Java Cookbook: Solutions and Examples for Java Developers

Overview

The Java Cookbook is a comprehensive collection of problems, solutions, and practical examples for anyone programming in Java. Developers will find hundreds of tried-and-true Java "recipes" covering all of the major APIs as well as some APIs that aren't as well documented in other Java books.The Java Cookbook, like the bestselling Perl Cookbook, covers a lot of ground, and offers Java developers short, focused pieces of code that can be easily incorporated into other programs. The idea is to focus on things that ...

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Overview

The Java Cookbook is a comprehensive collection of problems, solutions, and practical examples for anyone programming in Java. Developers will find hundreds of tried-and-true Java "recipes" covering all of the major APIs as well as some APIs that aren't as well documented in other Java books.The Java Cookbook, like the bestselling Perl Cookbook, covers a lot of ground, and offers Java developers short, focused pieces of code that can be easily incorporated into other programs. The idea is to focus on things that are useful, tricky, or both. The book includes code segments covering many specialized APIs—like media and servlets—and should serve as a great "jumping-off place" for Java developers who want to get started in areas outside of their specialization.The book provides quick solutions to particular problems that can be incorporated into other programs, but that aren't usually programs in and of themselves.

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
The Barnes & Noble Review
If you're a Java programmer, why reinvent the wheel? By now, someone has created elegant solutions for many of the most troublesome problems you're likely to face. That someone is Ian Darwin, whose Java Cookbook offers nearly 900 pages of rip-and-run code snippets, covering everything from regular expressions to RMI, from data structures to servlets.

Darwin's modeled his book on O'Reilly's legendary Perl Cookbook. That's a very high standard he's set for himself -- and he's lived up to it. His range is extraordinary and includes plenty of examples for the hottest areas of Java development.

Working with XML for the first time? You'll find concise, easy-to-borrow code for the tasks you'll need to perform right away: parsing XML with SAX and/or DOM, verifying structure, generating new XML, and transforming XML with XSLT. Building server-side web apps? There's code for setting cookies, tracking sessions, presenting dynamic pages, even generating PDF from a servlet. (In this chapter, Darwin even throws in Java code for a skeleton "news portal" site, à la Slashdot.)

Java Cookbook contains practical solutions for areas of Java you may have barely touched. Need to mail-enable your apps? Work more effectively with threads? Call Java from native code? Use introspection? Internationalize your software? Read or write compressed files? Make the most of Java's underutilized pattern-matching capabilities? It's all here. If you don't have time to waste, waste no time getting Java Cookbook. (Bill Camarda)

Bill Camarda is a consultant, writer, and web/multimedia content developer with nearly 20 years' experience in helping technology companies deploy and market advanced software, computing, and networking products and services. His 15 books include Special Edition Using Word 2000 and Upgrading & Fixing Networks For Dummies®, Second Edition.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780596001704
  • Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/1/2001
  • Series: One-Off Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Pages: 888
  • Product dimensions: 9.00 (w) x 6.94 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Ian F. Darwin has worked in the computer industry for three decades. He wrote the freeware file(1) command used on Linux and BSD and is the author of Checking C Programs with Lint, Java Cookbook, and over seventy articles and courses on C and Unix. In addition to programming and consulting, Ian teaches Unix, C, and Java for Learning Tree International, one of the world's largest technical training companies.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 18: Web Server Java: Servlets and JSP

Introduction

This chapter covers Web Server Java, but you won't find anything about writing CGI programs in Java here. Although it would be entirely possible to do so, it would not be efficient. The whole notion of CGI programs is pretty much passe. Every time a CGI program is invoked, the web server has to create a new heavyweight process in which to run it; this is inefficient. If it's interpreted in Java, the program has to be translated into machine code each time; this is even more inefficient.

Today's trend is toward building functionality into the web server: Microsoft ASP, PHP3, Java servlets, and JavaServer Pages? (JSP1) are examples of this. None of these normally requires a separate process to be created for each request; the Java-based solutions run in a thread (see Chapter 24) inside the web server, and the Java bytecode need only be translated into machine code once in a long while, assuming a just-in-time (JIT) runtime system. Naturally, this book concentrates on the Java solutions.

We'll use two examples in this chapter. Consider the task of displaying a web page with five randomly chosen integer numbers (lottery players love this sort of thing). The Java code you need is simple:


// Part of file netweb/servlets_jsp/FiveInts.java 

Random r = new Random(  ); 

for (int i=0; i<5; i++) 
 
    System.out.println(r.nextInt(  )); 

But of course you can't just run that and save its output into an HTML file because you want each person seeing the page to get a different set of numbers. If you wanted to mix that into a web page, you'd have to write code to println( ) a bit of HTML. This would be a Java servlet.

The servlet code could get messy, however, since you'd have to escape double quotes inside strings. Worse, if the webmaster wanted to change the HTML, he'd have to approach the programmer's sanctified source code and plead to have it changed. Imagine if you could give the webmaster a page containing a bit of HTML and the Java code you need, and have it magically compiled into Java whenever the HTML was changed. Imagine no longer, says the marketer, for that capability is here now, with JavaServer Pages.

The second example is a dictionary (list of terms); I'll present this both as a servlet and as a JSP.

I won't talk about how you get your servlet engine installed, nor exactly how you install your servlet. If you don't already have a servlet engine, though, I'd recommend downloading Tomcat from http://jakarta.apache.org. Tomcat is the official reference implementation--so designated by Sun--for the servlet and JSP standard. It is also (as you can infer from the URL) the official servlet engine for the ever-popular Apache web server.

First Servlet: Generating an HTML Page

Problem

You want a servlet to present some information to the user.

Solution

Override the HttpServlet method service( ), or doGet( )/doPost( ).

Discussion

The abstract class javax.servlet.Servlet is designed for those who wish to structure an entire web server around the servlet notion. For example, in Sun's Java Web Server, there is a servlet subclass for handling plain HTML pages, another for processing CGI programs, and so on. Unless you are writing your own web server, you will probably not extend from this class, but rather its subclass HttpServlet, in the package javax.servlet.http. This class has a method:


public void service(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp)

throws ServletException, IOException; 

The service method is passed two arguments, request and response. The request contains all the information about the request from the browser, including its input stream should you need to read data. The response argument contains information to get the response back to the browser, including the output stream to write your response back to the user.

But the web has several HTTP methods for passing data into a web page. Unimportant for plain HTML pages, this distinction becomes of interest when processing forms, i.e., web pages with fill-in-the-blank or choice items. Briefly, the GET method of HTTP is used to pass all the form data appended to the URL. GET URLs look like this, for example:


http://www.acmewidgets.com/cgi-bin/ordercgi?productId=123456 

They have the advantage that the user can bookmark them, avoiding having to fill in the form multiple times. But there is a limit of about 1KB on the overall length of the URL. Since this must be a single string, there is an encoding that allows spaces, tabs, colons, and other characters to be presented as two hexadecimal digits: %20 is the character hexadecimal 20, or the ASCII space character. The POST method, by contrast, passes any parameters as input on the socket connection, after the HTTP headers.

The default implementation of the service( ) method in the HttpServlet class figures out which method was used to invoke the servlet. It dispatches to the correct method: doGet( ) if a GET request, doPost( ) if a POST request, etc., passing along the request and response arguments. So while you can, in theory, override the service( ) method, it's more common (and officially recommended) to override either doGet( ), doPost( ), or both.

The simplest HttpServlet is something like Example 18-1....

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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Getting Started: Compiling, Running, and Debugging
  • Chapter 2: Interacting with the Environment
  • Chapter 3: Strings and Things
  • Chapter 4: Pattern Matching with Regular Expressions
  • Chapter 5: Numbers
  • Chapter 6: Dates and Times
  • Chapter 7: Structuring Data with Java
  • Chapter 8: Object-Oriented Techniques
  • Chapter 9: Input and Output
  • Chapter 10: Directory and Filesystem Operations
  • Chapter 11: Programming Serial and Parallel Ports
  • Chapter 12: Graphics and Sound
  • Chapter 13: Graphical User Interfaces
  • Chapter 14: Internationalization and Localization
  • Chapter 15: Network Clients
  • Chapter 16: Server-Side Java: Sockets
  • Chapter 17: Network Clients II: Applets and Web Clients
  • Chapter 18: Web Server Java: Servlets and JSP
  • Chapter 19: Java and Electronic Mail
  • Chapter 20: Database Access
  • Chapter 21: XML
  • Chapter 22: Distributed Java: RMI
  • Chapter 23: Packages and Packaging
  • Chapter 24: Threaded Java
  • Chapter 25: Introspection, or “A Class Named Class”
  • Chapter 26: Using Java with Other Languages
  • Chapter 27: Afterword
  • Colophon

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Sort by: Showing all of 4 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted February 19, 2003

    This book has earned a valued place on my reference shelf

    The Java Cookbook is a collection of hundreds of solutions to problems that Java programmers frequently face. The book assumes that the reader is familiar with Java. The book aims at the Java 2 platform. The recipes range from simple tasks to entire programs that for example demonstrate how to use the incorporate email into your application. The book is organized in a simple, clear and easy to read style. The first couple of chapters provide an an introduction to compiling, running, debugging and interacting with the environment then goes on to discussing the core API's like Strings, Arrays, Wrappers, Files I/O, Collections, AWT etc. before moving on to advanced topics like server side Java, database JDBC access, RMI, mutithreaded applications, native code interactions, XML applications, Enterprise Java (J2EE) etc. Overall a very good book and handy reference for development with Java. However, the book does provide lop sided coverage providing lots of coverage in certain areas like JavaMail but very little on JSP, Servlets, XML and almost nothing on Web Services. J2EE and other server side developers are sure to be disappointed. There is negligible discussion on design patterns. However, no other single book does as much to demonstrate with examples Java's capabilities in such a nutshell. A handy reference to have in your shelf.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 7, 2002

    Excellent reference

    I had been searching for a good book that served as a reference for short snippets of code, similar to what ¿The Visual Basic 6 Black Book¿ did for VB and my understanding of it. I had seen ¿Java Black Book¿ at bookstores, but really was hesitant on purchasing it after seeing an unkind review for it. After mentioning this to someone, he loaned me his copy of Java Cookbook so that I would see what it was like. A few days later, I was returning his copy because I had already obtained my own. I was sold!!<P> There is tremendous amounts of detail in this book, starting from the author¿s own package of goodies, to small routines adapted from other texts on programming (and giving due credit to these references), to extended examples of code that solve a myriad of problems. All of the code is downloadable from the `Net. The table of contents, 5.5 pages long, lists a condensed one-line description for each piece of code in the book.<P> But the book is not only code. The descriptions themselves of the code are practical and helpful as well, explaining reasons behind design decisions for certain structures. I¿ve created my own version of some of his programs (a Roman-numeral class he develops seems to do well in writing them out, but not at reading them. Strange topic to adapt, but I just wanted to challenge myself.) and found that I like mine better, but I¿d probably never have gotten around to doing such until I saw his routines.<P> All in all, this book is a prize possession, and one I¿d like to recommend very heartily.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 15, 2001

    Java Cookbook: An Excellent Read

    The Java Cookbook is arguably the best book ever written on the Java programming language. It provides an in depth discussion of most of the technologies available in the Java programming environment without bogging the reader down in too much minutiae. It is an excellent text for introductory computer science courses. It is also an indispensable reference manual for experienced Java programmers.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 16, 2001

    Java To Go!

    If I¿d had this book two years ago, I would have saved myself weeks of work. As a software developer of some twenty years, I find that the ever-present problem of `looking things up¿ is the major factor that impedes progress. I¿ve spent hours trying to track down `how-to¿ solutions only to find in the end all that¿s required is a few elusive lines of code. Well, the Java Cookbook is filled with such code along with insightful explanations. I¿m impressed by how comprehensive the coverage is: 26 chapters covering such things as file i/o, Swing, RMI, applets, Java Servlets, JSP, e-mail, JDBC, XML, multi-threading¿ At 48 pages, the index is HUGE, just what you need to look things up! The author assumes you know Java but not as well as you ought to! He explains all those things that I really should know but I never get around to figuring out properly: the correct handling of dates/times, internationalization, floating point numbers, etc. Thankfully, the book is concise and easy to read so you can quickly plug a bunch of gaps in your knowledge by browsing over chapters. This book will quickly pay for itself. Enjoy.

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