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It’s a Crime: Women and Justice, Fourth Edition, is an all-inclusive work on women and issues of justice. The most complete, up-to-date text available, it compiles over 50 essays that explore issues such as: the history of women’s issues; women and the law; women and violence; women and health problems; gender and race, women and prison; women and criminal justice professions; women and terrorism; and girls and delinquency. Written by Rosalyn Muraskin and leading scholars in the field, this edition highlights over thirty new essays and presents a thought-provoking dialogue concerning the major tribulations women face in the criminal justice system.
|Ch. 1||"Ain't I a woman?"||2|
|Ch. 2||Taming women and nature : the criminal justice system and the creation of crime in Salem Village||13|
|Ch. 3||Feminist theories : are they needed?||31|
|Ch. 4||"Mule-headed slave women refusing to take foolishness from anybody" : a prelude to future accommodation, resistance, and criminality||44|
|Ch. 5||Perpetrators and victims : maternal filicide and mental illness||66|
|Ch. 6||Postpartum syndrome and the legal system||103|
|Ch. 7||The effects of specialized supervision on women probationers : an evaluation of the POWER program||127|
|Ch. 8||Abortion : is it a right to privacy or compulsory childbearing?||146|
|Ch. 9||Fatal attraction in Arizona : Glenn Close on trial?||160|
|Ch. 10||The crime of rape||181|
|Ch. 11||Forced sexual intercourse in dating : testing a model||187|
|Ch. 12||Guiding philosophies for rape crisis centers||217|
|Ch. 13||The historical role of and views toward victims and the evolution of prosecution policies in domestic violence||226|
|Ch. 14||The impact of law enforcement policies on victims of intimate partner violence||238|
|Ch. 15||The limitations of current approaches to domestic violence||261|
|Ch. 16||When the victim recants : the impact of expert witness testimony in prosecution of battering cases||277|
|Ch. 17||Beyond shelter : expanding spheres of influence for reducing violence against women - a case study of Hubbard House in Jacksonville, Florida||290|
|Ch. 18||Resistance, compliance, and the climate of violence : understanding battered women's contacts with police||299|
|Ch. 19||Battered immigrant women's domestic violence dynamics and legal protections||314|
|Ch. 20||Sexual harassment and the law : violence against women||333|
|Ch. 21||Legal and social welfare response to substance abuse during pregnancy : recent developments||346|
|Ch. 22||Living and dying with HIV/AIDS : the "inside" experience of women in prison||363|
|Ch. 23||Women, AIDS, and the criminal justice system||379|
|Ch. 24||Systemic white racism and the brutalization of executed black women in the United States||394|
|Ch. 25||African American Ph.D. women in criminal justice higher education : equal impact or the myth of equality?||444|
|Ch. 26||Factors affecting the internal and external relationships of African-American policewomen within an urban police department||452|
|Ch. 27||Victims of domestic stalking : a comparison of black and white females||470|
|Ch. 28||The daily adult interactive learning experience program : evaluating the needs of lower-functional female adult offenders in prison||484|
|Ch. 29||Disparate treatment in correctional facilities : women incarcerated||493|
|Ch. 30||From the inside : patterns of coping and adjustment among women in prison||507|
|Ch. 31||"Love doesn't solve all problems" : incarcerated women and their significant others||528|
|Ch. 32||Women in prison : vengeful equity||542|
|Ch. 33||The reentry process for women||564|
|Ch. 34||Dying to get out : the execution of females in the post-Furman era of the death penalty in the United States||572|
|Ch. 35||Women on death row||592|
|Ch. 36||Home confinement and intensive supervision as unsafe havens : the unintended consequences for women||608|
|Ch. 37||The impact of women on the police subculture||626|
|Ch. 38||Women in state policing : an assessment||637|
|Ch. 39||Early policing in the United States : "help wanted - women need not apply!"||651|
|Ch. 40||Who's afraid of Johnny Rotten? : assessing female correctional staff's perceived fear and risk of victimization in a juvenile male institution||661|
|Ch. 41||From the bassinet to the bar : the effect of motherhood on women's advancement in the legal profession||679|
|Ch. 42||The dislike of female offenders among correctional officers : a need for specialized training||689|
|Ch. 43||Women on the bench : mavericks, peacemakers, or something else? : research questions, issues, and suggestions||707|
|Ch. 44||Three strikes and it's women who are out : the hidden consequences for women of criminal justice policy reforms||723|
|Ch. 45||Femmes fatales : the evolution and significance of female involvement in terrorist networks and suicide bombings||736|
|Ch. 46||Women's attitudes toward the threat of terror||758|
|Ch. 47||Images of serial murderers among college students||765|
|Ch. 48||The impact of gender on juvenile justice decisions||782|
|Ch. 49||Developing gender-specific services for delinquency prevention : understanding risk and resiliency||792|
|Ch. 50||Gender differences in delinquency career types and the transition to adult crime||820|
At the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848, women gathered together to declare that "we hold these truths to be self evident that all men and women emphasis mine are created equal." In the Declaration of Sentiments, Elizabeth Stanton pointed out that "the history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world." It went into specifics:
These were strong words. This was the status quo for women in the United States in 1848. In the words of Elizabeth Stanton: "Now in view of this entire disenfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation—in view of the unjust laws . . . and because women feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of these United States." That was then. The movement produced few results. Women did not receive the right to vote until the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution early in the twentieth century.
In the words of Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg: "I think about how much we owe to the women who went before us—legions of women, some known but many unknown. I applaud the bravery and resilience of those who helped all of us—you and me—to be here today" (1998).
The potential for progress in the realm of women's issues and the criminal justice system is possible because of the continuous battles that women have continued to fight in striving for something called equality or parity of treatment. The history of women indicates that gender should not be a factor in determining the legal rights of women and men, but it has been. Dating back to 1776, when this country was being formed and the laws were being written by men, it was Abigail Adams, in a letter to her husband, John, who insisted that if in the new American Constitution, "care and attention are not paid to the ladies," they will foment a rebellion. Women have been fomenting that rebellion ever since. The reader will find that the struggle is not over, even though women may have a voice and are being heard.
In this work we talk about women as slaves; witchcraft; affirmative action; disparate treatment of women; sexual harassment; crimes of violence; rights of privacy; women, drugs, and AIDS; women in prison; women as victims of crime; women in criminal justice professions; women and crime; and girls and delinquency.
The chapters that follow are written primarily by scholars and researchers in the field. This third edition, as the previous two, deals with the most up to-date-issues and policies that pertain to women as they are affected and treated by the criminal justice system as well as those basic rights believed to be most fundamental by all. The material and topics provide the best there is as they concern the gender-based problems we face in society today.
In the words of the late Ted Alleman (with whom I worked on the first edition): "Those who see the world entirely from a man's perspective and are simply blind to the existence and influence of women are said to be androcentric in their thinking." Traditional literature ignores the role of women. There are those who will deprecate and/or ignore a woman's point of view entirely. For women, public denigration is not socially acceptable. Personal attacks should be a thing of the past.
Today, women and girls live the legacy of women's rights. It is my passionate hope that this work will result in more meaningful and thought-provoking dialogue concerning the important problems women face in the criminal justice system. It's a crime, if we do not realize the importance of the role that women play. Basic human rights are fundamental to all, women and men alike. The raw material is presented in this text—hopefully, you will make it come alive.
Long Island University