Java Concurrency in Practice
  • Java Concurrency in Practice
  • Java Concurrency in Practice

Java Concurrency in Practice

4.5 2
by Brian Goetz, Tim Peierls, Joshua Bloch, Joseph Bowbeer

ISBN-10: 0321349601

ISBN-13: 9780321349606

Pub. Date: 05/23/2006

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

"I was fortunate indeed to have worked with a fantastic team on the design and implementation of the concurrency features added to the Java platform in Java 5.0 and Java 6. Now this same team provides the best explanation yet of these new features, and of concurrency in general. Concurrency is no longer a subject for advanced users only. Every Java developer should

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"I was fortunate indeed to have worked with a fantastic team on the design and implementation of the concurrency features added to the Java platform in Java 5.0 and Java 6. Now this same team provides the best explanation yet of these new features, and of concurrency in general. Concurrency is no longer a subject for advanced users only. Every Java developer should read this book."
--Martin Buchholz
JDK Concurrency Czar, Sun Microsystems

"For the past 30 years, computer performance has been driven by Moore's Law; from now on, it will be driven by Amdahl's Law. Writing code that effectively exploits multiple processors can be very challenging. Java Concurrency in Practice provides you with the concepts and techniques needed to write safe and scalable Java programs for today's--and tomorrow's--systems."
--Doron Rajwan
Research Scientist, Intel Corp

"This is the book you need if you're writing--or designing, or debugging, or maintaining, or contemplating--multithreaded Java programs. If you've ever had to synchronize a method and you weren't sure why, you owe it to yourself and your users to read this book, cover to cover."
--Ted Neward
Author of Effective Enterprise Java

"Brian addresses the fundamental issues and complexities of concurrency with uncommon clarity. This book is a must-read for anyone who uses threads and cares about performance."
--Kirk Pepperdine

"This book covers a very deep and subtle topic in a very clear and concise way, making it the perfect Java Concurrency reference manual. Each page is filled with the problems (and solutions!) that programmers struggle with every day. Effectively exploiting concurrency is becoming more and more important now that Moore's Law is delivering more cores but not faster cores, and this book will show you how to do it."
--Dr. Cliff Click
Senior Software Engineer, Azul Systems

"I have a strong interest in concurrency, and have probably written more thread deadlocks and made more synchronization mistakes than most programmers. Brian's book is the most readable on the topic of threading and concurrency in Java, and deals with this difficult subject with a wonderful hands-on approach. This is a book I am recommending to all my readers of The Java Specialists' Newsletter, because it is interesting, useful, and relevant to the problems facing Java developers today."
--Dr. Heinz Kabutz
The Java Specialists' Newsletter

"I've focused a career on simplifying simple problems, but this book ambitiously and effectively works to simplify a complex but critical subject: concurrency. Java Concurrency in Practice is revolutionary in its approach, smooth and easy in style, and timely in its delivery--it's destined to be a very important book."
--Bruce Tate
Author of Beyond Java

" Java Concurrency in Practice is an invaluable compilation of threading know-how for Java developers. I found reading this book intellectually exciting, in part because it is an excellent introduction to Java's concurrency API, but mostly because it captures in a thorough and accessible way expert knowledge on threading not easily found elsewhere."
--Bill Venners
Author of Inside the Java Virtual Machine

Threads are a fundamental part of the Java platform. As multicore processors become the norm, using concurrency effectively becomes essential for building high-performance applications. Java SE 5 and 6 are a huge step forward for the development of concurrent applications, with improvements to the Java Virtual Machine to support high-performance, highly scalable concurrent classes and a rich set of new concurrency building blocks. In Java Concurrency in Practice , the creators of these new facilities explain not only how they work and how to use them, but also the motivation and design patterns behind them.

However, developing, testing, and debugging multithreaded programs can still be very difficult; it is all too easy to create concurrent programs that appear to work, but fail when it matters most: in production, under heavy load. Java Concurrency in Practice arms readers with both the theoretical underpinnings and concrete techniques for building reliable, scalable, maintainable concurrent applications. Rather than simply offering an inventory of concurrency APIs and mechanisms, it provides design rules, patterns, and mental models that make it easier to build concurrent programs that are both correct and performant.

This book covers:

  • Basic concepts of concurrency and thread safety
  • Techniques for building and composing thread-safe classes
  • Using the concurrency building blocks in java.util.concurrent
  • Performance optimization dos and don'ts
  • Testing concurrent programs
  • Advanced topics such as atomic variables, nonblocking algorithms, and the Java Memory Model

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Table of Contents

Listings xii
Preface xvii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1.1 A (very) brief history of concurrency 1
1.2 Benefits of threads 3
1.3 Risks of threads 5
1.4 Threads are everywhere 9

Part I: Fundamentals 13

Chapter 2: Thread Safety 15

2.1 What is thread safety? 17
2.2 Atomicity 19
2.3 Locking 23
2.4 Guarding state with locks 27
2.5 Liveness and performance 29

Chapter 3: Sharing Objects 33

3.1 Visibility 33
3.2 Publication and escape 39
3.3 Thread confinement 42
3.4 Immutability 46
3.5 Safepublication 49

Chapter 4: Composing Objects 55

4.1 Designing a thread-safe class 55
4.2 Instance confinement 58
4.3 Delegating thread safety 62
4.4 Adding functionality to existing thread-safe classes 71
4.5 Documenting synchronization policies 74

Chapter 5: Building Blocks 79

5.1 Synchronized collections 79
5.2 Concurrent collections 84
5.3 Blocking queues and the producer-consumer pattern 87
5.4 Blocking and interruptible methods 92
5.5 Synchronizers 94
5.6 Building an efficient, scalable result cache 101

Part II: Structuring Concurrent Applications 111

Chapter 6: Task Execution 113

6.1 Executing tasks in threads 113
6.2 The Executor framework 117
6.3 Finding exploitable parallelism 123

Chapter 7: Cancellation and Shutdown 135

7.1 Task cancellation 135
7.2 Stopping a thread-based service 150
7.3 Handling abnormal thread termination 161
7.4 JVM shutdown 164

Chapter 8: Applying Thread Pools 167

8.1 Implicit couplings between tasks and execution policies 167
8.2 Sizing thread pools 170
8.3 Configuring ThreadPoolExecutor 171
8.4 Extending ThreadPoolExecutor 179
8.5 Parallelizing recursive algorithms 181

Chapter 9: GUI Applications 189

9.1 Why are GUIs single-threaded? 189
9.2 Short-running GUI tasks 192
9.3 Long-running GUI tasks 195
9.4 Shared data models 198
9.5 Other forms of single-threaded subsystems 202

Part III: Liveness, Performance, and Testing 203

Chapter 10: Avoiding Liveness Hazards 205

10.1 Deadlock 205
10.2 Avoiding and diagnosing deadlocks 215
10.3 Other liveness hazards 218

Chapter 11: Performance and Scalability 221

11.1 Thinking about performance 221
11.2 Amdahl's law 225
11.3 Costs introduced by threads 229
11.4 Reducing lock contention 232
11.5 Example: Comparing Map performance 242
11.6 Reducing context switch overhead 243

Chapter 12: Testing Concurrent Programs 247

12.1 Testing for correctness 248
12.2 Testing for performance 260
12.3 Avoiding performance testing pitfalls 266
12.4 Complementary testing approaches 270

Part IV: Advanced Topics 275

Chapter 13: Explicit Locks 277

13.1 Lock and ReentrantLock 277
13.2 Performance considerations 282
13.3 Fairness 283
13.4 Choosing between synchronized and ReentrantLock 285
13.5 Read-write locks 286

Chapter 14: Building Custom Synchronizers 291

14.1 Managing state dependence 291
14.2 Using condition queues 298
14.3 Explicit condition objects 306
14.4 Anatomy of a synchronizer 308
14.5 AbstractQueuedSynchronizer 311
14.6 AQS in java.util.concurrent synchronizer classes 314

Chapter15: Atomic Variables and Nonblocking Synchronization 319

15.1 Disadvantages of locking 319
15.2 Hardware support for concurrency 321
15.3 Atomic variable classes 324
15.4 Nonblocking algorithms 329

Chapter 16: The Java Memory Model 337

16.1 What is a memory model, and why would I want one? 337
16.2 Publication 344
16.3 Initialization safety 349

Appendix A: Annotations for Concurrency 353

A.1 Class annotations 353
A.2 Field andmethod annotations 353

Bibliography 355
Index 359

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Java Concurrency in Practice 4.5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 2 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Guest More than 1 year ago
In Sun's official documentation for Java, there are aids on writing explicit multithreading programs. These are ok, as far as they go. But you might find that in an actual non-trivial, non-textbook case, strange things can happen. Deadlocking. Or perhaps low multicore usages. Or ... This book goes way beyond the Sun documentation. It looks at many aspects of concurrency. Including how to make a thread safe class. Which is one of the basic things you need, given that Java is object oriented, and a typical program makes classes specific to its needs. Here, the guidelines are concise, requiring that you focus on defining the class's invariants and the variables that define the state of the class. The book does not seem to explicitly talk about the concept of a finite state machine. But that is essentially what you might want to consider for each of your classes that will have multithreaded access. Also well worth attention is the chapter on multithread performance. Germane with the increasing availability of multicore processors. The chapter has a lucid explanation of the costs of having too many threads. You need to strive to minimise the maximum number of threads in your application. Context switching can be extremely costly in terms of time, and greatly reduce the overall efficiency.