Ion Implantation in Diamond, Graphite and Related Materials

Overview

This book comprehensively reviews the current status of research involving ion implantation of diamond, graphite and related carbon-based materials. The major part of the discussion is devoted to diamond and graphite, since these have been most extensively studied. For background, a short tutorial presentation is given on the structure and properties of these materials prior to ion implantation.
Also descibed is recent work on ion-implantaion effects in novel, related materials ...
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Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992)
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Overview

This book comprehensively reviews the current status of research involving ion implantation of diamond, graphite and related carbon-based materials. The major part of the discussion is devoted to diamond and graphite, since these have been most extensively studied. For background, a short tutorial presentation is given on the structure and properties of these materials prior to ion implantation.
Also descibed is recent work on ion-implantaion effects in novel, related materials such as diamond-like (amorphous hydrogenated carbon) films, diamond films, glassy carbon,
carbon fibers, and disordered carbons. Emphasis is given to the structural modifications that the implantation process induces in the various materials and how these modifications are reflected in their electrical, optical and mechanical properties.
This volume will be of interest to researchers dealing with future electronic devices, machining tools, and fusion reactor materials and to those working in the gem-stone and cutting-tool industries.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642771736
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 1/25/2012
  • Series: Springer Series in Materials Science , #22
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 202
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.46 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 2. Carbon Materials: Graphite, Diamond and Others.- 2.1 Structure and Materials.- 2.1.1 Graphite.- 2.1.2 Graphite-Related Materials.- 2.1.3 Carbon Fibers.- 2.1.4 Glassy Carbon.- 2.1.5 Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 2.1.6 Diamond.- 2.1.7 CVD Diamond Films.- 2.1.8 Diamond-Like Carbon Films.- 2.2 Properties of Graphite.- 2.2.1 Lattice Properties.- 2.2.2 Electronic and Transport Properties.- 2.2.3 Optical Properties.- 2.2.4 Thermal Properties.- 2.2.5 Mechanical Properties.- 2.3 Properties of Diamond.- 2.3.1 Lattice Properties.- 2.3.2 Electronic and Transport Properties.- 2.3.3 Optical Properties.- 2.3.4 Thermal Properties.- 2.3.5 Mechanical Properties.- 2.3.6 Chemical Properties.- 3. Ion Implantation.- 3.1 Energy Loss Mechanisms.- 3.2 Parameters of Implantation.- 3.2.1 Energy of Implantation.- 3.2.2 Implantation Range.- 3.2.3 Implantation Fluence (Dose) and Beam Current (Dose Rate).- 3.3 Radiation Damage.- 3.4 Energy Loss Simulations.- 4. Ion Beam Analysis Techniques.- 4.1 Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy.- 4.2 Nuclear Reaction Analysis.- 4.3 Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE).- 4.4 Channeling.- 4.5 Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD).- 4.6 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS).- 4.7 Channeling Studies in Graphite-Based Materials.- 4.8 Stoichiometric Characterization of GICs by RBS.- 4.9 Ion Channeling in GICs.- 5. Other Characterization Techniques.- 5.1 Raman Spectroscopy.- 5.2 Other Optical and Magneto-Optical Techniques.- 5.3 Electron Microscopies and Spectroscopies.- 5.4 X-Ray-Related Characterization Techniques.- 5.5 Electronic Transport Measurements.- 5.6 Electron Spin Resonance (ESR).- 5.7 Hyperfine Interactions.- 5.7.1 Mössbauer Spectroscopy.- 5.7.2 Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC).- 5.8 Mechanical Properties.- 6. Implantation-Induced Modifications to Graphite.- 6.1 Lattice Damage.- 6.2 Regrowth of Ion-Implanted Graphite.- 6.3 Structural Modification.- 6.4 Modification of the Electronic Structure and Transport Properties.- 6.5 Modification of Mechanical Properties.- 6.6 Implantation with Ferromagnetic Ions.- 6.7 Implantation-Enhanced Intercalation.- 6.8 Implantation with Hydrogen and Deuterium.- 7. Implantation-Induced Modifications to Graphite-Related Materials.- 7.1 Glassy Carbon.- 7.2 Carbon Fibers.- 7.3 Disordered Graphite.- 7.4 Carbon-Based Polymers.- 8. Implantation-Induced Modifications to Diamond.- 8.1 Structural Modifications and Damage-Related Electrical Conductivity.- 8.2 Volume Expansion.- 8.3 Lattice Damage.- 8.4 Damage Annealing and Implantations at Elevated Temperatures.- 8.5 Electrical Doping.- 8.6 Impurity State Identification.- 8.7 Electronic Device Realization.- 8.8 New Materials Synthesis.- 8.9 Improving Mechanical Properties.- 9. Implantation-Induced Modifications to Diamond-Related Materials.- 9.1 Diamond-Like Carbon (a-C:H) Films.- 9.1.1 DC Conductivity.- 9.1.2 Optical Characterization.- 9.1.3 Structural Modifications and Hydrogen Loss.- 9.1.4 Attempts to Dope a-C:H by Ion-Implantation.- 9.1.5 Discussion of Implantation-Induced Effects in DLC.- 9.2 Diamond Films.- 10. Concluding Remarks.- References.
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