IT Architecture Toolkit / Edition 1

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Overview

Enterprise IT architecture made practical--finally!

There's only one way to maximize legacy infrastructure while integrating new partners, technologies, applications, and data streams: begin with a coherent enterprise architecture. But most approaches to enterprise architecture have been far too complex and theoretical--until now. IT Architecture Toolkit is a breakthrough: a practical, simple, rapid, and complete approach to delivering on the promise of enterprise architecture.

Jane Carbone's approach has been proven in mid-market and Fortune 500 enterprises alike. Step by step, Carbone shows how to integrate business, architecture, implementation, and all key outputs: for data, applications, technology, and people. Whether you're an IT leader, architect, planner, or analyst, you'll learn how to:

  • Create strong, auditable links with business drivers
  • Model your architecture simply, easily, and quickly
  • Translate your models to real, manageable projects.
  • Define the value proposition for architecture and establish realistic metrics
  • Achieve buy-in throughout your organization
  • Manage the "soft" aspects of your architecture initiative, including processes, roles, responsibilities, and organizational structure

Carbone provides a "soup to nuts" collection of methods and examples. Using her exercises, you'll construct a complete draft architecture for your own business: one that will handle change, opportunity, growth, mergers, downsizing . . . whatever comes your way.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Jane Carbone is a co-founder of and partner at infomajic. She has over 25 years of experience in information technology working with network provisioning, finance, regulatory, customer sales and service, billing, and financial and credit applications. Ms. Carbone has developed and used the infomajic enterprise information architecture methodology to conduct and develop architecture assessments, enterprise and data architectures, IT strategies, data models, organization designs, and implementation project plans for financial services companies, IT HR and telecomm firms, and the public library.

Prior to forming infomajic, Ms. Carbone was the Director of Information Architecture Services at Datanomics, Inc., where she formed an architecture consulting practice. Prior to that, Ms. Carbone was with AT&T, where she was responsible for enterprise architecture for the consumer business unit. She was also responsible for developing and implementing the client/server architecture for AT&T American Transtech (now a unit of Convergys Corporation). Ms. Carbone was a member of the Gartner Group's Client/Server Best Practices Group. Working together with Gartner analysts, the group created research notes on all aspects of client/server architecture.

Ms. Carbone's experience also includes teaching analysis and data modeling, leading an enterprise data modeling team, developing and managing an enterprise-wide data stewardship program, managing HR and business planning for IT organization, managing data and voice network operations, and IT organization and job design. She has designed and developed software, and developed and taught programming and design courses.

Ms. Carbone delivers three-day architecture workshops for clients and one-day seminars for METAGroup/DCI Enterprise Architectures conferences. Her architecture seminars are available online through DCI. She has spoken on architecture at other DCI and DAMA conferences and is a past board member of DAMA-NJ. Her articles have been published in DMDirect, the TDAN Newsletter, and on eacommunity.com.

Ms. Carbone has a B.A. in English Literature and Language and an M.S. in Library and Information Science.

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Read an Excerpt

Preface

There were two factors that motivated me to write this book. One was that, while those of us who were data geeks were always passionate about business information, our opinions were not always popular. Today, meaningful, accurate information is the lifeblood of most organizations. In fact, in many cases, information is not just critical to the business-it is the business. Therefore, the need to plan how data is collected, flows through the organization, and is transformed into information the business can access, is vital. That need is increasingly recognized, not only by CIOs, but also by CEOs and even by the non-IT world at large. I was pleasantly surprised to read the following in an unlikely source:

Halfway through the last century, information became a thing. It became a commodity, a force-a quantity to be measured and analyzed. It's what our world runs on. Information is the gold and the fuel. (James Glieck, "Bit Player," The New York Times Magazine, December 30, 2001)

The second factor that motivated me to write this book was that, just as a converted smoker becomes overly eager about the smoking habits of those around him, I have had my own religious experience. Having been honed (some would say charred) on the altar of architecture, I am eager to share both my suffering and my successes. Having learned many lessons the hard way, I am anxious to help you benefit from those lessons.

This book, therefore, is a very practical guide to enterprise architecture. Many fine minds have addressed architecture theory from the podium and the bookshelf. The purpose of this book is to help architects, IT planners, and analysts find ways to implementthose theories, and to spare you as much pain as possible in the process.Frequently Asked Questions

1.
Q. Is this just more theory?

A. No. The Toolkit is very practical-it is based on our learnings as chief architects and consultants (and in both cases, compensation was determined by success).

2. Q. How can you ensure that business needs are addressed in the architecture?

A. Having wrestled with this problem, we developed a business framework and methods for translating business needs to architecture outputs. The Toolkit also addresses financial considerations and measurement development to tightly link architecture with the business.

3. Q. How does this approach relate to the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture?

A. The Toolkit architecture framework produced by our company, infomajic, is consistent with, but simpler than, the Zachman Framework. It focuses on the upper left-hand rows and provides methods for filling in the cells. It also addresses strategies for implementing target architecture. The Toolkit is very practical-it's based on experience. We'll do a more complete comparison with the Zachman Framework a little later.

4. Q. How do you create architecture outputs?

A. We discuss what the critical outputs are-principles, models, inventory, and standards-and include specific methods for developing them. Examples and exercises allow you to practice using them.

A. Yes. The Toolkit includes an implementation framework, which addresses strategies and practices for successfully gaining business and IT buy-in, and includes descriptions of key architecture processes and roles.

6. Q. How can you translate conceptual architecture into reality?

A. The Toolkit includes a step-by-step approach to translating architecture into manageable projects-how to identify, select, and downsize architecture projects.

A. The Toolkit includes descriptions of key architecture roles.

8. Q. How can you measure/cost justify architecture?

A. The Toolkit addresses financial considerations and measurement development.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

Frequently Asked Questions.

Acknowledgments.

About The Author.

Introduction.

The Role of IT Planning.

Four Mini Case Studies-Best (and Worst) Practices.

Introducing the Enterprise Architecture Toolkit.

Getting Started. Components of an Enterprise Architecture.

A Comparison of the Toolkit and the Zachman Framework.

Critical Success Factors.

A Word about Integration.

How This Book Is Organized.

Connecting Architecture to the Business.

The Business Framework.

Describing the Business Current State-Collecting Key Facts.

Suggested Exercise.

Another Approach to Describing the Current State.

Analyzing the Business Current State.

Using Assessment Indicators.

Environmental Scan.

Suggested Exercise.

Using Process Flows.

Constructing the Business Target State.

Using Assessment Indicators.

Using Process Flows.

Digging Down.

Suggested Exercise.

Analyzing the Target State-Identifying Gaps and Opportunities.

Analyze the Target State.

First Approach.

Second Approach.

Suggested Exercise.

Integration.

Principles.

The IT (Architecture) Framework.

Defining Principles.

CDCo IT Principles.

Suggested Exercise.

Architecture Models.

Setting the Context for Architecture Models.

Ground Rules For Modeling.

Rule #1 Agree on a set of standard components.

Rule #2 Use a standard representation scheme.

Rule #3 Set a scope.

Rule #4 Determine the level of detail.

Rule #5 Define the state to be modeled.

Rule #6 Define the environment.

Building Architecture Models.

Level 0 Current State Model.

Considerations for Assessing Current State Architecture.

Level 0 Target State Model.

Architecture Strategies.

Level 1 Model.

Level n Models.

Suggested Exercise.

Architecture-Based Logical Models.

Translating Architecture to Conceptual Data Model.

Inventory.

Set a Scope.

Determine the Level of Detail.

Define the State.

Define the Environment.

Agree on a Format.

Suggested Exercise.

Standards.

Ground Rules for Setting Standards.

Establish Ownership.

Define the State.

Define the Environment.

Define the Level of Detail.

Setting Function/Application Standards.

Selecting Technology Standards.

Setting People Standards.

Setting Data Standards.

The Good.

The Bad.

The Ugly.

The Payoff.

Then and Now.

Some Good Examples.

Suggested Exercise.

Integration-Again.

Projects.

The Framework for Implementation.

Translating Architecture to Projects.

Identifying Architecture Projects.

Selecting Architecture Projects.

Data-Driven Approach to Project Selection.

Apply Viability Criteria.

Suggested Exercise.

Six Strategies for Containing Project Scope.

First Things First.

Use It or Lose It.

No Data before Its Time.

Smaller Is Better.

Just in Time.

Something New under the Sun.

The Project Brief.

Suggested Exercise.

Summary.

Establishing Metrics.

Measuring Architecture Effectiveness.

Setting Business Objectives.

Setting Project Objectives.

Setting Architecture Objectives.

Measuring Architecture Value.

Benchmark Data.

Sample Data.

Suggested Exercise.

Presenting the Plan for Buy-in.

Gaining Executive Support.

Creating a Presentation-Level Architecture Model.

Gaining Support from IT.

Suggested Exercise.

Compliance and Other Key Processes.

Architecture Governance Process.

Architecture Development Process.

When Should Architecture Be Developed?

Where Is the Architecture?

SDLC Process.

People.

Human Resources Issues for Architecture.

Evaluating HR Practices for the Architecture Team.

Staffing the Architecture Team.

Key Architecture Roles.

Data Management Roles.

Organization Structure.

Putting It Together.

A Final Word.

Business Framework Interview Outlines.

Group 1 Questions.

Group 2 Questions.

Group 3 Questions.

Business Framework Data Collection Documents.

Architecture Data Collection Documents.

Sample Architecture Principles.

Enterprise IT Principles.

Example Architecture Strategies.

Application Development Strategies.

Data Management Strategies.

Technology Strategies.

Example Target Application Architecture Patterns.

Estimating IT Work Effort for Projects.

Sample Scale for Estimating IT Effort.

Add New Code.

Change Script-Wording-Only.

Create New List.

Modify Existing Script.

Add New Code-Code Contains Intelligence Used by Applications.

Fix Small Bug.

Create New Report.

Create Customer List.

Modify Existing Applications-More Than One Module.

Add New Function and Interfaces.

Reorganize Work across Functions-Existing and New.

New Process, Applications, Data Store, and Cross-Function Data Movement.

Sample Current Architecture Cost Data Collection.

Current Cost of Projects Survey.

Sample Job Descriptions.

Data Steward.

Key Functions.

Expected Outputs.

Key Skills/Knowledge.

Data Architect.

Key Functions.

Expected Outputs.

Key Skills/Knowledge.

Data Acquisition.

Key Functions.

Expected Outputs.

Key Skills/Knowledge.

Common Data Services.

Key Functions.

Expected Outputs.

Key Skills/Knowledge.

Data Architecture Associate.

Key Functions.

Expected Outputs.

Key Skills/Knowledge.

Enterprise Architecture Toolkit: 3-Day Workshop.

Course Description.

Course Overview.

Target Audience.

Course Approach.

Course Outline.

Course Logistics.

Conducting Enterprise Architecture Assessment: 2-Day Workshop.

Course Description.

Course Overview.

Target Audience.

Course Approach.

Course Objectives.

Course Outline.

Course Logistics.

Index.

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Preface

Preface

There were two factors that motivated me to write this book. One was that, while those of us who were data geeks were always passionate about business information, our opinions were not always popular. Today, meaningful, accurate information is the lifeblood of most organizations. In fact, in many cases, information is not just critical to the business-it is the business. Therefore, the need to plan how data is collected, flows through the organization, and is transformed into information the business can access, is vital. That need is increasingly recognized, not only by CIOs, but also by CEOs and even by the non-IT world at large. I was pleasantly surprised to read the following in an unlikely source:

Halfway through the last century, information became a thing. It became a commodity, a force-a quantity to be measured and analyzed. It's what our world runs on. Information is the gold and the fuel. (James Glieck, "Bit Player," The New York Times Magazine, December 30, 2001)

The second factor that motivated me to write this book was that, just as a converted smoker becomes overly eager about the smoking habits of those around him, I have had my own religious experience. Having been honed (some would say charred) on the altar of architecture, I am eager to share both my suffering and my successes. Having learned many lessons the hard way, I am anxious to help you benefit from those lessons.

This book, therefore, is a very practical guide to enterprise architecture. Many fine minds have addressed architecture theory from the podium and the bookshelf. The purpose of this book is to help architects, IT planners, and analysts find ways to implement those theories, and to spare you as much pain as possible in the process.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Q. Is this just more theory?

A. No. The Toolkit is very practical-it is based on our learnings as chief architects and consultants (and in both cases, compensation was determined by success).

2. Q. How can you ensure that business needs are addressed in the architecture?

A. Having wrestled with this problem, we developed a business framework and methods for translating business needs to architecture outputs. The Toolkit also addresses financial considerations and measurement development to tightly link architecture with the business.

3. Q. How does this approach relate to the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture?

A. The Toolkit architecture framework produced by our company, infomajic, is consistent with, but simpler than, the Zachman Framework. It focuses on the upper left-hand rows and provides methods for filling in the cells. It also addresses strategies for implementing target architecture. The Toolkit is very practical-it's based on experience. We'll do a more complete comparison with the Zachman Framework a little later.

4. Q. How do you create architecture outputs?

A. We discuss what the critical outputs are-principles, models, inventory, and standards-and include specific methods for developing them. Examples and exercises allow you to practice using them.

A. Yes. The Toolkit includes an implementation framework, which addresses strategies and practices for successfully gaining business and IT buy-in, and includes descriptions of key architecture processes and roles.

6. Q. How can you translate conceptual architecture into reality?

A. The Toolkit includes a step-by-step approach to translating architecture into manageable projects-how to identify, select, and downsize architecture projects.

A. The Toolkit includes descriptions of key architecture roles.

8. Q. How can you measure/cost justify architecture?

A. The Toolkit addresses financial considerations and measurement development.

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 13, 2004

    Practical Approach

    This book provides a straightforward approach to IT architecture and a very practical framework for implementation.

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