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Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations / Edition 4
     

Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations / Edition 4

by Michael I. Sanders
 

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ISBN-10: 1118317114

ISBN-13: 9781118317112

Pub. Date: 09/16/2013

Publisher: Wiley

A comprehensive, revised, and expanded guide covering tax-exempt organizations engaging in joint ventures

Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations, Fourth Edition examines the liability of, and consequences to, exempt organizations participating in joint ventures with for-profit and other tax-exempt entities. This authoritative guide provides

Overview

A comprehensive, revised, and expanded guide covering tax-exempt organizations engaging in joint ventures

Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations, Fourth Edition examines the liability of, and consequences to, exempt organizations participating in joint ventures with for-profit and other tax-exempt entities. This authoritative guide provides unbridled access to relevant IRC provisions, Treasury regulations, IRS rulings, and pertinent judicial decisions and legislative developments that impact exempt organizations involved in joint ventures.

  • Features in depth analysis of the IRS's requirements for structuring joint ventures to protect a nonprofit's exemption as well as to minimize UBIT
  • Includes sample models, checklists, and numerous citations to Internal Revenue Code sections, Treasury Regulations, case law, and IRS rulings
  • Presents models, guidelines, and suggestions for structuring joint ventures and minimizing the risk of audit
  • Contains detailed coverage of: new Internal Revenue Code requirements impacting charitable hospitals including Section 501(r) and related provisions; university ventures, revised Form 990, with a focus on nonprofits engaged in joint ventures; the IRS's emphasis on good governance practices; international activities by nonprofits; and a comprehensive examination of the New Market Tax Credits and Low Income Housing Tax Credits arena

Written by a noted expert in the field, Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations, Fourth Edition is the most in-depth discussion of this critical topic.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781118317112
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
09/16/2013
Series:
Wiley Nonprofit Authority Series
Pages:
1472
Product dimensions:
7.30(w) x 10.20(h) x 2.10(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xxv

Acknowledgments xxix

About the Author xxxi

Chapter 1: Introduction: Joint Ventures Involving Exempt Organizations 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Joint Ventures in General 3

1.3 Healthcare Joint Ventures 6

1.4 University Joint Ventures 8

1.5 Low-Income Housing and New Market Tax Credit Joint Ventures 11

1.6 Conservation Joint Ventures 14

1.7 Joint Ventures as Accomodating Parties to Impermissible Tax Shelters 15

1.8 Rev. Rul. 98-15 and Joint Venture Structure 16

1.9 Form 990 and Good Governance 20

1.10 Ancillary Joint Ventures: Rev. Rul. 2004-51 21

1.11 Engaging in a Joint Venture: The Structural Choices and Role of the Charity 21

1.12 Partnerships with Other Exempt Organizations 24

1.13 Transfer of Control of Supporting Organization to Another Tax-Exempt Organization 25

1.14 The Exempt Organization as a Lender or Ground Lessor 26

1.15 Partnership Taxation 28

1.16 UBIT Implications from Partnership Activities 31

1.17 Use of a Subsidiary as Participant in a Joint Venture 33

1.18 Limitation on Preferred Returns 35

1.19 Sharing Staff and/or Facilities: Shared Services Agreement 38

1.20 ‘‘Intangibles’’ Licensed by Nonprofit to For-Profit Subsidiary or Joint Venture 39

1.21 Private Inurement and Private Benefit 40

1.22 Limitation on Private Foundation’s Activities that Limit Excess Business Holdings 44

1.23 International Joint Ventures 45

1.24 Other Developments 46

Chapter 2: Taxation of Charitable Organizations 49

2.1 Introduction 50

2.2 Categories of Exempt Organizations 52

2.3 §501(c)(3) Organizations: Statutory Requirements 54

2.4 Charitable Organizations: General Requirements 97

2.5 Categories of Charitable Organizations 100

2.6 Application for Exemption 118

2.7 Governance 124

2.8 Form 990: Reporting and Disclosure Requirements 132

2.9 Redesigned Form 990 138

2.10 The IRS Audit 178

2.11 Charitable Contributions 183

2.12 State Laws 190

Chapter 3: Taxation of Partnerships and Joint Ventures 193

3.1 Scope of Chapter 194

3.2 Qualifying As a Partnership 195

3.3 Classification As a Partnership 198

3.4 Alternatives to Partnerships 216

3.5 Pass-Through Regime: The Conduit Concept 219

3.6 Allocation of Profits, Losses, and Credits 220

3.7 Formation of Partnership 226

3.8 Tax Basis in Partnership Interests 233

3.9 Partnership Operations 242

3.10 Partnership Distributions to Partners 250

3.11 Sale or Other Disposition of Assets or Interests 255

3.12 Other Tax Issues 263

3.13 Guarantees, Penalties, and Capital Calls 280

Chapter 4: Overview: Joint Ventures Involving Exempt Organizations 291

4.1 Introduction 292

4.2 Exempt Organization as General Partner: A Historical Perspective 294

4.3 Exempt Organizations as Limited Partner or LLC Nonmanaging Member 366

4.4 Joint Ventures with Other Exempt Organizations 369

4.5 New Scheme for Analyzing Joint Ventures 371

4.6 Revenue Ruling 2004-51 and Ancillary Joint Ventures 374

4.7 UBIT Implications From Joint Venture Activities 388

4.8 Good Governance and the IRS Audit 391

4.9 Conversions from Exempt to For-Profit and from For-Profit to Exempt Entities 395

Appendix 4A: Joint Venture Checklist 398

Appendix 4B: Model Joint Venture Participation Policy 405

Chapter 5: Private Benefit, Private Inurement, and Excess Benefit Transactions 409

5.1 What are Private Inurement and Private Benefit? 409

5.2 Transactions in Which Private Benefit or Inurement May Occur 421

5.3 Profit-Making Activities as Indicia of Nonexempt Purpose 454

5.4 Intermediate Sanctions 458

5.5 Case Law 482

5.6 Planning 484

5.7 State Activity with Respect to Insider Transactions 487

Chapter 6: Engaging in a Joint Venture: The Choices 489

6.1 Introduction 490

6.2 LLCs 491

6.3 Use of a For-Profit Subsidiary as Participant in a Joint Venture 506

6.4 Supporting Organizations 528

6.5 Private Foundations and Program-Related Investments 535

6.6 Nonprofits and Bonds 545

6.7 Exploring Alternative Structures 546

6.8 Other Approaches 552

Chapter 7: Exempt Organizations as Accommodating Parties in Tax Shelter Transactions 561

7.1 Introduction 561

7.2 Prevention of Abusive Tax Shelters 562

7.3 Excise Taxes and Penalties 570

7.4 Settlement Initiatives 574

7.5 Abusive Shelters and Tax Credit Programs 575

Chapter 8: The Unrelated Business Income Tax 577

8.1 Introduction 578

8.2 Historical and Legislative Background of UBIT 579

8.3 General Rule 583

8.4 Statutory Exceptions to UBIT 603

8.5 Modifications to UBIT 615

8.6 Income from Partnerships 656

8.7 Calculation of UBIT 659

8.8 Governmental Scrutiny 663

Chapter 9: Debt-Financed Income 669

9.1 Introduction 669

9.2 Debt-Financed Property 670

9.3 The §514(c)(9) Exception 679

9.4 Partnership Rules 681

9.5 The Fractions Rule 682

9.6 The Final Regulation 682

9.7 The Fractions Rule: A Trap for the Unwary 695

Chapter 10: Limitation on Excess Business Holdings 697

10.1 Introduction 697

10.2 Excess Business Holdings: General Rules 698

10.3 Tax Imposed 705

10.4 Exclusions 706

Chapter 11: Impact on Taxable Joint Ventures: Tax-Exempt Entity Leasing Rules 709

11.1 Introduction 709

11.2 Types of Transactions Covered By 1984 ACT Rules 710

11.3 Internal Revenue Code §168(h) 712

11.4 Tax-Exempt Use Property 713

11.5 Restrictions on Tax-Exempt Use Property 715

11.6 Partnership Rules 719

Chapter 12: Healthcare Entities in Joint Ventures 729

12.1 Overview 730

12.2 Classifications of Joint Ventures 734

12.3 Tax Analysis 738

12.4 Other Healthcare Industry Issues 806

12.5 Preserving the 50/50 Joint Venture 851

12.6 Valuation 860

12.7 Joint Operating Agreements 868

12.8 UBIT Implications of Hospital Joint Ventures 876

12.9 Government Scrutiny 880

12.10 Redesigned Form 990 888

12.11 The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: §501(r) and Other Statutory Changes Impacting Nonprofit Hospitals 889

12.12 The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: ACOs and CO-OPs: New Joint Venture Healthcare Entities 914

12.13 Precautionary Steps: A Road Map 926

12.14 Conclusion 928

Appendix 12A: Sample Conflicts of Interest Policy 929

Appendix 12B: Model Joint Venture Participation Policy 934

Chapter 13: Low-Income Housing, New Markets, Rehabilitation, and Other Tax Credit Programs 939

13.1 Relationships between Nonprofits and For-Profits in Affordable Housing: A Basic Business Typology 941

13.2 Nonprofit-Sponsored LIHTC Project 943

13.3 Low-Income Housing Tax Credit 946

13.4 Historic Investment Tax Credit 1003

13.5 Empowerment Zone Tax Incentives 1012

13.6 New Markets Tax Credits 1020

13.7 Recent IRS Guidance Regarding Guarantees and Indemnifications 1075

13.8 Reportable LIHTC/NMTC Transactions 1088

13.9 Gulf Zone Opportunity ACT of 2005 1090

13.10 The Energy Tax Credits 1093

Appendix 13A: New Markets Tax Credits Project Compliance/Qualification/Accounting Projections Checklist 1098

Chapter 14: Joint Ventures with Universities 1101

14.1 Introduction 1101

14.2 Redesigned Form 990: Annual Information Reporting Requirements for Colleges and Universities 1111

14.3 Colleges and Universities IRS Compliance Initiative 1114

14.4 Research Joint Ventures 1119

14.5 Faculty Participation in Research Joint Ventures 1130

14.6 Nonresearch Joint Venture Arrangements 1133

14.7 Modes of Participation by Universities in Joint Ventures 1152

14.8 Incentives Available to Taxable Joint Venturers 1167

14.9 Conclusion 1168

Chapter 15: Business Leagues Engaged in Joint Ventures 1171

15.1 Overview 1171

15.2 The Five-Prong Test 1179

15.3 Unrelated Business Income Tax 1190

Chapter 16: Conservation Organizations in Joint Ventures 1199

16.1 Overview 1199

16.2 Conservation and Environmental Protection as a Charitable or Educational Purpose: Public and Private Benefit 1200

16.3 Conservation Gifts and §170(h) Contributions 1208

16.4 Unrelated Business Income Tax Issues 1223

16.5 Joint Ventures Involving Conservation 1226

16.6 Senate Finance Committee Investigation of The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 1228

16.7 Emerging Issues 1229

16.8 Conclusion 1233

Chapter 17: International Joint Ventures 1235

17.1 Overview 1236

17.2 Domestic Charities Expending Funds Abroad 1239

17.3 Potential for Abuse: The Use of Charities as Accommodating Parties in International Terrorist Activities 1244

17.4 Guidelines for U.S.-Based Charities Engaging in International Aid and International Charities 1256

17.5 General Grantmaking Rules 1259

17.6 Foreign Organizations Recognized by the IRS as §501(c)(3) Organizations 1263

17.7 Public Charity Equivalency Test 1266

17.8 Expenditure Responsibility 1267

17.9 Domestic Charities Entering into Joint Ventures with Foreign Organizations 1269

17.10 Application of Foreign Laws in Operating a Joint Venture in a Foreign Country 1275

17.11 Application of Foreign Tax Treaties 1276

17.12 Current Developments 1285

17.13 Conclusions and Forecast 1289

Chapter 18: The Exempt Organization as Lender or Ground Lessor 1291

18.1 Overview 1292

18.2 Participation as a Lender or Ground Lessor 1293

18.3 Types of Real Estate Loans 1296

18.4 Participating Loans 1299

18.5 Ground Lease with Leasehold Mortgage 1312

18.6 Sale of Undeveloped Land 1322

18.7 Guarantees 1330

18.8 Conclusion 1334

Chapter 19: Debt Restructuring and Asset Protection Issues 1335

19.1 Introduction 1336

19.2 Overview of Bankruptcy 1343

19.3 The Estate and the Automatic Stay 1358

19.4 Case Administration 1372

19.5 Chapter 11 Plan 1377

19.6 Discharge 1392

19.7 Special Issues: Consequences of Debt Reduction 1393

Business Debt 1397

Index 1399

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