Ip Addressing And Subnetting Including Ipv6

Overview

Internetworking Protocol (IP) addresses are the unique numeric identifiers required of every device connected to the Internet. They allow for the precise routing of data across very complex worldwide internetworks. The rules for their format and use are governed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) of the The Internet SOCiety (ISOC). In response to the exponential increase in demand for new IP addresses, the IETF has finalized its revision on IP addressing as IP Version 6, also know as IPng (ng = Next ...

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IP Addressing & Subnetting INC IPV6: Including IPv6

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Overview

Internetworking Protocol (IP) addresses are the unique numeric identifiers required of every device connected to the Internet. They allow for the precise routing of data across very complex worldwide internetworks. The rules for their format and use are governed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) of the The Internet SOCiety (ISOC). In response to the exponential increase in demand for new IP addresses, the IETF has finalized its revision on IP addressing as IP Version 6, also know as IPng (ng = Next Generation). Key hardware vendors such as Cisco and major Internet Service Providers such as America Online have already announced plans to migrate to IP Version 6.
IP address allocation within an organization requires a lot of long-term planning. This timely publication addresses the administrator and engineer's need to know how IP 6 impacts their enterprise networks

• Ideal for companies planning a phased migration from IP 4 to IP 6
• Timely publication: The IETF standard was finalized in early 1999 and will begin to be implemented in late 1999/2000. The current IP Version 4 address set will be exhausted by 2003
• The book will focus on planning and configuring networks and devices for IP 6. Specifically, it will cover how to:
• Increase the IP address size from 32 bits to 128 bits
• Support more levels of addressing hierarchy
• Support an increased number of addressable nodes
• Support simpler auto-configuration of addresses
• Improve the scalability of multicast routing by adding a "scope" field to multicast addresses
• Use a new "anycast address" to send a packet to any one of a group of nodes

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Covering both the Internet Protocol (IP) currently in use and the one beginning to be deployed, this guide to IP addressing and subnetting covers strategies, configuration scenarios, and techniques for the network engineer. Topics include network address translation, variable-length subnet masking, routing issues, automatic assignment of IP addresses with BOOTP and DHCP objectives, and multicast addressing. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781928994015
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 3/1/2000
  • Pages: 532
  • Product dimensions: 1.07 (w) x 7.00 (h) x 10.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Why this Book is Necessary xx
Content of this Book xxi
Editor's Acknowledgments xxii
Chapter 1 Addressing and Subnetting Basics 1
IP Address Basics 2
Classful Addressing-Structure and Size of Each Type 3
What Is a Network? 5
Class A 6
Class B 7
Class C 8
Address Assignments 10
Single Address per Interface 10
Multhomed Devices 10
Multinetting--Multiple Addresses per Interface 12
Examples 13
Purpose of Subnetting 13
The Basic Fixed-Length Mask 19
What the Mask Does 19
Components of a Mask 21
Binary Determination of Mask Values 22
Decimal Equivalent Mask Values 23
Creating Masks for Various Networking Problems 26
Addresses and Mask Interaction 27
Reserved and Restricted Addresses 30
Determining the Range of Addresses within Subnets 31
Determining Subnet Addresses Given a Single Address and Mask 32
Interpreting Masks 34
Reserved Addresses 35
Summary 36
FAQs 37
Chapter 2 Creating an Addressing Plan for Fixed-Length Mask Networks 39
Introduction 40
Determine Addressing Requirements 40
Review Your Internetwork Design 40
How Many Subnets Do You Need? 41
How Many IP Addresses Are Needed in Each Subnet? 42
What about Growth? 44
Choose the Proper Mask 45
Consult the Tables 45
Use Unnumbered Interfaces 46
Ask for a Bigger Block of Addresses 47
Router Tricks 47
Use Subnet Zero 49
Obtain IP Addresses 50
From Your Organization's Network Manager 51
From Your ISP 51
From Your Internet Registry 52
Calculate Ranges of IP Addresses for Each Subnet 53
Doing It the Hard Way 53
Worksheets 55
Subnet Calculators 57
Allocate Addresses to Devices 58
Assigning Subnets 58
Assigning Device Addresses 60
Sequential Allocation 61
Reserved Addresses 61
Grow Towards the Middle 61
Document Your Work 62
Keeping Track of What You've Done 62
Paper 62
Spreadsheets 62
Databases 63
In Any Case 63
Summary 64
FAQs 64
Exercises 65
Subnetting Tables 67
Class A Subnetting Table 67
Class B Subnetting Table 73
Class C Subnetting Table 77
Subnet Assignment Worksheet 79
Chapter 3 Private Addressing and Subnetting Large Networks 87
Introduction 88
Strategies to Conserve Addresses 88
CIDR 89
VLSM 90
Private Addresses 90
Addressing Economics 91
An Appeal 94
Public vs Private Address Spaces 94
Can I Pick My Own? 95
RFC 1918--Private Network Addresses 96
The Three-Address Blocks 97
Considerations 98
Which to Use When 100
Strategy for Subnetting a Class A Private Network 101
The Network 102
The Strategy 103
Address Assignment 105
The Headquarters LANs 105
The WAN Links from Headquarters to the Distribution Centers 105
The Distribution Center LANs 106
The WAN Links from the DC to the Stores 107
The Store LANs 107
Results 108
Summary 110
FAQs 110
Exercises 111
Chapter 4 Network Address Translation 113
Introduction 114
Hiding Behind the Router/Firewall 114
What Is NAT? 119
How Does NAT Work? 120
Network Address Translation (Static) 120
How Does Static NAT Work? 122
Double NAT 123
Problems with Static NAT 126
Configuration Examples 130
Windows NT 2000 131
Cisco IOS 135
Linux IP Masquerade 137
Network Address Translation (Dynamic) 139
How Does Dynamic NAT Work? 141
Problems with Dynamic NAT 142
Configuration Examples 144
Cisco IOS 144
Port Address Translation (PAT) 145
How Does PAT Work? 147
Problems with PAT 152
Configuration Examples 154
Windows NT 2000 154
Linux IP Masquerade 156
Cisco IOS 157
What Are the Advantages? 161
What Are the Performance Issues? 162
Proxies and Firewall Capabilities 165
Packet Filters 166
Proxies 168
Stateful Packet Filters 173
Stateful Packet Filter with Rewrite 173
Why a Proxy Server Is Really Not a NAT 174
Shortcomings of SPF 178
Summary 180
FAQs 183
References & Resources 187
RFCs 187
IP Masquerade/Linux 187
Cisco 188
Windows 188
NAT Whitepapers 189
Firewalls 189
Chapter 5 Variable-Length Subnet Masking 191
Introduction 192
Why Are Variable-Length Masks Necessary? 192
Right-sizing Your Subnets 194
More Addresses or More Useful Addresses? 196
The Importance of Proper Planning 198
Creating and Managing Variable-Length Subnets 198
Analyze Subnet Needs 199
Enumerate Each Subnet and Number of Required Nodes 199
Determine Which Mask to Use in Each Subnet 200
Allocate Addresses Based on Need For Each Subnet 201
Routing Protocols and VLSM 206
Class C VLSM Problem 206
Completing the Class C Problem 210
Template-based Address Assignment 214
Summary 218
FAQs 220
Chapter 6 Routing Issues 223
Introduction 224
Classless Interdomain Routing 225
From Millions to Thousands of Networks 231
ISP Address Assignment 233
Using CIDR Addresses Inside Your Network 235
Contiguous Subnets 236
Igrp 237
Eigrp 242
Eigrp Concepts 243
Rip-1 Requirements 244
Comparison with Igrp 247
Routing Update Impact 248
Rip-2 Requirements 250
Ospf 251
Configuring Ospf 255
Routing Update Impact 258
Ospf Implementation Recommendations 265
Bgp Requirements 267
Ibgp and Ebgp Requirements 272
Loopback Interfaces 275
Summary 276
FAQs 278
Chapter 7 Automatic Assignment of IP Addresses with Bootp and Dhcp Objectives 281
Introduction 282
The Role of Dynamic Address Assignment 283
A Brief History 284
Address Management with These Tools 286
The Bootp Packet 288
Field Descriptions and Comments 288
Op 289
Htype 289
Hlen 290
Hops 290
Xid 290
Secs 291
Flag 291
Ciaddr 291
Yiaddr 291
Siaddr 292
Giaddr 292
Chaddr 292
Sname 293
File 293
Vend/Option 293
Bootp Process Details 294
Client Bootrequest 294
Server Bootreply 295
Field Values in the Bootreply packet 296
The Bootp Server Database 297
How Does Dhcp Work? 298
Dhcp Process Overview 299
Dhcp Process Details 301
Dhcp-Specific Options 304
Interoperation between Dhcp and Bootp 309
Dhcp Address Scopes 310
Comparing Bootp and Dhcp 311
How Bootp Works 312
Bootp Process Overview 312
Dhcp / Bootp Options 313
Bootp Options from Rfc 1497 314
IP Layer Parameters per Host 318
IP Layer Parameters per Interface 320
Link Layer Parameters per Interface 322
TCP Parameters 323
Application and Service Parameters 323
Bootp, Dhcp, and Routed Networks 328
The Bootp Relay Agent 329
The Role of the Giaddr 330
Other Fields Involved 331
Hops 331
Chaddr, Yiaddr, Htype, Hlen, Flag 332
Secs 332
Udp Port Number 332
IP Ttl Field 333
All Other Fields 333
Bootp Implementation Checklist 333
Dhcp Implementation Checklist 334
Summary 335
FAQs 336
Chapter 8 Multicast Addressing 339
What Is Multicast? 340
Mapping IP Multicast to the Link Layer 341
Joining the Group 341
IGMP 342
Multicast Routing Protocols 342
Mbone 343
Multicast Addresses 344
Transient and Permanent Addresses 344
Generic Assignments 344
IANA Assignments 345
Scope of Multicast Addresses Using TTL 346
Administrative Scopes 346
IP Stacks and Multicast 347
Why Multicast? 348
Efficiency of Bandwidth Usage and Scaling 348
Discovering 349
Efficient Channel 349
Industry 350
Summary 350
FAQ 351
References 351
Chapter 9 IPv6 Addressing 353
Introduction 354
IPv6 Addressing Basics 354
IPv6 Addressing Scheme Characteristics 357
Version 358
Traffic Class 358
Flow Label 358
Payload Length 359
Next Header 360
Hop-by-Hop Options Header 360
Destination Options Header I 361
Routing Header 361
Fragment Header 362
Authentication Header 362
Encrypted Security Payload Header 363
Destination Options Header II 363
Hop Limit 364
Source Address 364
Destination Address 364
More Bits! 365
A More Flexible Hierarchical Organization of Addresses 370
FP: Format Prefix 372
TLA ID 373
RES 373
NLA ID 374
SLA ID 374
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