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More About This Textbook
Overview
2 fulllength practice tests
A diagnostic quiz that helps students determine which topics they should spend the most time reviewing
Complete test information and resources
Kaplan's proven AP scoreraising strategies
Sample freeresponse questions, answers, and walkthrough explanations for all key topics
Product Details
Related Subjects
Meet the Author
Mary Jean Bland has taught at numerous schools and universities, and served as a statistician for the Internal Revenue Service for twentyone years.
Barbara Wojciechowski has taught mathematics at various institutions, including Johnson & Wales University, The Citadel, and the College of Charleston.
Table of Contents
About the Authors ix
Kaplan Panel of AP Experts xi
The Basics
Inside the AP Statistics Exam 3
Introduction to the AP Statistics Exam 4
Overview of the Test Structure 4
How the Exam Is Scored 7
Registration and Fees 7
Additional Resources 8
Strategies for Success: Preparing for the Exam 9
General TestTaking Strategies 9
How This Book Can Help, Plus Specific AP Statistics Exam Strategies 10
How to Approach the MultipleChoice Questions 11
How to Approach the FreeResponse Questions 17
Stress Management 18
Countdown to the Test 21
Diagnostic Test
AP Statistics Diagnostic Test 25
Diagnostic Test 27
Diagnostic Test Correlation Chart 44
How to Use the Review Section 45
AP Statistics Review
Constructing and Interpreting Graphical Displays of Distributions of Univariate Data 49
What Is All This Data About? 49
Displaying Categorical Data Graphically 50
Displaying Quantitative Data Graphically 52
The Shape of a Distribution 58
If YouLearned Only Three Things in This Chapter 50
Review Questions 61
Answers and Explanations 65
Summarizing Distributions of Univariate Data 67
Measures of Center 67
Measuring the Spread 69
Measuring the Position 71
Boxplots 72
Effects of Changing Units of Summary Measures 74
If You Learned Only Four Things in This Chapter 75
Review Questions 75
Answers and Explanations 78
Comparing Distributions of Univariate Data 79
Comparing Distributions with Stem and Leaf Plots 79
Comparing Distributions with Dotplots 80
Comparing Distributions with Boxplots 81
Which Plot? 83
If You Learned Only Two Things in This Chapter 83
Review Questions 84
Answers and Explanations 88
Exploring Bivariate Data 91
Overview: Why Bivariate Data? 91
Analyzing Patterns in Scatterplots 92
Measuring Relationships Between Variables 94
Least Squares Regression Line 96
Residual Plots and Outliers 97
Transforming Data to Achieve Linearity 99
If You Learned Only Five Things in This Chapter 100
Review Questions 101
Answers and Explanations 104
Exploring Categorical Data 105
Frequency Tables and Bar Charts 105
Marginal and Joint Frequencies for TwoWay Tables 107
Conditional Relative Frequencies 108
Graphing TwoWay Tables 109
If You Learned Only Four Things in This Chapter 111
Review Questions 111
Answers and Explanations 114
Overview of Methods of Data Collection 115
Planning a Study: Overview 115
Observational Studies 116
Experiments 117
Statistics and Parameters 118
If You Learned Only Four Things in This Chapter 118
Review Questions 118
Answers and Explanations 122
Planning and Conducting Surveys 125
Collecting Data: Observational Studies and Surveys 125
Populations, Samples, and Random Selection 126
Sources of Bias 127
Simple Random Sampling 129
Stratified Random Sampling and Other Schemes 129
If You Learned Only Four Things in This Chapter 130
Review Questions 131
Answers and Explanations 134
Planning and Conducting Experiments 137
The Fundamentals of Experimental Design 137
Confounding and Sources of Bias 138
Experimental Design Schemes 139
Observational Studies Revisited: SRS, Strata, Clusters 141
If You Learned Only Three Things in This Chapter 142
Review Questions 143
Answers and Explanations 146
Generalizability of Results from Experiments, Observational Studies, and Surveys 149
Generalizability 149
Sample Size and Population Size 150
Observational Studies 150
Experiments and Statistical Significance 151
If You Learned Only Three Things in This Chapter 151
Review Questions 152
Answers and Explanations 155
Probability 157
What Are the Chances? 157
Modeling Probability 159
Rules of Probability 161
Possible Outcomes and Counting Techniques 164
If You Learned Only Five Things in This Chapter 165
Review Questions 166
Answers and Explanations 170
Random Variables 173
Discrete and Continuous Random Variables 173
Mean and Variance of Random Variables 176
Law of Large Numbers 179
Rules for Means and Variances of Random Variables 180
Binomial Distribution 181
Geometric Distribution 183
Simulating Random Behavior 185
If You Learned Only Five Things in This Chapter 188
Review Questions 189
Answers and Explanations 193
The Normal Distribution 195
Probability Density Functions 195
The Normal Density Curve 197
The Normal Distribution as a Model for Measurement 200
If You Learned Only Three Things in This Chapter 205
Review Questions 205
Answers and Explanations 209
Sampling Distributions 211
Sampling Distributions 211
The Distribution of the Sample Proportions 214
The Distribution of the Sample Means 217
The Central Limit Theorem 219
Simulation of Sampling Distributions 220
Other Sampling Distributions 221
If You Learned Only Two Things in This Chapter 223
Review Questions 224
Answers and Explanations 227
Estimation 229
Point Estimates and Margin of Error 229
Confidence Intervals for Large Samples 232
Confidence Intervals for Small Samples 236
Confidence Intervals for a Proportion 238
Confidence Intervals for the Difference Between Two Means 240
Confidence Intervals for the Difference Between Two Proportions 244
Confidence Intervals for the Slope of a LeastSquares Regression Line 245
Calculating Sample Sizes 248
If You Learned Only Four Things in This Chapter 249
Review Questions 250
Answers and Explanations 262
Hypothesis Testing 281
It All Starts with a Claim 281
Large Sample Test for a Proportion 288
Large Sample Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions 290
Test for a Mean 293
Tests for the Difference Between Two Means 296
Matched Pairs 297
If You Learned Only Four Things in This Chapter 301
Review Questions 303
Answers and Explanations 313
ChiSquare and Inferences for the Slope of a Regression Line 321
ChiSquare Test for Goodness of Fit, Homogeneity of Proportions, and Independence 321
ChiSquare Test for Goodness of Fit 322
ChiSquare Test for Homogeneity of Proportions 325
ChiSquare Test for Independence 326
ChiSquare Test for Independence vs. ChiSquare Test for Homogeneity 328
Test for the Slope of the Least Squares Regression Line 329
If You Learned Only Three Things in This Chapter 333
Review Questions 334
Answers and Explanations 339
Using the Graphing Calculator 343
Calculator Usage on the AP Statistics Exam 343
Calculator Tips for Exploring Univariate Data 344
Calculator Tips for Exploring Bivariate Data 348
Calculator Tips for Probability 353
Calculator Tips for Statistical Inference 361
Quick Reference List of Calculator Commands 372
Practice Tests
How to Take the Practice Tests 374
How to Compute Your Score 374
Practice Test 1 377
Answer Key 396
Answers and Explanations 397
Practice Test 2 409
Answer Key 428
Answers and Explanations 429
Formulas and Tables 441
Glossary 447