The Jews And The Expansion Of Europe To The West, 1450-1800

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This impressive volume shows that the history of minorities - specifically that of a diaspora - can open up completely new perspectives on the 'great' questions and developments of general history." · Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft

"... this magnificent and much-needed volume ... is remarkably free, factual or interpretive." · American Jewish History

"The age-old tension between value-free history and history with a moral is implicit throughout this fine volume." · The Jerusalem Report

"A substantial contribution to the scholarship on Indian [Native-American]-European relations ... Specialists will find new nuggets to challenge existing interpretations, while readers new to the topic will find useful introductions and more detailed case studies that give some idea of the current issues under scholarly debate. All readers will experience the benefits of looking at one topic comparatively across vast amounts of space and time." · Itinerario

Jews and Judaism played a significant role in the history of the expansion of Europe to the west as well as in the history of the economic, social, and religious development of the New World. They played an important role in the discovery, colonization, and eventually exploitation of the resources of the New World. Alone among the European peoples who came to the Americas in the colonial period, Jews were dispersed throughout the hemisphere; indeed, they were the only cohesive European ethnic or religious group that lived under both Catholic and Protestant regimes, which makes their study particularly fruitful from a comparative perspective. As distinguished from other religious or ethnic minorities, the Jewish struggle was not only against an overpowering and fierce nature but also against the political regimes that ruled over the various colonies of the Americas and often looked unfavorably upon the establishment and tleration of Jewish communities in their own territory. Jews managed to survive and occasionally to flourish against all odds, and their history in the Americas is one of the more fascinating chapters in the early modern history of European expansion.

Paolo Bernardini was a Fellow of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study and of the Royal Historical Society. Currently he is Resident Director of the Padova Program, Boston University. Norman Fiering is the author of two books that were awarded the Merle Curti Prize for Intellectual History by the Organization of American Historians and of numerous articles. Since 1983, he has been Director of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University.

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Table of Contents

List of illustrations
A Milder Colonization: Jewish Expansion to the New World, and the New World in the Jewish Consciousness of the Early Modern Era 1
I The Old New World: Ideas and Representations of America in European and Jewish Consciousness and Intellectual History
1 Biblical History and the Americas: The Legend of Solomon's Ophir, 1492-1591 27
2 Knowledge of Newly Discovered Lands among Jewish Communities of Europe (from 1492 to the Thirty Years' War) 47
3 Jewish Scientists and the Origin of Modern Navigation 73
4 The Hope of the Netherlands: Menasseh ben Israel and the Dutch Idea of America 86
5 Israel in America: The Wanderings of the Lost Ten Tribes from Mikveigh Yisrael to Timothy McVeigh 107
II Identity at Stake: Concealing, Preserving, and Reshaping Judaism among the Conversos and Marranos of Spanish America
6 New Christian, Marrano, Jew 125
7 Marrano Religiosity in Hispanic America in the Seventeenth Century 149
8 Crypto-Jews and the Mexican Holy Office in the Seventeenth Century 172
9 The Participation of New Christians and Crypto-Jews in the Conquest, Colonization, and Trade of Spanish America, 1521-1660 186
10 Crypto-Jews and New Christians in Colonial Peru and Chile 203
III The Luso-Brazilian Experience: Jews in Portuguese Latin America
11 Marranos and the Inquisition: On the Gold Route in Minas Gerais, Brazil 215
12 Outcasts from the Kingdom: The Inquisition and the Banishment of New Christians to Brazil 242
IV From Toleration to Expulsion: Identity, Trade, and Struggle for Survival in France and Caribbean French America
13 The Portuguese Jewish Nation of Saint-Esprit-les-Bayonne: The American Dimension 255
14 Atlantic Trade and Sephardim Merchants in Eighteenth-Century France: The Case of Bordeaux 268
15 Jewish Settlements in the French Colonies in the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Cayenne) and the "Black Code" 287
16 New Christians/"New Whites": Sephardic Jews, Free People of Color, and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue, 1760-1789 314
V Blossoming in Another World: The Jews and the Jewish Communities in Dutch America
17 The Jews of Dutch America 335
18 The Jews in Suriname and Curacao 350
19 An Atlantic Perspective on the Jewish Struggle for Rights and Opportunities in Brazil, New Netherland, and New York 369
20 Antecedents and Remnants of Jodensavanne: The Synagogues and Cemeteries of the First Permanent Plantation Settlement of New World Jews 394
VI "The Brokers of the World": American Jews, New Christians, and International Trade
21 Jews and New Christians in the Atlantic Slave Trade 439
22 New Christians and Jews in the Sugar Trade, 1550-1750: Two Centuries of Development of the Atlantic Economy 471
23 New Christians as Sugar Cultivators and Traders in the Portuguese Atlantic, 1450-1800 485
24 The Jewish Moment and the Two Expansion Systems in the Atlantic, 1580-1650 501
VII The Jews in Colonial British America
25 The Jews in British America 519
Notes on Contributors 532
Name Index 537
Place Index 554
Subject Index 561
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