presented as a recipe, or a series of solution steps, and illustrated for several example problems. Then problems are presented for the students to solve, and each step in the solution is prompted individually. Finally, students are directed to additional Chapter Problems from the text to which the technique may be applied. The workbook is available as a PDF document on the companion web site so students can print and use whatever sections of the workbook they need.
Instructor's Manual
The Instructor's Manual enables professors to orient themselves quickly to this text and the supplement package. This supplement can be found on the book's web site:
http://www.prenhall.com/nilsson.
For easy reference, the following information is organized for each chapter:
The solutions manual is available on CD, it contains solutions with supporting figures to each of the nearly 650 endofchapter problems. These solutions are presented on the CD in both PDF and LATEX^{} format. This supplement is available free to all adopting faculty, it is not available to students. Files for the PSpice solutions and MATLAB solutions for all indicated problems are included on the CD.
Companion Web Site
The companion web site to accompany the text is located at http://www.prenhall.com/nilsson. The following materials are available on the web site:
We continue to express our appreciation for the contributions of Norman Wittels of Worcester Polytechnic Institute. His contributions to the Practical Perspectives greatly enhanced both this edition and the previous one.
There were many hardworking people behind the scenes of our publisher who deserve our thanks and gratitude for their efforts on behalf of this book. We thank Tom Robbins, Irwin Zucker, Jody McDonnell, and Alice Dworkin for all their hard work.
We are deeply indebted to the many instructors and students who have offered positive feedback, suggestions for improvement. Gary E. Ford and James McNames have been very helpful in shaping the contents of this book. We are especially thankful to Ken Kruempel who spent considerable time and effort proofreading and verifying the accuracy of content in the text and the solutions manual.
Table of Contents
1. Circuit Variables and Circuit Elements.
Circuit Analysis: An Overview. Voltage, Current and the Basic Circuit Elements. The Ideal Basic Circuit Element. Power and Energy. Voltage and Current Sources. Electrical Resistance (Ohm's Law). Kirchoff's Laws. Analysis of a Circuit Containing Dependent Sources.
2. Some Circuit Simplification Techniques.
Practical Perspective: A DigitaltoAnalog Resistive Ladder.
Combining Resistors in Series and Parallel. Voltage and Current Dividers. Source Transformations. Superposition. Practical Perspective: DigitaltoAnalog Resistive Ladder.
3. Techniques of Circuit Analysis.
Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors.
Terminology. Introduction to the NodeVoltage Method. The NodeVoltage Method and Dependent Sources. The NodeVoltage Method: Some Special Cases. Introduction to the MeshCurrent Method. The MeshCurrent Method and Dependent Sources. The MeshCurrent Method: Some Special Cases. The NodeVoltage Method Versus the MeshCurrent Method. Thevenin and Norton Equivalents. More on Deriving a Thevenin Equivalent. Maximum Power Transfer. Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors.
4. The Operational Amplifier.
Practical Perspective: The Flash Converter.
Operational Amplifier Terminals. Terminal Voltages and Currents. The InvertingAmplifier Circuit. The SummingAmplifier Circuit. The NoninvertingAmplifier Circuit. The DifferenceAmplifier Circuit. The Comparator. Practical Perspective: The Flash Converter.
5. The Natural and Step Response of RL and RC Circuits.
Practical Perspective: Dual Slope AnalogtoDigital Converter.
The Inductor. The Capacitor. SeriesParallel Combinations of Inductance and Capacitance. Natural Response of RL and RC Circuits. Step Response of RL and RC Circuits. The Integrating Amplifier. Practical Perspective: Dual Slope AnalogtoDigital Converter.
6. Natural and Step Responses of RLC Circuits.
Practical Perspective: Parasitic.
Introduction to the Natural Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit. The Forms of the Natural Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit. The Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit. The Natural and Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit. Practical Perspective: Parasitic Inductance.
7. Sinusoidal SteadyState Analysis.
Practical Perspective: Household Distribution Circuit.
The Sinusoidal Source. The Sinusoidal Response. The Phasor. The Passive Circuit Elements in the Frequency Domain. Kirchhoff's Laws in the Frequency Domain. Circuit Simplifications. The NodeVoltage Method. The MeshCurrent Method. Instantaneous, Average, and Reactive Power. The RMS Value and Power Calculations. Complex Power and Power Calculations. Practical Perspective: Household Distribution Circuit.
8. Introduction to the Laplace Transform.
Practical Perspective: A TwoStage RCLadder.
Definition of the Laplace Transform. The Step Function. The Impulse Function. Functional Transforms. Operational Transforms. Applying the Laplace Transform. Inverse Transforms. Poles and Zeros of F(s). Initial and Final Value Theorems. Practical Perspective: TwoStage RCLadder Network.
9. The Laplace Transform in Circuit Analysis.
Practical Perspective: Creation of a Voltage Surge.
Circuit Elements in the sDomain. Circuit Analysis in the sDomain. Applications. The Transfer Function. The Transfer Function in Partial Fraction Expansions. The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral. The Transfer Function and the SteadyState Sinusoidal Response. The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis. Practical Perspective: Creation of a Voltage Surge.
Appendix A: International System of Units.Appendix B: Complex Numbers.Appendix C: An Abbreviated Table of Trigonometric Identities.Appendix D: An Abbreviated Table of Integrals.Appendix E: Answers to Selected Problems.Index.
Preface
Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering is a onesemester version of the most widely used introductory circuits text of the past 15 years. Importantly, the underlying teaching approaches and philosophies remain unchanged. The goals are:
WHAT'S NEW IN INTRODUCTORY CIRCUITS FOR ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
The condensation of Electric Circuits to a onesemester textbook on introductory circuits for electrical and computer engineers has been accomplished by showing how the basic techniques of circuit analysis are used to analyze circuits of particular interest in the world of digital computation. Hence, after introducing circuit variables and basic circuit elements in Chapter 1 some circuit simplification techniques are introduced in Chapter 2 that are then used to facilitate the analysis of a digitaltoanalog resistive ladder circuit.
The digitaltoanalog resistive ladder is the first of a series of Practical Perspectives that supports the orientation of the textbook toward digital systems. The others are:
Practical PerspectiveThe Flash Converter
Practical PerspectiveDual Slope AnalogtoDigital Converter
Practical PerspectiveParasitic Inductance
Practical PerspectiveTwoStage RC Ladder
Practical PerspectiveCreation of a Voltage Surge
Integration of Computer Tools
Computer tools cannot replace the traditional methods for mastering the study of electric circuits. They can, however, assist students in the learning process by providing a visual representation of a circuit's behavior, validating a calculated solution, reducing the computational burden of more complex circuits, and iterating toward a desired solution using parameter variation. This computational support is often invaluable in the design process.
Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering continues the support for two popular computer tools, PSpice and MATLAB, into the main text with the addition of icons identifying chapter problems suited for exploration with one or both of these tools. The icon P identifies those problems to investigate with PSpice, while the icon M identifies problems to investigate with MATLAB. Instructors are provided with computer files containing the PSpice or MATLAB simulation of the problems so marked.
DESIGN EMPHASIS
We continue to support the emphasis on design of circuits in two ways. First, design oriented chapter problems have been explicitly labeled with the 4diamond icon, enabling students and instructors to identify those problems with a design focus. Second, the identification of problems specifically suited to exploration with PSpice or MATLAB suggests design opportunities using one or both of these computer tools.
Text Design and Pedagogical Features
Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering continues the successful design introduced in the sixth edition of Electric Circuits, including the following features:
EXAMPLES, DRILL EXERCISES, AND HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
Solved Numerical Examples
Solved numerical examples are used extensively throughout the text to help students understand how theory is applied to circuit analysis. Because many students value worked examples more than any other aspect of the text, these examples represent an important opportunity to influence the development of student's problemsolving behavior. The nature and format of the examples in Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering are a reflection of the overall teaching approach of the text. When presenting a solution, we place great emphasis on the importance of problem solving as a thought process that applies underlying concepts, as we discussed earlier. By emphasizing this idea—even in the solution of simple problems—we hope to communicate that this approach to problem solving can help students handle the more complex problems they will encounter later on. Some characteristics of the examples include:
Drill Exercises
Drill exercises are included in the text to give students an opportunity to test their understanding of the material they have just read. The drill exercises are presented in a doublecolumn format as a way of signaling to students that they should stop and solve the exercises before proceeding to the next section.
Homework Problems
The homework problems are one of the book's most attractive features. The problems are designed around the following objectives (in parentheses are the corresponding problem categories identified in the Instructor's Manual and an illustrative problem number):
PREREQUISITES
In writing the first seven chapters of the text, we have assumed that the reader has taken a course in elementary differential and integral calculus. We have also assumed that the reader has had an introductory physics course, at either the high school or university level, that introduces the concepts of energy, power, electric charge, electric current, electric potential, and electromagnetic fields. In writing the final two chapters, we have assumed the student has had, or is enrolled in, an introductory course in differential equations.
SUPPLEMENTS
Students and professors are constantly challenged in terms of time and energy by the confines of the classroom and the importance of integrating new information and technologies into an electric circuits course. Through the following supplements, we believe we have succeeded in making some of these challenges more manageable.
PSpice for Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computer Engineering
This supplement is published as a separate booklet to facilitate its use at a computer. This supplement presents topics in PSpice in the same order as those presented in the text, and expressly supports the use of OrCad PSpice Release 9.2.
Student Workbook
This new supplement is provided for those students who might benefit from some additional "coaching" in their problem solving skills. Each solution technique is presented as a recipe, or a series of solution steps, and illustrated for several example problems. Then problems are presented for the students to solve, and each step in the solution is prompted individually. Finally, students are directed to additional Chapter Problems from the text to which the technique may be applied. The workbook is available as a PDF document on the companion web site so students can print and use whatever sections of the workbook they need.
Instructor's Manual
The Instructor's Manual enables professors to orient themselves quickly to this text and the supplement package. This supplement can be found on the book's web site:
http://www.prenhall.com/nilsson .
For easy reference, the following information is organized for each chapter:
Solutions Manual
The solutions manual is available on CD, it contains solutions with supporting figures to each of the nearly 650 endofchapter problems. These solutions are presented on the CD in both PDF and LATEX^{} format. This supplement is available free to all adopting faculty, it is not available to students. Files for the PSpice solutions and MATLAB solutions for all indicated problems are included on the CD.
Companion Web Site
The companion web site to accompany the text is located at http://www.prenhall.com/nilsson . The following materials are available on the web site:
Acknowledgments
We continue to express our appreciation for the contributions of Norman Wittels of Worcester Polytechnic Institute. His contributions to the Practical Perspectives greatly enhanced both this edition and the previous one.
There were many hardworking people behind the scenes of our publisher who deserve our thanks and gratitude for their efforts on behalf of this book. We thank Tom Robbins, Irwin Zucker, Jody McDonnell, and Alice Dworkin for all their hard work.
We are deeply indebted to the many instructors and students who have offered positive feedback, suggestions for improvement. Gary E. Ford and James McNames have been very helpful in shaping the contents of this book. We are especially thankful to Ken Kruempel who spent considerable time and effort proofreading and verifying the accuracy of content in the text and the solutions manual.