"If curriculum innovation is the goal, it is not enough to merely publish a new curriculum or assessment standards, particularly in the context of a developing country.... Detailed attention needs to be given to how the curriculum ideals will be realized in practice" (Rogan, 2006, p.19). The study investigated the English as a second language (ESL) curriculum in Grade 5 for the Omani Government Schools. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the prescribed English language curriculum for Grade 5 for the Omani government schools? (2) To what extent does the taught English language curriculum for Grade 5 reflect the prescribed curriculum? Specifically, why do or do not teachers adapt the prescribed curriculum? If they do, how do they do it? (3) What implications does the relationship between the prescribed and the taught curriculum have for the English language curriculum in Oman? The researcher conducted a qualitative in-depth exploration of how four Grade 5 teachers (two male and two female) implemented the English as a second language (ESL) curriculum prescribed by the Ministry of Education in Oman. Data collection included: (1) description of the prescribed English as a second language curriculum for Grade 5, (2) class observations, and (3) post-observation conversations. The researcher described the prescribed curriculum, identified the taught curriculum by the teachers, and compared the similarities and differences between the two. Post-observation conversations focused on teachers' perception of the prescribed curriculum and taught curriculum and their rationale for modifying or not modifying the prescribed curriculum. If modifications were made, the researcher discussed with participants how and why they modified the curriculum. Results showed evidence that most of the changes and modifications teachers implemented were in the instructional methodology, how to teach the prescribed materials, with some additions, deletions, or re-sequencing of steps, and so on. Finally, the researcher provides the Ministry of Education in Oman with some recommendations to help improve the English language curriculum for the Omani government schools.