Juris Types: Learning Law Through Self-Understanding


Written by law school professors and psychological type experts Don and Martha Peters, Juris Types: Learning Law Through Self-Understanding goes beyond general study tips to help you find learning strategies ideally suited to your unique personality. Juris Types includes a CD-ROM of reproducible step-by-step exercises to help guide you through each chapter. You will discover your own methods to better organize your time, study effectively, and prepare for and perform successfully on tests. An indispensable tool ...
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Written by law school professors and psychological type experts Don and Martha Peters, Juris Types: Learning Law Through Self-Understanding goes beyond general study tips to help you find learning strategies ideally suited to your unique personality. Juris Types includes a CD-ROM of reproducible step-by-step exercises to help guide you through each chapter. You will discover your own methods to better organize your time, study effectively, and prepare for and perform successfully on tests. An indispensable tool for maximum law school success with a minimum of stress.
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What People Are Saying

Gerald Hess
"Filled with detailed, practical advice and strategies to help law students improve their study skills, outlining, and exam performance."--(Gerald Hess, Professor of Law & Founding Director, Institute for Law School Teaching, Gonzaga University School of Law)
Gretchen Viney
"A must-have resource for law students. The unique value of this book lies in the practical, specific strategies that the authors present to law students of every type."--(Gretchen Viney, Clinical Associate Professor & Associate Director, Lawyering Skills Program, University of Wisconsin Law School)
Leary Davis
"We've made Juris Types a central component of our law school's orientation and executive coaching programs. A much-needed guide to knowledge of self and others and professional development for law students and lawyers."--(Leary Davis, Founding Dean, Elon University School of Law)
Ruth A. Witherspoon
"A specific and individualized focus . . . This useful guide has the potential to change the lives of bewildered and frustrated law students. The book should be required reading for all law students and any faculty member or administrator who works with law students."--(Ruth A. Witherspoon, Associate Dean, Florida A&M Law School)
Ruth Ann McKinney
"A landmark contribution to the field of legal education."--(Ruth Ann McKinney, Clinical Professor of Law & Director, The Writing and Learning Resources Center, University of North Carolina)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780935652802
  • Publisher: Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 4/12/2007
  • Edition description: CENTER FOR APPS OF PSYCH TYPE, INC(
  • Pages: 290
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Read an Excerpt

THIS BOOK WAS WRITTEN to guide law students through a process of selfdiscovery that will help them adapt successfully to the culture of law school and the legal profession. Most books about law school offer a path to success. This one helps students find their own path as they navigate a difficult and sometimes confusing academic discipline.
Law students are too diverse for one path to be right for all. Students come to law school from a wide range of academic disciplines. It is not uncommon for a class of two hundred to represent more than fifty different undergraduate majors. Law students vary in the ways they approach studying. Some have well-developed systems, some have systems that vary by course, and some rely on their ability to recall information from test to test without a particular system. What they share is a grade point average and a score on the Law School Admissions Test that together exceed the cut-off line for their school and point to their anticipated success at learning to think like lawyers.
If the main task for law students is learning to think in particular ways, then it seems critically important for students to become aware of their own thinking processes. Psychological type theory provides a system to help students identify their most natural thinking processes.
What Is Psychological Type Theory?
Psychological type theory identifies basic components of mental functioning involved in learning, analyzing, and applying law. The four processes that psychological type theory describes are perception, judgment, direction of energy, and lifestyle orientation. Each of these four processes contains two diametrically opposed ways of being. People prefer oneof the two options or dimensions for each process but use both as needed.
Perception explores the ways that law students gather and process new information about cases, policies, and legal principles through their reading, class discussions, and peer deliberations. There are two basic methods for Perceiving-Sensing and Intuition. When students use their Sensing perception to read assignments in preparation for classes, they start their reading with exploring assigned cases to build concrete contexts for understanding the practical applications of legal rules and standards.
They like to have detailed examples before constructing an overview or reading a summary that pulls together the general principles. When students use Intuition perception to prepare for classes, they operate in the opposite way. These students need to see a general overview before reading cases so they have a road map or framework for understanding the courts' reasoning and the importance of key facts to a general principle.
Judgment addresses important evaluative approaches central to learning and applying legal analysis, the core of legal thinking. There are two judgment dimensions-Thinking and Feeling. Students who prefer Thinking judgment naturally focus on the objective, logical application of law to facts as they read and study law. Students who prefer Feeling judgment evaluate cases and judicial opinions by stepping into factual situations and identifying with one or the other of the parties to assess the impact
of judicial reasoning on the people whose cases are used as textbook examples.
Direction of energy identifies ways that law students communicate and think through the material they gather and ways that they apply their evaluating processes to understand and use legal principles. The two directions of energy are Extraversion and Introversion. Law students who prefer Extraversion often learn best when they can operate in the world outside themselves, talking with others about their assignments as a means of gaining deeper understanding. Students who prefer Introversion usually
prefer to operate in their inner world as they ponder ideas until they figure them out. Such students share ideas only when they are fully thought through and then not to figure something out but to check the accuracy of their understanding.
Lifestyle orientation points to which general mental function-perception or judgment (described above)-students use as they extravert. These influences are found in the ways people negotiate their day-to-day lives in the world of people and things, and they impact law students' study strategies, outlining and organizing methods, and time-management plans. Students extravert either Judging or Perceiving. Students who prefer Judging apply evaluative processes to organizing their lives. They
are likely to work well by following set schedules, to keep their materials and notes organized, and to get their papers done before deadlines. Students who prefer Perceiving usually have lifestyles that allow them to be flexible to new information or changes in plans or thinking. They prefer to work in spurts when they are inspired or when pushed by deadlines. The application of this knowledge helps law students develop a nuanced study plan that reflects their strengths and accommodates their challenges while helping to balance their study requirements with the demands of adult life.
We have organized this book to explain and use one concept, psychological type theory, to help students develop practical strategies to apply to another concept, a general methodology for learning law. To do this we alternate introductions to each concept and then integrate them. At the end of each chapter are one or more worksheets to guide students as they apply psychological type concepts to create their own study plan. We recommend using these worksheets concurrently with reading this book to experiment with the ideas presented and to find which ones work best for each reader. Applying the worksheets throughout one or more semesters of law school helps students give themselves important feedback on the effectiveness of their study and exam writing methods. The crux of this book is that there is not one theory that works for each person, but by actively applying the concepts in this book, each person can become a more engaged, proficient consumer of legal education.
• Chapter 1 briefly presents psychological type theory and broadly sketches uniform aspects and important components of American law study.
• Chapter 2 describes type theory's four dimensions in more depth, providing examples of how they influence common and important law study behaviors.
• Chapter 3 explores the dynamics of psychological type as a basis for individualizing study routines and exam-taking strategies.
• Chapter 4 assumes an understanding of psychological type theory and begins applying psychological type concepts to study routines. These routines provide efficient ways to increase long-term memory of class materials as well as helping with class preparation.
• Chapter 5 applies psychological type concepts to potential organizing methods, including, but not limited to, outlining. By organizing their notes and other materials, students can increase the number of issues they spot, their speed of response in exams, and the thoroughness of their answers.
• Chapter 6 applies type-based strategies to essay and multiple-choice exams, concentrating on crucial pre-writing steps.
• Chapter 7 applies psychological type knowledge to writing essay answers and analyzing multiple-choice questions and incorporates several specific, short examples.
• Chapter 8 summarizes significant law study and exam-taking strengths, challenges, and suggestions for each of the sixteen psychological types created by psychological type theory and indicated by the MBTI instrument.
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Table of Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgements xv
Introduction 1
What Is Psychological Type Theory?...1
Psychological Type Differences...3
Expanding the Use of Type Theory Beyond the First Year... 4
Using Psychological Type Theory in Academic Support Work...5
Efficiency of Psychological Type Knowledge for First-Year Law Students...5
This Book's Organization...7
Generalizations Are This Book's Strength and Weakness...8
Determining Your Psychological Type... 9
Introduction to Psychological Type and Law Study...11
Using Psychological Type in the Context of Law Study...11
Origins of Psychological Type Theory... 12
Development of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Instrument... 12
An Introduction to Psychological Type Theory... 13
Four Preference Scales, Eight Ways of Operating... 15
How Psychological Type Works... 19
An Introduction to Law Study... 20
Summary... 23
Worksheet 1: Personalizing Psychological Type... 24
vi Juris Types: Learning Law through Self-Understanding CHAPTER 2
Describing the Eight Dimensions and Their Influences on Study Behaviors...25
Applying Type Preference Information to Formulate a Study Plan...42
Worksheet 2: Identifying Study Strategies for Each Preference... 44
Individualizing Law Study Approaches with Psychological Type Dynamics...49
Defining a "Type"...49
The Mental Functions...52
The Perceiving Functions...53
The Judging Functions...53
Ordering Differences for the Four Mental Functions...55
Special Law StudyChallenges by Inferior Function Influences...60
Sensing Inferior...61
Intuition Inferior...61
Thinking Inferior...61
Feeling Inferior...61
The Z Problem-Solving Model...62
Using Sensing: What Are the Important Specifics?...63
Using Intuition: What Are the Important Meanings?...64
Using Thinking: What Are the Important Objective, Impersonal Evaluative Measures and Consequences?...64
Using Feeling: What Are the Important Subjective Values-Based, Interpersonal Evaluative Measures and Consequences?... 64
Applying the Z Model...65
Worksheet 3: Individualizing Law Study Approaches with Psychological Type Dynamics...68
Applying Type Concepts to Study Routines...71
Law Study Goals...72
Class Preparation...74
Reviewing Previous Classes...74
Reading Class Assignments...75
Sensing to Intuition...77
Intuition to Sensing...78
Thinking to Feeling...78
Feeling to Thinking...79
Written Class Preparation...80
Class Preparation Routines...84
Taking Notes...88
After-Class Study Routines...90
After-Class Introverted Study Routines...91
After-Class Extraverted Study Routines...92
Worksheet 4A: Identifying Study Steps to Build a Strong Foundation...98
Worksheet 4B: Weekly Study Steps Checklist by Course...99
Worksheet 4C: Applying Type Concepts to Study Routines and Schedules . 100
Worksheet 4D: Weekly Calendar for Encouraging Study Routines and
Life Balance...102
Applying Type Concepts to Organizing Methods...103
The Importance of the Organizing Journey...103
Nonlinear Organizational Tools...106
Decision Trees...107
Concept Mapping...107
Layering Nonlinear Organizational Tools...108
When to Start Organizing...110
Getting Started... 110
What Goes In and What Stays Out... 112
Using and Testing Organized Study Tools... 118
Worksheet 5A: A Guide to Organizing Course Materials... 119
Worksheet 5B: A Guide to Formats for Organizing Course Materials... 120
Applying Type-Based Strategies to Essay and Multiple-Choice Exams: Pre-Writing Steps...123
Exam Formats... 126
Traditional Essay/Written Analytic Problem-Solving Exams... 126
Performance Exams... 127
Short Answer Exams... 127
Multiple Choice Exams... 127
The Misleading Word "Essay"... 128
Psychological Type Influences on Exam-Writing Skills... 129
Reading Exams... 130
Follow Directions... 130
Answer the Questions That Exams Ask... 131
Read Questions Thoroughly... 132
Spotting Issues... 133
Induction: Moving from Specific Facts to Issues... 134
Deduction: Moving from General Rules, Policies, and Course Theories to Issues... 135
Using Organizational Frames to Find Issues... 136
A Contracts Example... 138
Organizing Written Answers... 142
Managing Time... 146
Worksheet 6A: Checklist for Preparing to Answer an Essay Exam... 149
Worksheet 6B: Preparing to Answer an Essay Exam... 151
Applying Type Knowledge to Writing Essay Answers and Analyzing Multiple-Choice Questions...153
Getting Started... 153
Writing Analysis... 156
Connect Law and Facts... 157
Explain Thinking in Writing... 162
Write Necessary, Justified Conclusions... 168
Multiple-Choice Examinations... 170
Reading Carefully... 171
Strategic Analysis... 174
Worksheet 7A: Writing, Assessing, and Looking for Type Influences in Practice Exams... 177
Worksheet 7B: A General Plan for Taking Exams... 179
Summary and Suggestions for Each of the Sixteen Psychological Types...181
ISTJ... 183
ISFJ... 188
INFJ... 193
INTJ... 197
ISTP... 203
ISFP... 206
INFP... 213
INTP... 218
ESTP... 223
ESFP... 228
ENFP... 234
ENTP... 240
ESTJ... 246
ESFJ... 252
ENFJ... 260
ENTJ... 265
References... 271
About the Authors... 274
Index... 275
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  • Posted June 8, 2012

    A comprehensive guide to legal study

    Not having begun law school yet myself, I would endorse this book to the fullest extent that I can from the point of view looking into the abyss. From a confidence stand point having read the book makes me feel a whole lot better going into law school. All of the advise is reasonable and causes the reader to look intensely at their own habits and preferences to evaluate what will work for him or her as an individual rather than attempting to find a catch all. There is no trick within these pages which will render the expereince of law school anything less than one of the most difficult and rigorous around; however, beginning with an understanding of yourself as a learner and focusing on natural strengths and common pitfalls for learners similar to you makes all the sense in the world. The book advocates these methods not as a way to make law school easier so much as to better equip the reader for success in this great challenge.

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