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Ip Addressing And Subnetting Including Ipv6
     

Ip Addressing And Subnetting Including Ipv6

by Syngress
 

See All Formats & Editions

ISBN-10: 1928994016

ISBN-13: 9781928994015

Pub. Date: 03/01/2000

Publisher: Elsevier Science

Internetworking Protocol (IP) addresses are the unique numeric identifiers required of every device connected to the Internet. They allow for the precise routing of data across very complex worldwide internetworks. The rules for their format and use are governed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) of the The Internet SOCiety (ISOC). In response to the

Overview

Internetworking Protocol (IP) addresses are the unique numeric identifiers required of every device connected to the Internet. They allow for the precise routing of data across very complex worldwide internetworks. The rules for their format and use are governed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) of the The Internet SOCiety (ISOC). In response to the exponential increase in demand for new IP addresses, the IETF has finalized its revision on IP addressing as IP Version 6, also know as IPng (ng = Next Generation). Key hardware vendors such as Cisco and major Internet Service Providers such as America Online have already announced plans to migrate to IP Version 6.
IP address allocation within an organization requires a lot of long-term planning. This timely publication addresses the administrator and engineer's need to know how IP 6 impacts their enterprise networks.

  • Easy-to-read, light technical approach to cellular technology
  • Ideal for companies planning a phased migration from IP 4 to IP 6
  • Timely publication: The IETF standard was finalized in early 1999 and will begin to be implemented in late 1999/2000. The current IP Version 4 address set will be exhausted by 2003
  • The book focuses on planning and configuring networks and devices for IP 6. Specifically, it will cover how to: Increase the IP address size from 32 bits to 128 bits; Support more levels of addressing hierarchy; Support an increased number of addressable nodes; Support simpler auto-configuration of addresses; Improve the scalability of multicast routing by adding a "scope" field to multicast addresses; Use a new "anycast address" to send a packet to any one of a group of nodes

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781928994015
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
03/01/2000
Pages:
532
Product dimensions:
1.07(w) x 7.00(h) x 10.00(d)

Table of Contents

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Prefacexix
Why this Book is Necessaryxx
Content of this Bookxxi
Editor's Acknowledgmentsxxii
Chapter 1Addressing and Subnetting Basics1
IP Address Basics2
Classful Addressing-Structure and Size of Each Type3
What Is a Network?5
Class A6
Class B7
Class C8
Address Assignments10
Single Address per Interface10
Multhomed Devices10
Multinetting--Multiple Addresses per Interface12
Examples13
Purpose of Subnetting13
The Basic Fixed-Length Mask19
What the Mask Does19
Components of a Mask21
Binary Determination of Mask Values22
Decimal Equivalent Mask Values23
Creating Masks for Various Networking Problems26
Addresses and Mask Interaction27
Reserved and Restricted Addresses30
Determining the Range of Addresses within Subnets31
Determining Subnet Addresses Given a Single Address and Mask32
Interpreting Masks34
Reserved Addresses35
Summary36
FAQs37
Chapter 2Creating an Addressing Plan for Fixed-Length Mask Networks39
Introduction40
Determine Addressing Requirements40
Review Your Internetwork Design40
How Many Subnets Do You Need?41
How Many IP Addresses Are Needed in Each Subnet?42
What about Growth?44
Choose the Proper Mask45
Consult the Tables45
Use Unnumbered Interfaces46
Ask for a Bigger Block of Addresses47
Router Tricks47
Use Subnet Zero49
Obtain IP Addresses50
From Your Organization's Network Manager51
From Your ISP51
From Your Internet Registry52
Calculate Ranges of IP Addresses for Each Subnet53
Doing It the Hard Way53
Worksheets55
Subnet Calculators57
Allocate Addresses to Devices58
Assigning Subnets58
Assigning Device Addresses60
Sequential Allocation61
Reserved Addresses61
Grow Towards the Middle61
Document Your Work62
Keeping Track of What You've Done62
Paper62
Spreadsheets62
Databases63
In Any Case63
Summary64
FAQs64
Exercises65
Subnetting Tables67
Class A Subnetting Table67
Class B Subnetting Table73
Class C Subnetting Table77
Subnet Assignment Worksheet79
Chapter 3Private Addressing and Subnetting Large Networks87
Introduction88
Strategies to Conserve Addresses88
CIDR89
VLSM90
Private Addresses90
Addressing Economics91
An Appeal94
Public vs Private Address Spaces94
Can I Pick My Own?95
RFC 1918--Private Network Addresses96
The Three-Address Blocks97
Considerations98
Which to Use When100
Strategy for Subnetting a Class A Private Network101
The Network102
The Strategy103
Address Assignment105
The Headquarters LANs105
The WAN Links from Headquarters to the Distribution Centers105
The Distribution Center LANs106
The WAN Links from the DC to the Stores107
The Store LANs107
Results108
Summary110
FAQs110
Exercises111
Chapter 4Network Address Translation113
Introduction114
Hiding Behind the Router/Firewall114
What Is NAT?119
How Does NAT Work?120
Network Address Translation (Static)120
How Does Static NAT Work?122
Double NAT123
Problems with Static NAT126
Configuration Examples130
Windows NT 2000131
Cisco IOS135
Linux IP Masquerade137
Network Address Translation (Dynamic)139
How Does Dynamic NAT Work?141
Problems with Dynamic NAT142
Configuration Examples144
Cisco IOS144
Port Address Translation (PAT)145
How Does PAT Work?147
Problems with PAT152
Configuration Examples154
Windows NT 2000154
Linux IP Masquerade156
Cisco IOS157
What Are the Advantages?161
What Are the Performance Issues?162
Proxies and Firewall Capabilities165
Packet Filters166
Proxies168
Stateful Packet Filters173
Stateful Packet Filter with Rewrite173
Why a Proxy Server Is Really Not a NAT174
Shortcomings of SPF178
Summary180
FAQs183
References & Resources187
RFCs187
IP Masquerade/Linux187
Cisco188
Windows188
NAT Whitepapers189
Firewalls189
Chapter 5Variable-Length Subnet Masking191
Introduction192
Why Are Variable-Length Masks Necessary?192
Right-sizing Your Subnets194
More Addresses or More Useful Addresses?196
The Importance of Proper Planning198
Creating and Managing Variable-Length Subnets198
Analyze Subnet Needs199
Enumerate Each Subnet and Number of Required Nodes199
Determine Which Mask to Use in Each Subnet200
Allocate Addresses Based on Need For Each Subnet201
Routing Protocols and VLSM206
Class C VLSM Problem206
Completing the Class C Problem210
Template-based Address Assignment214
Summary218
FAQs220
Chapter 6Routing Issues223
Introduction224
Classless Interdomain Routing225
From Millions to Thousands of Networks231
ISP Address Assignment233
Using CIDR Addresses Inside Your Network235
Contiguous Subnets236
Igrp237
Eigrp242
Eigrp Concepts243
Rip-1 Requirements244
Comparison with Igrp247
Routing Update Impact248
Rip-2 Requirements250
Ospf251
Configuring Ospf255
Routing Update Impact258
Ospf Implementation Recommendations265
Bgp Requirements267
Ibgp and Ebgp Requirements272
Loopback Interfaces275
Summary276
FAQs278
Chapter 7Automatic Assignment of IP Addresses with Bootp and Dhcp Objectives281
Introduction282
The Role of Dynamic Address Assignment283
A Brief History284
Address Management with These Tools286
The Bootp Packet288
Field Descriptions and Comments288
Op289
Htype289
Hlen290
Hops290
Xid290
Secs291
Flag291
Ciaddr291
Yiaddr291
Siaddr292
Giaddr292
Chaddr292
Sname293
File293
Vend/Option293
Bootp Process Details294
Client Bootrequest294
Server Bootreply295
Field Values in the Bootreply packet296
The Bootp Server Database297
How Does Dhcp Work?298
Dhcp Process Overview299
Dhcp Process Details301
Dhcp-Specific Options304
Interoperation between Dhcp and Bootp309
Dhcp Address Scopes310
Comparing Bootp and Dhcp311
How Bootp Works312
Bootp Process Overview312
Dhcp / Bootp Options313
Bootp Options from Rfc 1497314
IP Layer Parameters per Host318
IP Layer Parameters per Interface320
Link Layer Parameters per Interface322
TCP Parameters323
Application and Service Parameters323
Bootp, Dhcp, and Routed Networks328
The Bootp Relay Agent329
The Role of the Giaddr330
Other Fields Involved331
Hops331
Chaddr, Yiaddr, Htype, Hlen, Flag332
Secs332
Udp Port Number332
IP Ttl Field333
All Other Fields333
Bootp Implementation Checklist333
Dhcp Implementation Checklist334
Summary335
FAQs336
Chapter 8Multicast Addressing339
What Is Multicast?340
Mapping IP Multicast to the Link Layer341
Joining the Group341
IGMP342
Multicast Routing Protocols342
Mbone343
Multicast Addresses344
Transient and Permanent Addresses344
Generic Assignments344
IANA Assignments345
Scope of Multicast Addresses Using TTL346
Administrative Scopes346
IP Stacks and Multicast347
Why Multicast?348
Efficiency of Bandwidth Usage and Scaling348
Discovering349
Efficient Channel349
Industry350
Summary350
FAQ351
References351
Chapter 9IPv6 Addressing353
Introduction354
IPv6 Addressing Basics354
IPv6 Addressing Scheme Characteristics357
Version358
Traffic Class358
Flow Label358
Payload Length359
Next Header360
Hop-by-Hop Options Header360
Destination Options Header I361
Routing Header361
Fragment Header362
Authentication Header362
Encrypted Security Payload Header363
Destination Options Header II363
Hop Limit364
Source Address364
Destination Address364
More Bits!365
A More Flexible Hierarchical Organization of Addresses370
FP: Format Prefix372
TLA ID373
RES373
NLA ID374
SLA ID374