Joint Cognitive Systems

Overview

Nothing has been more prolific over the past century than human/machine interaction. Automobiles, telephones, computers, manufacturing machines, robots, office equipment, machines large and small; all affect the very essence of our daily lives. However, this interaction has not always been efficient or easy and has at times turned fairly hazardous. Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) seeks to improve this situation by the careful study of human/machine interaction as the ...

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Overview

Nothing has been more prolific over the past century than human/machine interaction. Automobiles, telephones, computers, manufacturing machines, robots, office equipment, machines large and small; all affect the very essence of our daily lives. However, this interaction has not always been efficient or easy and has at times turned fairly hazardous. Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) seeks to improve this situation by the careful study of human/machine interaction as the meaningful behavior of a unified system.

Written by pioneers in the development of CSE, Joint Cognitive Systems: Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering offers a principled approach to studying human work with complex technology. The authors use a top-down, functional approach and emphasize a proactive (coping) perspective on work that overcomes the limitations of the structural human information processing view. They describe a conceptual framework for analysis with concrete theories and methods for joint system modeling that can be applied across the spectrum of single human/machine systems, social/technical systems, and whole organizations. The book explores both current and potential applications of CSE illustrated by examples.

Understanding the complexities and functions of the human/machine interaction is critical to designing safe, highly functional, and efficient technological systems. This is a critical reference for students, designers, and engineers in a wide variety of disciplines.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780849328213
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 2/1/2005
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

PREFACE
THE DRIVING FORCES
Introduction
On Terminology
Computerization and Growing Complexity
Self-Reinforcing Complexity Cycle
Complexity and Unpredictability
Conspicuousness of the Human Factor
The Constraining Paradigm
Input-Output Models
The Shannon-Weaver Model Communication Model
Prototypical Information Processing
From Human-Machine Interaction to Joint Systems
The Cognitive Viewpoint
The Classical Human-Machine View
The Disintegrated View
Changing the Paradigm
Definition of a Cognitive System
The Scope of CSE
THE EVOLUTION OF WORK
Technological Systems as Amplification
'Examples of Amplification
Amplification of Control
Effects of Amplification
Amplification and Interpretation
Tools and Prostheses
A Short History of Human-Machine Interaction
The Conspicuousness of Cognition
Changing Balance Between Doing and Thinking
Loss of Work-Specific Information
The Law of Requisite Variety
Models of the Human as Controller
The Joint Cognitive System (JCS)
Control and Cognition
Disjoint and Joint Systems
Amplifying the Ability to Control
THE BASICS OF A SCIENCE
Model-Classification-Method
Requirements to Measurements
Theory-Driven Measurements
Theory-Begging Measurements
The Meaning of Measurements
The Elusiveness of Cognition
Cognition in the Mind
Cognition in the Wild
The Focus of CSE
Cognition and Context
Cognition and Control
Modeling Cognition and Context
Sequentiality in Reality and in Models
The Threads of CSE
Coping With Complexity
Use of Artifacts
Joint Cognitive Systems
Merging the Threads
COPING WITH COMPLEXITY
Introduction
About Coping
Sources of Complexity
Losing Control
Lack of Time
Lack of Knowledge
Lack of Readiness or Preparedness (Competence)
Lack of Resources
Coping Strategies
Information Input Overload
Information Input Underload
Designing for Simplicity
Simplicity-Complexity Trade-Off
Information Structuring
How Should the Interaction Be Designed?
Designing for Complexity
Support for Coping
Time
Predictability
Summary
USE OF ARTIFACTS
Introduction
Phenomenology of Coagency
Tools and Prostheses
Artifacts in CSE
Range of Artifacts
Cognitive Artifacts
The Substitution Myth
Consequences of Technology Change
Traffic Safety
Typical User Responses to New Artifacts
Failure Modes of an Artefact
The Accidental User
User Models and Accidental Users
JOINT COGNITIVE SYSTEMS
Introduction
On the Nature of System Boundaries
Automation and Joint Cognitive Systems
Degrees of Human-Machine Dependency
Automation Philosophies
Ironies of Automation
Lesons of Automation
Function Analysis and Goal Achievement
Goals and Means
Simple Test-Operate-Test-Exit (TOTE)
Recursive Goals-Means Descriptions
CONTROL AND COGNITION
Introduction
Feedback and Control
Feedforward and Control
The Substance of Modeling Cognition
Cognition Without Context
Cognition in Context
Mental Models and the Law of Requisite Variety
COCOM-Contextual Control Model
Model Constituents
Control Modes
ECOM-Extended Control Model
Tracking
Regulating
Monitoring
Targeting
ECOM Structure and Parameters
Interaction Between Loops
Modeling the Loss of Control
TIME AND CONTROL
Orthodoxy in Modeling
Model Minimization
Two Neglected Issues
Modeling Control
Predictability
Available Time
The Modeling of Time
Representation of Time in COCOM
Time and Control Modes
How to Enhance Control
Technological and Organizational Solutions
Human Solutions
Conclusions
CSE AND ITS APPLICATIONS
What Should CSE Be About?
Extensions to Human Factors/Ergonomics
Design of Work (Cognitive Task Design)
Making Work Easy
Making Work Safe
Problems in the Design of Work
Control Rooms
Adaptation
Decision Support
The Last Words
BIBLIOGRAPHY
AUTHOR INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX

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