Islam, Christianity and the West: A Troubled History

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Armour uses the best of contemporary research to show the reader how events such as the Crusades and the Reconquista of Spain have indelibly shaped the mindset of the West toward Islam and vice versa. He reveals how the modern political and economic system -- marked by the globalization of capitalism, technology, and science -- has been perceived by the Islamic world as a Godless secular assault on all that is holy. He ends with the Arab-Israeli conflict and the events on 11 September 2001 as the latest and most concrete manifestation of the tragic encounter between the three "Peoples of the Book."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781570754074
  • Publisher: Orbis Books
  • Publication date: 3/28/2002
  • Series: Faith Meets Faith Series
  • Pages: 208
  • Product dimensions: 5.80 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Maps
Introduction 1
1 Muhammad and the Establishment of Islam 4
The Revelations and Early Years in Mecca 5
Muhammad's Move to Medina 9
Reclaiming Mecca 14
In Praise of Muhammad 16
Islam, the Religious System 18
2 The Spread of Islam 26
The Question of War 29
The Caliphate 32
Islamic Civilization 34
The Mediterranean 36
Invasions: Turks and Mongols 37
3 The First Christian Responses to Islam 39
Early Criticism of the Islamic Religion 41
The View from the West 45
History, Eschatology, and Martyrdom; The Martyrs of Cordoba 47
4 Islam in the Eyes of the Medieval West: A "Deformed Image" 50
The Case again Muhammad 52
Islamic Practices 58
Positive Words on Islam 59
5 The Western Counteroffensive: The Reconquest of Spain and the Crusades to the Holy Land 61
The Recovery of Spain and Portugal 62
The Call for Crusade against the Holy Land 63
Factors behind the Crusades 64
The Significance of the Sermon 66
The Nature of Crusade 67
The Response to the Call 69
A Calamitous Beginning 70
The First Crusade 72
The Second and Third Crusades 74
Other Crusades 76
Results of the Crusades 78
6 Translating Islam: Peter the Venerable and the Spanish Connection 80
7 Christian Attempts to Convert Muslims: Peaceful Missions and Conversion by Force 86
The Mendicant Orders: Franciscans and Dominicans 88
Conversion by Force of Arms 93
8 Bridges from Christendom to Islam: Examples of Cooperation 95
The Philosophers and Islam 95
A Convert from Judaism 96
Thomas Aquinas 97
Sicily and Southern Italy: Cooperation and Forced Conversion 99
9 The Renaissance: Thoughts of Rapprochement and Dialogue 103
John of Segovia 104
Nicholas of Cusa 105
The Words of a Pope: Pius II 109
Theodore Bibliander 111
10 The Turks as a Sign of the End of the Age: Luther and de Susannis 114
Martin Luther 114
The Traditional Catholic View: Marquardus de Susannis and the De ludaeis 120
11 The Sea Explorers and Western Colonialism: Europe Outflanks and Overpowers the Islamic World 122
Christopher Columbus 123
The Portuguese Navigators 124
A Shift in Power 126
Western Imperialism: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 127
Napoleon and the First Signs of Imperialism 128
Colonialism and Islam 129
Results of Western Colonialism 131
12 Modern Views of Islam: From Rejection to Acceptance 133
The Study of Arabic 134
Early Writers from the Enlightenment 134
Theological Views: Positive Elements in Islam 136
Theological Views: The Negative Side 137
Romanticism: The Middle East as Exotic 138
The Academic Study of Islam 139
Interreligious Dialogue 141
Is the Qur'an the Word of God? 144
From the Muslim Side 145
13 Zionism and the Establishment of the State of Israel 147
The Beginnings of Zionism 149
British Support for Zionism 152
British Power Interests and Israel 154
The Balfour Declaration 155
Palestinian Arabs 155
Early Settlers 159
The Failure of Attempts to Extricate Jews 159
The Creation of the State of Israel 161
The Nature of the Conflict 165
14 An Overview of Islam and the West Today 167
A Resurgent Islam 168
Problems between the West and the Islamic World 175
The West 178
Other Problem Areas 179
Islam in the West 180
Conclusion: The Place of Religion 181
Suggestions for Further Reading 183
Index 185
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