Judgments on History and Historians

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Renowned for his Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy and Reflections on History (published by Liberty Fund), Jacob Burckhardt (1818–1897) has well been described as "the most civilized historian of the nineteenth century." Judgments on History and Historians consists of records collected by Emil Dürr from Burckhardt's lecture notes for history courses at the University of Basel from 1865 to 1885. The 149 brief sections span five eras: Antiquity, the Middle Ages, History from 1450 to 1598, the History of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, and the Age of Revolution. As Walter Goetz observed of the work a generation ago, "It is impossible to imagine a more profound introduction to world history and its driving forces."

Alberto R. Coll is a Professor of Strategy and Policy at the United States Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780865972070
  • Publisher: Liberty Fund Inc.
  • Publication date: 3/1/1999
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 314
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897), was born in Basel in Switzerland where he lived and worked for virtually the whole of his life. The author of The Civilisation of the Renaissance in Italy, he is widely regarded as the father of Cultural History.

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Table of Contents

Foreword, xvii Translator's Preface, xxiii I. Antiquity
1. Ancient History and Its Scope, 1
2. On the Intellectual Indispensability of Studying Ancient History, 2
3. The Limits of Civilization and Barbarism, 4
4. Why Today's “Educated Man” Can No Longer Understand Antiquity, 5
5. The Historical Significance of Egypt, 7
6. The Phoenicians as the Earliest Creators of (Polis), 8
7. On Carthage, 9
8. Athens, 10
9. Rome and Its Mission in World History, 11
10. On the Roman Empire in Its First Two Centuries, 16 II. The Middle Ages
11. On the Middle Ages, 26
12. On Early Christianity, 34
13. Christianity as a Martyr Religion, 37
14. On Asceticism and Its Position, 38
15. The Spread of Nicene Christianity, 40
16. The Church, 41
17. Julian and the Prospect for a Restoration of Paganism, 44
18. Western European Arianism and the Jews, 45
19. The Breakup of the Western Empire, 46
20. The Achievement of Clovis I, 47
21. Mohammed as the Founder of a Religion, and Islam, 48
22. The Despotism of Islam, 52
23. Islam and Its Effects, 53
24. The Two Main Realities for the Papacy of the Eighth Century, 54
25. Charlemagne, 55
26. The Normans, 57
27. The Byzantine Empire and Its Mission, 58
28. On the Iconoclastic Controversy, 59
29. On the Crusades, 62
30. The Sorrows and Sacrifices of the Crusades, 64
31. On the Evaluation of the Later Middle Ages, 64 III. History from 1450 to 1598
32. The Period from 1450 to 1598 and the Nineteenth Century's View of It, 66
33. England in the Late Middle Ages, 79
34. On Richard III, 80
35. On the Wars of the Roses and on Scotland, 83
36. Burgundy, 85
37. Charles the Bold of Burgundy, 85
38. France and the Idea of Unification, 86
39. Louis XI, 87
40. The German Imperial Power Under Frederick III, 88
41. The Ottomans, 89
42. The Republic of Florence, 90
43. On the War of 1494, 91
44. On the Power of the Papacy, 94
45. Italy and the Rest of Europe, 95
46. Spain and Portugal, 99
47. The Beginning of the Reformation: General Considerations, 101
48. On Luther, 103
49. On the German Reformation: Its Causes and Spiritual Consequences, 104
50. On the Reformation: Protestantism and Tradition—The Intolerance of the New Doctrine, 106
51. On the Reformation: The Establishment of So-Called Spiritual Freedom, 108
52. On the Reformation: The Masses, Their Motives and Consequences—Luther, 110
53. On the Reformation: Governments—Confiscation of Property and Dogmatism—Church and State, 112
54. The Origin of the Territorial Churches, 116
55. On the Reformation After 1526: The Inevitable Caesaropapism, 118
56. On the Coming of the Reformation: The Reformation and the Fate of Art, 119
57. On the Situation of the Catholic Church: The Direct Effect of the Reformation, 121
58. On Zwingli's Later Period, 122
59. Charles V and Francis I, 124
60. On Charles V, 125
61. On Henry VIII, 128
62. Gustavus Vasa, 128
63. The Community of the Elect, 129
64. On Calvin, 131
65. On Protestantism in France, 135
66. German Culture Around 1555, 136
67. On Camoëns' Lusiads, 138
68. On the Counter Reformation, 140
69. St. Ignatius Loyola, 141
70. The Jesuits, 142
71. The Jesuits and the Papacy, 143
72. The Third Council of Trent (1562–1563), 144
73. The Popes of the Counter Reformation, 147
74. On the German Counter Reformation, 147
75. France in the Year 1562, 147
76. After St. Bartholomew's Night, 148
77. Murder as an Expedient, 151
78. The Special Character of the French Court, 151
79. On the Conversion of Henry IV, 152
80. Holland, 154
81. Mary Stuart, 155
82. On Elizabeth of England, 157
83. The Age of Elizabeth, 159 IV. History of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
84. Introduction to the History of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1598–1763), 162
85. The Character of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 182
86. The Huguenots Under Henry IV, 183
87. Gomarists and Arminians, 184
88. Powers and Society in Europe Before the Thirty Years' War, 185
89. Italy in the Seventeenth Century, 186
90. Richelieu, 188
91. On Germany's Situation Before the Thirty Years' War, 192
92. The Swedes in Germany, 193
93. On Wallenstein's End, 195
94. The Great Elector, 197
95. England Before the First Revolution, 197
96. English Royalty and Its Task, 199
97. Cromwell, 200
98. The Fronde and the French Aristocracy, 203
99. The Fronde and the Parlement of Paris, 204
100. On Mazarin, 206
101. Styles of Life and Art Around 1650, 207
102. Sweden Under King Charles X Gustavus, 208
103. The Age of Unlimited Princely Power, 209
104. On Louis XIV, 210
105. Louis XIV as Lord of the Church, 211
106. The French Spirit of Uniformity and the Huguenots, 212
107. Louis XIV Prior to the War of the Spanish Succession, 213
108. On the Second English Revolution, 215
109. England's Defense Against Militarism, 216
110. On the Characteristics of the Seventeenth Century, 217
111. Russia, 218
112. England After George I, 220
113. Frederick the Great, 221 V. The Age of Revolution
114. Introduction to the History of the Age of Revolution, 223
115. The Period of Reform from Above, 243
116. Absolutism in the North, 245
117. On the North American Revolutionary War, 245
118. England, 247
119. On Small States, 247
120. On the Dissolution of the Jesuit Order, 248
121. The Intellectual Situation Prior to 1789, 248
122. German and French Intellectual Development in the Eighteenth Century, 249
123. On Rousseau and His Utopia, 250
124. The Political Situation in France Before the Revolution, 251
125. The Destiny of the French Revolution, 252
126. On Mirabeau, 253
127. The Clergy, 254
128. The Legislative Assembly and the Clubs, 255
129. On the 10th of August, 1792, 257
130. On the September Massacres, 257
131. Before and After the Dissolution of the Convention, 259
132. On the Trial of Louis XVI, 263
133. Girondists and Jacobins, 264
134. The Omnipotence of Utterly Unscrupulous Parties, 266
135. How a Government Becomes Exceedingly Strong, 266
136. Socialism? Communism?, 266
137. The Innermost Core of the Revolution, 266
138. Rousseau's Concept of Music and the Destruction of Churches, 267
139. On Robespierre, 267
140. Before the 9th Thermidor (July 27, 1794), 268
141. On the Mutual Destruction of the Revolutionary Factions, 269
142. On the 18th Fructidor (September 4, 1797), 270
143. Bonaparte and the 18th Fructidor, 272
144. How Aristocracies and Princes Succumb, 273
145. On the Invasion of Switzerland by the French, 273
146. Old Bern and Why It Is Hated, 275
147. On the 18th Brumaire (November 9, 1799) and the Consulate, 275
148. On Napoleon, 276
149. Napoleon I and His Russian Campaign, 276 Index, 279
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