# Introductory Statistics for Environmentalists

ISBN-10: 0131218077

ISBN-13: 9780131218079

Pub. Date: 11/01/1997

Publisher: Prentice Hall

## Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780131218079
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
11/01/1997

## Related Subjects

Preface ix
 1 Introduction: Statistics and the environment
1(2)
 1.1 Good intentions/poor scientific method: an example
1(2)
 2 Computational aids: Calculators and software packages
3(6)
 2.1 Introduction
3(1)
 2.2 A primer in EXCEL 5.0 for Windows
4(2)
 2.3 A primer in MINITAB 10 Xtra for Windows
6(3)
 3 Obtaining environmental data: Surveys and experiments
9(14)
 3.1 Introduction
9(1)
 3.2 Forms of data
10(1)
 3.3 Sources of secondary data
11(1)
 3.4 Survey methods
12(6)
 3.5 The design of experiments
18(2)
 Exercises 3
20(3)
 4 Data presentation techniques
23(28)
 4.1 Introduction
23(1)
 4.2 The tabular presentation of data
23(8)
 4.3 The pictorial presentation of data
31(10)
 4.4 Data presentation with MINITAB and other software packages
41(5)
 Exercises 4
46(5)
 5 Summarizing data numerically
51(24)
 5.1 Introduction
51(2)
 5.2 Measures of central tendency
53(6)
 5.3 Measures of dispersion
59(10)
 5.4 Examining the skewness of data
69(1)
 5.5 Aids to computing summary statistics
70(2)
 Exercises 5
72(3)
 6 Patterns in probability
75(16)
 6.1 Introduction
75(1)
 6.2 The binomial distribution
76(3)
 6.3 The Poisson distribution
79(3)
 6.4 The normal distribution
82(2)
 6.5 The standard normal distribution
84(2)
 6.6 The log-normal distribution
86(1)
 6.7 Appendix
87(2)
 Exercises 6
89(2)
 7 Estimation from samples
91(16)
 7.1 Introduction
91(1)
 7.2 The sampling distribution of the mean
92(4)
 7.3 The t-distribution
96(1)
 7.4 Confidence intervals for the mean
97(1)
 7.5 Confidence intervals for the difference between two means
98(2)
 7.6 Confidence intervals for percentages
100(2)
 7.7 Calculations using MINITAB and EXCEL
102(2)
 Exercises 7
104(3)
 8 Comparison of sample means
107(18)
 8.1 Introduction
107(2)
 8.2 Single sample t-test
109(2)
 8.3 Paired samples t-test
111(2)
 8.4 Unpaired samples t-test
113(2)
 8.5 The F-test
115(1)
 8.6 Tests for percentages
116(2)
 8.7 Using MINITAB and EXCEL
118(4)
 Exercises 8
122(3)
 9 Non-parametric tests
125(10)
 9.1 Introduction
125(1)
 9.2 The sign test
126(1)
 9.3 The Wilcoxon signed ranks test
127(1)
 9.4 The Mann-Whitney test
128(2)
 9.5 Using MINITAB
130(1)
 Exercises 9
130(5)
 10 Analysis of variance
135(24)
 10.1 Introduction
135(2)
 10.2 The analysis of completely randomized design surveys and experiments: one-way ANOVA
137(7)
 10.3 Comparisons between treatment means
144(5)
 10.4 The analysis of randomized block design surveys and experiments: two-way ANOVA
149(5)
 Exercises 10
154(5)
 11 The chi-squared test
159(22)
 11.1 Introduction
159(1)
 11.2 Contingency tables
159(1)
 11.3 The analysis of one-way contingency tables
160(4)
 11.4 The analysis of two-way contingency tables
164(5)
 11.5 The analysis of two by two tables
169(2)
 11.6 Chi-squared goodness of fit tests
171(5)
 11.7 Summary
176(1)
 Exercises 11
177(4)
 12 Relationship between variables
181(36)
 12.1 Introduction
181(1)
 12.2 The scatter plot
182(2)
 12.3 Pearson's sample correlation coefficient
184(4)
 12.4 Spearman's rank correlation coefficient
188(3)
 12.5 Simple linear regression
191(6)
 12.6 Further regression analysis with the aid of statistical packages
197(5)
 12.7 Multiple linear regression
202(4)
 12.8 Non-linear relationships
206(5)
 Exercises 12
211(6)
Appendix A: Solutions to exercises 217(16)
Appendix B: Statistical tables 233(13)
 Table B1 Areas in the right-hand tail of the standard normal distribution
234(1)
 Table B2 Percentage points of the t-distribution
235(2)
 Table B3 Percentage points of the F-distribution
237(3)
 Table B4 Percentage points of the Mann-Whitney distribution
240(1)
 Table B5 Percentage points of Wilcoxon's signed rank distribution
241(1)
 Table B6 Percentage points of the X(2)-distribution
242(1)
 Table B7 Percentage points of Pearson's correlation coefficient
243(1)
 Table B8 Percentage points of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient
244(1)
 Table B9 Random number table
245(1)
References 246(1)
Index 247

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