IP Routing Protocols: RIP, OSPF, BGP, PNNI and Cisco Routing Protocols / Edition 1

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Overview

1424H-9

The complete guide to IP routing for all network professionals

Four routing protocols-RIP, OSPF, BGP, and the Cisco protocols-are at the heart of IP-based internetworking and the Internet itself. In this comprehensive guide, respected telecommunications consultant Uyless Black teaches network professionals the basics of how to build and manage networks with these protocols. Beginning with an exceptionally helpful tutorial on the fundamentals of route discovery, architecture, and operations, Black presents in-depth coverage of these topics and more:

  • The RIP and OSPF interior gateway protocols: implementation, troubleshooting, and variations
  • Connecting internal networks to the Internet with BGP
  • Enterprise networking with Cisco's Inter-Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and Enhanced Inter-Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • The Private Network-to-Network Interface (PNNI): route advertising, network topology analysis, and connection management for ATM-based networks

From start to finish, IP Routing Protocols focuses on the techniques needed to build large, scalable IP networks with maximum performance and robustness. Whether you're a service provider or an enterprise networking professional, here's the lucid, succinct guide to IP routing protocols you've been searching for.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Uyless Black is a widely known and respected consultant and lecturer on computer networks and data communications. He is author of all the books in his Prentice Hall Series in Advanced Communications Technologies, including Voice Over IP, Residential Broadband Networking, ATM: Foundation for Broadband Networks , and Advanced Internet Technologies.

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Read an Excerpt

Preface

This book is one in a series of books called, "Emerging Communications Technologies." As the name of the book implies, the focus is on how routes are discovered and used in the Internet.

The subject matter of this book is vast and my approach is to provide a system view of the topic. In consonance with the intent of this series, this general survey also has considerable detail but not to the level of detail needed to design a routing protocol, or to configure a bridge or router. For that, I leave you to your project team and the various specifications that establish the standards for routing operations.

This book is considered to be at an intermediate-to-advanced level. As such, it assumes the reader has a background in data communications.

I hope you find this book a valuable addition to your library.

Use of Appendices

The subject of internetworking and route discovery is built on many concepts, and several supporting IEEE, ISO, and Internet protocols and standards. For those readers that are familiar with these subjects, I have not encumbered the main body of the book with a description of these systems. From previous experience, I also know that a substantial number of my readers will not have full knowledge of some (perhaps all) of these supporting and underlying operations. I also know that some of the readers are well-versed in these underlying, supporting protocols.

I have provided several tutorials on these subjects and have included them in the appendices to this book. I suggest you take a look at the appendices before you start reading the book, and then study those topics in which you need more information. On occasion, I will refer to an appendix to alert you to some required background information for a subject under discussion. If appropriate, I will refer you directly to a figure or a table to enable you to do a quick check to determine if you should divert to the specific material in the appendix before proceeding further.

With this approach, I hope meet the needs of readers with various levels of experience and knowledge.

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Most chapters conclude with a Summary and Follow-Up Reading.)

Preface

1. Introduction.

Introduction. Why Internetworking? Why Route Discovery? Internetworking Definitions. Internetworking and the Protocol Stacks. Internetworking and the Internet. Connecting in the Internet. Forwarding and Routing. Yet Another Term: Gateway. Placement of Routing Protocols in the Protocol Stack. Routing Domains. Routing Domains Overcome the “Flat Network” Problem. How a Host is Made Known to Other Domains. Multiple Routing Protocols. Design Goals of Routing Protocols. Preview of the Routing Protocols.

2. Internet Basics.

Introduction. LAN Layered Architecture. Interworking the LAN and WAN Protocol Stacks. MAC Operations. Ethernet/802.3. 802.5 Token Ring. Configuring a Priority Ring. Logical Link Control (LLC). LLC SAPs. SAP Components. LLC 2. The LLC Protocol Data Unit (PDU). Example of LLC 2 Operations. Processing the IP Datagram and the Routing Table. The IP Header.

3. Route Discovery Principles.

Introduction. Autonomous Systems (AS). Internal and External Gateway Protocols. Types of Route Advertising. Static Routes, Default Routes, and Stubs. Configuration Ideas for Stub Routes. Distance-Vector (Minimum Hop) Protocols. Example of Message Propagation in a Distance-Vector Routing Domain. Packet Containment. Link State Protocols. Example of Message Propagation in a Link State Routing Domain. Packet Containment. Link State Protocols and Shortest Path Operations. Shortest Path Algorithm. Routing Between Domains. Relationships of Route Discovery to Bridges and Routers. Integrated Routing and Bridging. Operating with Multiple Routing Protocols. Key Internet Routing Protocols.

4. Bridges.

Introduction. Why Use Bridges? The MAC Bridge. The Other Bridge Layers. Types of Bridges. The Transparent Basic Bridge. Source Routing Bridge. The Transparent Learning Bridge. The Transparent Spanning Tree Bridge. The Configuration Message. Potential Looping and Blocking Problems. Looping. Blocking. The Spanning Tree Operations. The Spanning Tree Logic. The Pruned Topology. Internetworking Different LANs. Address Mapping. Transit Bridging. Source Route Transparent Bridging (SRT). Remote Bridges. Data Link Switching. DLS Configuration. The DLS Specification: RFC 1795. Example of DLS Operations. How a Router Handles DLS.

5. RIP.

Introduction. Development of RIP. Scheme for Routing Updates. Propagating the Updates. Unicast Updates and Disabling Updates. RIP Messages. RIP-2 Authentication. How the Two Versions Can Be Used. Convergence Problems. Counteracting Measures. Split Horizon. Split Horizon with Poison Reverse. Holddown. Disabling Split Horizon. Timer Adjustments. Filtering Routing Information. Configuring a RIP Routing Domain.

6. OSPF.

Introduction. Attributes of OSPF. Role of the Router in OSPF. Design Intent of OSPF. Directed Graphs. Routing Decisions. Operating OSPF over Different Types of Networks (Media). How OSPF Supports “On-demand” Links. Basic Operations of OSPF. Flooding Advertisements. OSPF Areas. Packet Containment. Stub Areas. Controlling and Protecting the Area. Virtual Links and Backbones. External Links. Not So Stubby Areas (NSSAs). Designated Router for a Network. Designated Routers and Addresses. Neighbor Pairs. Flooding Advertisements on the LAN. Establishing Link Costs and Pruning the Tree. The OSPF Packets. Setting up the Router's OSPF Interfaces. Other RFC-Based Aspects of OSPF. Internetworking with Other Routing Protocols. Security Considerations. Configuring an OSPF Routing Domain.

7. BGP.

Introduction. Attributes of BGP. BGP Neighbors. BGP “Speakers.” Communities. BGP Advertising. Configurations with Customer. BGP Policy-Based Architecture. Advertise What Is Used. Path Selection with BGP. Selecting a Path. BGP Routing Model. Interactions with IGPs. Nontransit and Transit ASs. Fully Meshed IBGP Speakers and Avoiding Routing Loops. Routing Domain Confederations. Route Reflectors. BGP Messages. Open. Update. Notification. Keepalive. Path Attributes. Controlled Distribution of Routing to Enforce Transit Policies. Configuring a BGP Routing Domain.

8. Cisco Routing Protocols.

Introduction. IGRP and EIGRP. IGRP. Metrics. EIGRP. Bandwidth Consumption. Configuring the IGRP Routing Domain. Configuring the EIGRP Routing Domain.

9. PNNI.

Introduction. Rationale for PNNI. The Power of PNNI. The PNNI Reference Model. The Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL). Functions of Service Specific Coordination Function (SSCF). Functions of SSCOP. ATM Addresses. The Physical Network. PNNI Hierarchy and the Lowest Hierarchical Level. The Hierarchy in More Detail. Metric Aggregation. Metric Aggregation and the Stretch Factor. PNNI Topology State Elements (PTSEs). Horizontal and Outside Links. The PNNI Hierarchy in More Detail. The Essence of PNNI. Examples of PNNI Route and Address Summarization Operations. PNNI Signaling Operations. Examples of PNNI Signaling. Designated Transit Lists (DTLs). Crankback and Alternate Routing.

Appendix A: Layered Protocols.

Appendix B: Names, Addresses, Subnetting, Address Masks, and Prefixes.

Appendix C: Address Resolution, Translation, and Configuration.

Appendix D: The Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP).

Abbreviations.

Index.

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Preface

Preface

This book is one in a series of books called, "Emerging Communications Technologies." As the name of the book implies, the focus is on how routes are discovered and used in the Internet.

The subject matter of this book is vast and my approach is to provide a system view of the topic. In consonance with the intent of this series, this general survey also has considerable detail but not to the level of detail needed to design a routing protocol, or to configure a bridge or router. For that, I leave you to your project team and the various specifications that establish the standards for routing operations.

This book is considered to be at an intermediate-to-advanced level. As such, it assumes the reader has a background in data communications.

I hope you find this book a valuable addition to your library.

Use of Appendices

The subject of internetworking and route discovery is built on many concepts, and several supporting IEEE, ISO, and Internet protocols and standards. For those readers that are familiar with these subjects, I have not encumbered the main body of the book with a description of these systems. From previous experience, I also know that a substantial number of my readers will not have full knowledge of some (perhaps all) of these supporting and underlying operations. I also know that some of the readers are well-versed in these underlying, supporting protocols.

I have provided several tutorials on these subjects and have included them in the appendices to this book. I suggest you take a look at the appendices before you start reading the book, and then study those topics in which you need more information. On occasion, I will refer to an appendix to alert you to some required background information for a subject under discussion. If appropriate, I will refer you directly to a figure or a table to enable you to do a quick check to determine if you should divert to the specific material in the appendix before proceeding further.

With this approach, I hope meet the needs of readers with various levels of experience and knowledge.

Read More Show Less

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