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John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture

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John Marshall offers an extensive study of late seventeenth-century practices of religious intolerance and toleration in England, Ireland, France, Piedmont and the Netherlands and of the arguments which John Locke and his associates made in defence of 'universal religious toleration'. He analyzes early modern and early Enlightenment discussions of toleration; debates over toleration for Jews and Muslims as well as for Christians; the limits of toleration for the intolerant, atheists, 'libertines' and 'sodomites'; and the complex relationships between intolerance and resistance theories including Locke's own Treatises.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Any intellectual historian concerned with the social and intellectual framework of toleration in the period, or with the early Enlightenment more broadly, is well served by this magisterial treatment...Marshall's scholarship is immense contribution to Lockean and late seventeenth-century scholarship." -History of Political Thought
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Product Details

Meet the Author

John Marshall is Professor of History at The Johns Hopkins University. He is the author of John Locke: Resistance, Religion, and Responsibility (1994).

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Table of Contents

Part I. Catholic and Protestant Intolerance in the Later Seventeenth Century: 1. Catholic intolerance, its representations in England c.1678-86, and Locke's Second Treatise; 2. Catholic intolerance and the significance of its representations in England, Ireland, and the Netherlands c.1687-92; 3. Protestant religious intolerance in England c.1660-c.1700; 4. Religious toleration and intolerance in the Netherlands and in the Huguenot community in exile; Part II. Justifications of Intolerance and the Emergence of Arguments for Toleration: Section 1: Justifications of Intolerance to c.1660: 5. Patristic and medieval sources of early modern intolerance: anathematising heretics and schismatics as seditious, pestilential poisoners, 'libertines' and 'sodomites'; 6. Heresy and schism, sedition and treason, and 'contrarities' and 'inversions' in the 'Last Days'; 7. Catholic and 'Magisterial Reformation' attacks on Anabaptism, Anti-Trinitarianism, and Atheism; 8. Anathematising heretics in sixteenth and early seventeenth century French religious polemic; 9. Antiheretical and antischismatic literature in England from the late sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century; Section 2: The Emergence of Tolerationist Arguments and their Condemnation: 10. Early tolerationist arguments and their condemnation; 11. Arguments for and against religious toleration in the Netherlands c.1579-c.1680; 12. Toleration and intolerance, Jews and Muslims; Section 3: Catholic and Protestant Defences of Intolerance in the Later Seventeenth Century: 13. Catholic justifications of intolerance in the 1680s and 1690s; 14. Huguenot justifications of intolerance and debates over resistance in the 1680s and 1690s; 15. Justifying intolerance in England c.1660-c.1700; Part III. The 'Early Enlightenment' Defence of Toleration and the 'Republic of Letters' in the 1680s and 1690s: 16. Tolerationist associations in the 1680s and 1690s and virtuous service in the cause of toleration in the 'early enlightenment republic of letters'; 17. Political and economic arguments for religious toleration in the 1680s and 1690s; 18. Toleration, 'heretics' and 'schismatics'; 19. Toleration and Jews, Muslims, and 'Pagans'; 20. The historical argument for toleration and 'early Enlightenment' advocacy of 'humanity' and 'civility'; 21. Epistemological, philological, theological, and ethical arguments for religious toleration; 22. Toleration and the intolerant, Catholics, 'Atheists', 'Libertines' and 'sodomites'.

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