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Introductory Oceanography / Edition 10

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Overview

The 10th edition of this popular book continues to provide an excellent foundation in science by examining the vast body of oceanic knowledge. Spanning the disciplines of geology, chemistry, physics, and biology, it allows readers to have a fundamental understanding of how oceans work. Interwoven within the book are hundreds of photographs, illustrations, real-world examples, and applications that make the material relevant, accessible, and entertaining. Well-organized and clearly written, this book covers scientific inquiry and gives an historical look at the study of oceanography; the origins of life, the earth, and the oceans; plate tectonics; marine provinces; marine sediments; water and seawater; air-sea interaction; ocean circulation; waves, tides, and coastlines; biological productivity and the marine habitat; marine resources; and environmental concerns. This book is intended to help readers in their quest to find out more about oceans. Because of its comprehensive scope and excellent resource materials, it can also serve as an excellent reference work for those involved in oceanography.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A rigorous introduction to oceanography for motivated nonscience majors. Coverage includes global plate tectonics, marine sediments, ocean circulation, biological productivity and energy transfer, and marine pollution. Features color photos, chapter summaries, and questions and exercises, plus a glossary and reference appendices. This eighth edition offers expanded discussion of how the greenhouse effect relates to interactions between the atmosphere and oceans and solutions for the problem. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Booknews
Previous editions of this textbook have been neutral with respect to the controversial issues related to marine science. With this edition, the author finds it necessary to espouse the position that as a result of human activities we may be experiencing, or soon will experience, an increased greenhouse effect. The text deals with questions of how this increased effect is related to the interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans. Many new line drawings have been added, others redrawn, and color photographs and illustrations added throughout. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR booknews.com
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Harold V. Thurman. Hal Thurman retired in May 1994, after 24 years of teaching in the Earth Sciences Department of Mt. San Antonio College in Walnut, California. Interest in geology led to a bachelor's degree from Oklahoma A & M University, followed by seven years working as a petroleum geologist, mainly in the Gulf of Mexico, where his interest in the oceans developed. He earned a master's degree from California State University at Los Angeles and then joined the Earth Sciences faculty at Mt. San Antonio College. Other books that Hal has coauthored include Essentials of Oceanography (with Alan Trujillo) and a marine biology textbook. He has also written articles on the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic Oceans for the 1994 edition of World Book Encyclopedia and served as a consultant on the National Geographic publication, Realms of the Sea. He still enjoys going to sea on vacations with his wife Iantha.

Alan P. Trujillo. Al Trujillo teaches at Palomar Community College in San Marcos, California, where he is co-Director of the Oceanography Program and Chair of the Earth Sciences Department. He received his bachelor's degree in geology from the University of California at Davis and his master's degree in geology from Northern Arizona University, afterward working for several years in industry as a developmental geologist, hydrogeologist, and computer specialist. A1 began teaching in the Earth Sciences Department at Palomar in 1990 and in 1997 was awarded Palomar's Distinguished Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching. He has coauthored Essentials of Oceanography with Hal Thurman and is a contributing author for other Earth science textbooks, including Earth, 7th edition and Earth Science, 10th edition. In addition to writing and teaching, Al works as a naturalist and lecturer aboard natural history expedition vessels in Alaska and the Sea of Cortez/Baja California. His research interests include beach processes, sea cliff erosion, and computer applications in oceanography. A1 and his wife, Sandy, have two children, Karl and Eva.

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Read an Excerpt

To the Student

Welcome! You're about to embark on a journey that is far from ordinary. Over the course of this term, you will discover the central role the oceans play in the vast global system of which you are a part.

The book's content was carefully developed to provide a foundation in science by examining the vast body of oceanic knowledge. This knowledge includes information from a variety of scientific disciplines—geology, chemistry, physics, and biology—as they relate to the oceans. However, no formal background in any of these disciplines is required to master the subject matter contained within this book. Our desire is to have you take away from your oceanography course much more than just a collection of facts. Instead, we want you to develop a fundamental understanding of how the oceans work.

Taken as a whole, the components of the ocean—its sea floor, chemical constituents, physical components, and life forms—comprise one of Earth's largest interacting, interrelated, and interdependent systems. Because humans are beginning to impact Earth systems, it is important to understand not only how the oceans operate, but also how the oceans interact with Earth's other systems (such as its atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere) as part of a larger picture. Thus, this book uses a systems approach to highlight the interdisciplinary relationship among oceanographic phenomena and how those phenomena affect other Earth systems.

To that end—and to help you make the most of your study time—we focused the presentation in this book by organizing the material around three essential components:

  1. Concepts: General ideas derived or inferred from specific instances or occurrences (for instance, the concept of density can be used to explain why the oceans are layered)
  2. Processes: Actions or occurrences that bring about a result (for instance, the process of waves breaking at an angle to the shore results in the movement of sediment along the shoreline).
  3. Principles: Rules or laws concerning the functioning of natural phenomena or mechanical processes (for instance, the principle of sea floor spreading suggests that the geographic positions of the continents have changed through time).

Interwoven within these concepts, processes, and principles are hundreds of photographs, illustrations, real-world examples, and applications that make the material relevant and accessible (and maybe sometimes even entertaining) by bringing the science to life.

Ultimately, it is our hope that by understanding how the oceans work, you will develop a new awareness and appreciation of all aspects of the marine environment and its role in Earth systems. So enjoy and immerse yourself! You're in for an exciting ride.

To the Instructor

The tenth edition of Introductory Oceanography is designed to accompany an introductory college-level course in general or physical oceanography taught to students with no formal background in mathematics or science. Like previous editions, the goal of this edition of the textbook is toy present clearly the relationships of scientific principles toy ocean phenomena in an engaging and meaningful way. This edition, like its predecessors, emphasizes fundamental marine processes and the basic issues of interactions among humans, the ocean, and the atmosphere.

The text has benefited from the addition of a new coauthor, Alan Trujillo. As a result, the writing style has been improved, several sections have been reorganized, and material has been updated and refined throughout the text. You'll also notice many new features, which are detailed in the "What's New in this Edition?" section below. This edition has also benefited from extensive review by knowledgeable reviewers.

The 18-chapter format of this textbook is designed for coverage of the material in a 15- or 16-week semester. For courses taught on a 10-week quarter system, the instructor may need to select those chapters that cover the topic and concepts of primary relevance to their course. The text also contains enough depth of material to be used for a yearlong course of study.

Chapters in the text have been designed to be self-contained and thus can be covered in any order. Following the introductory chapters on the history of oceanography (Chapter 1) and the origin of Earth, the atmosphere, the oceans, and life itself (Chapter 2), the four major academic disciplines of oceanography are represented in the following chapters:

  • Geological oceanography: Chapters 3, 4, 5, and parts of Chapters 11, 12, and 17
  • Chemical oceanography: Chapters 6 and parts of Chapters 14, 17, and 18
  • Physical oceanography: Chapters 7-10 and parts of Chapters 11, 12, and 17
  • Biological oceanography: Chapters 13-16 and parts of Chapters 17 and 18

We believe that oceanography is at its best when it links together several scientific disciplines and shows how they are interrelated in the oceans. Therefore, this interdisciplinary approach is a key element of every chapter. In addition, the final two chapters on marine resources and marine environmental concerns illustrate human interaction with the oceans.

What's New in This Edition?

Changes in this edition are designed to increase the readability, relevance, and appeal of this book. The major changes include the following:

  • Reorganization, revision, and/or additions in nearly all chapters; the two most prominent improvements are
    • Combining the chapters "The Physical Properties of Water and Seawater" and "The Chemistry of Seawater" from the previous edition into one chapter, "Water and Seawater" (Chapter 6)
    • Splitting the chapter "Exploitation and Pollution of Marine Resources" from the previous edition and adding additional information to create two new chapters, "Marine Resources" (Chapter 17) and "Marine Environmental Concerns" (Chapter 18)
  • Addition of a new Introduction, which includes a description of the scientific method
  • Addition of Key Questions at the beginning of each chapter that are linked to new highlighted Concept Statements within the text of the chapter
  • Explanation of word etymons (etumon = the true sense of a word) as new terms are introduced in an effort to demystify scientific terms by showing what the terms actually mean
  • Addition of "Students Sometimes Ask... " questions within each chapter that contains actual student questions, along with the authors' answers
  • Inclusion of 31 new feature boxes that focus on some of the most recent discoveries in oceanography
  • Feature boxes within each chapter, which are organized around three new themes:
    • Research methods in oceanography
    • People and the ocean environment
    • Historical features
  • Addition or modification of over 35 tables, which organize and summarize important data
  • Inclusion of over 100 new photos and illustrations
  • Modification or redrawing of over 150 existing figures to add clarity and improve the illustration package
  • A revised "Chapter in Review" summary feature at the end of each chapter
  • Addition of a new appendix, "Careers in Oceanography" Continued effort to refine the style and clarity of the writing

Additionally, this edition continues to offer some of the previous edition's most popular features, including the following:

  • Extensive rigor and depth of material, particularly in the coverage of tides and biological processes
  • Use of the international metric system (Systeme International or SI units) with comparable English system units in parenthesis
  • Notation of key terms with bold print, which are defined when they are introduced and are included in the glossary
  • The end-of-chapter questions and exercises
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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter opens with 'Key Questions' and concludes with a 'Chapter in Review' section, 'Key Terms,' 'Questions and Exercises,' and an 'Oceanography on the Web' section.)

Introduction.

What Is Oceanography? Earth's Oceans. Rational Use of Technology? The Nature of Scientific Inquiry.

1. Planet Ocean: A Historical Perspective.

Geography of the Oceans. Early Exploration of the Seas. The Beginnings of Ocean Science. Twentieth Century Oceanography and Beyond. A Human Presence in the Ocean.

2. Origins: Beginnings of the Universe, Earth, and Life.

Origin of the Universe. Origin of the Solar System and Earth. Rocks and Minerals. Origin of the Atmosphere and the Oceans. Cycling and Mass Balance. Origin of Life. Radiometric Dating and the Geologic Time Scale.

3. Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor.

Evidence for Continental Drift. Evidence for Plate Tectonics. Earth Structure. Plate Boundaries. Testing the Model: Some Applications of Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics...To Be Continued.

4. Marine Provinces.

Bathymetry. The Hypsographic Curve. Provinces of the Ocean Floor.

5. Marine Sediments.

Lithogenous Sediment. Biogenous Sediment. Hydrogenous Sediment. Cosmogenous Sediment. Mixtures. Distribution of Neritic and Pelagic Deposits: A Summary.

6. Water and Seawater.

Atomic Structure. The Water Molecule. Water's Thermal Properties. Water Density. Seawater. Dissolved Components Added and Removed from Seawater. Dissolved Gases in Seawater. Acidity and Alkalinity of Seawater. Processes Affecting Seawater Salinity. Surface and Depth Salinity Variation. Seawater Density. Comparing Pure Water and Seawater.

7. Air-Sea Interaction.

Uneven Solar Heating on Earth. The Coriolis Effect. Atmospheric Circulation Cells on a Spinning Earth. The Oceans, Weather, and Climate. Sea Ice. Icebergs. The Atmosphere's Greenhouse Effect.

8. Ocean Circulation.

Measuring Ocean Currents. Surface Currents. Upwelling and Downwelling. Surface Currents of the Oceans. Deep Currents.

9. Waves and Water Dynamics.

What Causes Waves? How Waves Move. Wave Characteristics. Wind-Generated Waves. Tsunami.

10. Tides.

Generating Tides. Tides in the Ocean.

11. The Coast: Beaches and Shoreline Processes.

The Coastal Region. Erosional- and Depositional-Type Shores. Emerging and Submerging Shorelines. Characteristics of U.S. Coasts. Hard Stabilization.

12. Coastal Waters and Marginal Seas.

Coastal Water Circulation. Estuaries. Coastal Wetlands. Lagoons. Marginal Seas.

13. The Marine Habitat.

Classification of Living Things. Classification of Marine Organisms. Distribution of Life in the Oceans. Adaptations of Organisms to the Marine Environment. Divisions of the Marine Environment.

14. Biological Productivity and Energy Transfer.

Primary Productivity. Photosynthetic Marine Organisms. Regional Productivity. Energy Flow. Biogeochemical Cycling. Tropic Levels and Biomass Pyramids.

15. Animals of the Pelagic Environment.

Staying above the Ocean Floor. Adaptations for Seeking Prey. Adaptations to Avoid Being Prey. Marine Mammals.

16. Animals of the Benthic Environment.

Rocky Shores. Sediment-Covered Shores. Shallow Offshore Ocean Floor. The Deep-Ocean Floor.

17. Marine Resources.

Laws and Regulations. Ecosystems and Fisheries. Mariculture. Energy Resources. Geologic Resources. Chemical Resources.

18. Marine Environmental Concerns.

What Is Pollution? Main Types of Marine Pollution. Other Concerns. Current Laws Governing Marine Pollution.

Afterward.

Appendix I: Metric and English Units Compared.

Appendix II: Geographic Locations.

Appendix III: Latitude and Longitude on Earth.

Appendix IV: A Chemical Background: Why Water Has 2 H's and 1 O.

Appendix V: Careers in Oceanography.

Appendix VI: Taxonomic Classification of Common Marine Organisms.

Glossary.

Index.

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Preface

To the Student

Welcome! You're about to embark on a journey that is far from ordinary. Over the course of this term, you will discover the central role the oceans play in the vast global system of which you are a part.

The book's content was carefully developed to provide a foundation in science by examining the vast body of oceanic knowledge. This knowledge includes information from a variety of scientific disciplines—geology, chemistry, physics, and biology—as they relate to the oceans. However, no formal background in any of these disciplines is required to master the subject matter contained within this book. Our desire is to have you take away from your oceanography course much more than just a collection of facts. Instead, we want you to develop a fundamental understanding of how the oceans work.

Taken as a whole, the components of the ocean—its sea floor, chemical constituents, physical components, and life forms—comprise one of Earth's largest interacting, interrelated, and interdependent systems. Because humans are beginning to impact Earth systems, it is important to understand not only how the oceans operate, but also how the oceans interact with Earth's other systems (such as its atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere) as part of a larger picture. Thus, this book uses a systems approach to highlight the interdisciplinary relationship among oceanographic phenomena and how those phenomena affect other Earth systems.

To that end—and to help you make the most of your study time—we focused the presentation in this book by organizing the material around three essential components:

  1. Concepts: General ideas derived or inferred from specific instances or occurrences (for instance, the concept of density can be used to explain why the oceans are layered)
  2. Processes: Actions or occurrences that bring about a result (for instance, the process of waves breaking at an angle to the shore results in the movement of sediment along the shoreline).
  3. Principles: Rules or laws concerning the functioning of natural phenomena or mechanical processes (for instance, the principle of sea floor spreading suggests that the geographic positions of the continents have changed through time).

Interwoven within these concepts, processes, and principles are hundreds of photographs, illustrations, real-world examples, and applications that make the material relevant and accessible (and maybe sometimes even entertaining) by bringing the science to life.

Ultimately, it is our hope that by understanding how the oceans work, you will develop a new awareness and appreciation of all aspects of the marine environment and its role in Earth systems. So enjoy and immerse yourself! You're in for an exciting ride.

To the Instructor

The tenth edition of Introductory Oceanography is designed to accompany an introductory college-level course in general or physical oceanography taught to students with no formal background in mathematics or science. Like previous editions, the goal of this edition of the textbook is toy present clearly the relationships of scientific principles toy ocean phenomena in an engaging and meaningful way. This edition, like its predecessors, emphasizes fundamental marine processes and the basic issues of interactions among humans, the ocean, and the atmosphere.

The text has benefited from the addition of a new coauthor, Alan Trujillo. As a result, the writing style has been improved, several sections have been reorganized, and material has been updated and refined throughout the text. You'll also notice many new features, which are detailed in the "What's New in this Edition?" section below. This edition has also benefited from extensive review by knowledgeable reviewers.

The 18-chapter format of this textbook is designed for coverage of the material in a 15- or 16-week semester. For courses taught on a 10-week quarter system, the instructor may need to select those chapters that cover the topic and concepts of primary relevance to their course. The text also contains enough depth of material to be used for a yearlong course of study.

Chapters in the text have been designed to be self-contained and thus can be covered in any order. Following the introductory chapters on the history of oceanography (Chapter 1) and the origin of Earth, the atmosphere, the oceans, and life itself (Chapter 2), the four major academic disciplines of oceanography are represented in the following chapters:

  • Geological oceanography: Chapters 3, 4, 5, and parts of Chapters 11, 12, and 17
  • Chemical oceanography: Chapters 6 and parts of Chapters 14, 17, and 18
  • Physical oceanography: Chapters 7-10 and parts of Chapters 11, 12, and 17
  • Biological oceanography: Chapters 13-16 and parts of Chapters 17 and 18

We believe that oceanography is at its best when it links together several scientific disciplines and shows how they are interrelated in the oceans. Therefore, this interdisciplinary approach is a key element of every chapter. In addition, the final two chapters on marine resources and marine environmental concerns illustrate human interaction with the oceans.

What's New in This Edition?

Changes in this edition are designed to increase the readability, relevance, and appeal of this book. The major changes include the following:

  • Reorganization, revision, and/or additions in nearly all chapters; the two most prominent improvements are
    • Combining the chapters "The Physical Properties of Water and Seawater" and "The Chemistry of Seawater" from the previous edition into one chapter, "Water and Seawater" (Chapter 6)
    • Splitting the chapter "Exploitation and Pollution of Marine Resources" from the previous edition and adding additional information to create two new chapters, "Marine Resources" (Chapter 17) and "Marine Environmental Concerns" (Chapter 18)
  • Addition of a new Introduction, which includes a description of the scientific method
  • Addition of Key Questions at the beginning of each chapter that are linked to new highlighted Concept Statements within the text of the chapter
  • Explanation of word etymons (etumon = the true sense of a word) as new terms are introduced in an effort to demystify scientific terms by showing what the terms actually mean
  • Addition of "Students Sometimes Ask... " questions within each chapter that contains actual student questions, along with the authors' answers
  • Inclusion of 31 new feature boxes that focus on some of the most recent discoveries in oceanography
  • Feature boxes within each chapter, which are organized around three new themes:
    • Research methods in oceanography
    • People and the ocean environment
    • Historical features
  • Addition or modification of over 35 tables, which organize and summarize important data
  • Inclusion of over 100 new photos and illustrations
  • Modification or redrawing of over 150 existing figures to add clarity and improve the illustration package
  • A revised "Chapter in Review" summary feature at the end of each chapter
  • Addition of a new appendix, "Careers in Oceanography" Continued effort to refine the style and clarity of the writing

Additionally, this edition continues to offer some of the previous edition's most popular features, including the following:

  • Extensive rigor and depth of material, particularly in the coverage of tides and biological processes
  • Use of the international metric system (Systeme International or SI units) with comparable English system units in parenthesis
  • Notation of key terms with bold print, which are defined when they are introduced and are included in the glossary
  • The end-of-chapter questions and exercises
Read More Show Less

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